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BIOGRAPHY 



FAMILY RECORD 



OF 



LORENZO SNOW 



Out Of Tttt. TVJELME KTOSlLtS 0? THE CttURCtt Of 



T 



WRITTEN AND COMPILED BY HIS SISTER, 



thM R. SNOW SMITH, 



" I know him, that he will command his children after him, and 
they shall keep the word of the Lord, to do justice and judgment." 



." If you wish to go where God is, you must be like God — 
possessing the principles which God possesses." — Joseph Smith. 



SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH, 

DESERET NEWS COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1884. 



'-/ s V 

% 



5 i 2> o B 

Bancroft Library 



PRESAGE). 



This Biography and Autobiography of my brother, 
Lorenzo Snow, has been written as a tribute of sisterly affec- 
tion for him; and as a token of sincere respect to his family. 

It is designed to be handed down in lineal descent, 
from generation to generation — to be preserved as a family 
Memorial. 

In adapting it to this purpose, both in the matter origi- 
nated, and in that compiled, the writer has varied materially 
from the usual course of biographers. That it may consti- 
tute a historical point to which my brother's posterity, to 
the latest generations, who shall honor the Gospel "of the 
►Son of God, may trace their origin in the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day ' Saints, and find a record of their illus- 
trious ancestor — his wives, children and grandchildren — a 
full genealogical record is inserted. That his descendants 
may profit by his instructions, selections from his letters 
and discourses are copied into this work; we also have 
inscribed missionary sketches of some of his sons and sons- 
in-law. E. 11. S. S. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Lorenzo Snow's Birth and Parentage. — Parents settled in Ohio. — Hardships 
and Privations.— Their Hospitality. — Lorenzo's early Characteristics. — 
Fondness for Books. — Military Aims. — Change in Pursuits. — Starts for 
Oberliu College.— Falls in Company with David W. Patten.— Conversa- 
tion. — In College. — Eliza Embraces the Gospel. — Moves to Kirtland.— 
How she obtained a House and Lot. — Lorenzo in College.— Investigates. 
— Is disgusted. — Writes to Eliza. — Her Invitation. — He accepts and comes 
to Kirtland.— Studies Hebrew.— Is Baptized. — How he receives the Holy 
Ghost. .....--- Page 1 

CHAPTER II. 
A Blessing Meeting. — Lorenzo's Opinion of the Patriarch. — The Patriarch's 
Marvelous Prediction. — Lorenzo is Puzzled — Explained to him by 
Revelation. — Lorenzo in Kirtland. — Fast-day Meetings. — Outpouring of 
the Spirit.— Gifts Manifested — Lorenzo's First Speech from the Pulpit. — 
Description of the Temple. — Fast Meetings. — A Striking Incident. — 
Effect of the Meetings on Lorenzo's Mind. — Wants to Preach. — Is 
Ordained an Elder. _'_-._- -9 

CHAPTER III. 

My Brother started on Mission. — Without Purse or Scrip.— Hard work to 
Beg. — Affectionate Aunt. — First Meeting in Medina County, Ohio. — 
Baptisms. — Preaches in Court House. — Ludicro.is Anecdote. — Visits 
Relatives.— Preaches to Schoolmates. — Baptizes some of them. - 15 

CHAPTER IV. 

A change — Great Apostacy. — Disaffection creeps into every Quorum. — Pride 
and speculation — Apostates claim the Temple.— Warren Parrish a ring- 
leader.— A fearful, terrible scene in the Temple. — The scene described. — 
What occurred the next Day.— Very interesting Court scene.— John 
Boynton portrayed.— Joseph and Sidney flee for their lives. — Father 
Smith served with State's Warrant.— How he escaped. — Luke Johnson 
befriends him.— Luke's death. ----- 20 

CHAPTER V. 

Leave Kirtland. — Grand Entertainment. — A noble Woman.— Lorenzo drives 
one Team.— He is very Sick.— Arrive in Far West, Missouri. — Elder 
Rigdon's Kindness. —Dr. Avord's Meanness. — His Nurse, Nightwatcher 
and Doctor. — An Incident. — Arrive in Adam-ondi-Ahman. — Lorenzo 
takes his Gun and goes out to Hunt. — A new Train of Reflections. — 
Hunting for Sport. — The old Settlers. — Their Antagonism.— Preparation 
for Defense — False Alarm explained. - - - 24 

CHAPTER VI. 

Wants to go on Mission.— Elder Butterfield wishes to accompany him.— 

They go.— Arrive in Far West on the second day.— Father Smith blesses 

Lorenzo.— Blindness of Thomas B. Marsh.— Leave Far West.— Meet a 

camp of Brethren at the Missouri River.— Construe: a craft.— Started in 



yi CONTENTS. 

snow storm down the" river.— Perilous times.— Narrow escapes. — A 
savage band.— Make their escape.— Find camping place in peace. — 
Leave the boat and travel on foot.— Get lodging at the house of a 
Mobocrat. — Mobocratic narrative.— A CampbelHte Preacher's Polite- - 
ness.— Courtesy of a Methodist Preacher.— A crowded house.— A Dona- 
tion just in time.— Saved from a Mob by his pocket Bible. — Other 
Mobocrats foiled. ------ Page 30 

CHAPTER VII. 
Leaves Kentucky.— Travels on foot five hundred miles.— Reaches his friend s 
in Ohio.— Through fatigue and exposure, is very sick.— Receives kind 
attention.— Traveled and preached.— Taught school.— Great effort, and 
great success.— A thrilling narrative.— Arrives in Nauvoo.— The Father 
and Family in LaHarpe. ------ 38 

CHAPTER VIII. 

In Di-Ahman. — Our father's purchases. — Friendliness of the "old settlers." 
—A spirit of hostility prevalent.— Millers would not grind our wheat. — 
Grating corti for our bread. — How we cooked the grated meal. — A 
strange move; the. old settlers abscond. — Their reports in the surround- 
ing country. — The Military quells the uprising. — A horse mill in opera- 
tion. — Mobs arouse with increased force. — Government sends Militia. — 
They are set to guard the Saints, who are ordered to leave the county 
within ten days. — The halfway house. — Food frozen.— How we ate sup- 
per.— Sleepless and jolly. — Arrive in Far West. — Seven miles out. — 
Move to Illinois. — To Warren County. — To LaHarpe. — To Nauvoo. 41 

CHAPTER IX. 

Called on mission to England. — Extraordinary communication. — Calls on 
families of the Twelve. — In Ohio. — Borrows money. — On board a sailing 
vessel. — In Liverpool. — Writes to his aunt. — Why he is there. — How he 
came there.— Crossing the ocean. — Terrific storms. — An ocean storm 
scene.— The calm. — Gratitude. — Arrives in Liverpool. — Manchester. — 
Birmingham. -------- 4(j 

CHAPTER N. 

Writes from Birmingham. — Church numbers Sixteen.— Conference in Lon- 
don. — Lorenzo appointed to preside over the London Conference. — Con- 
firmed in Manchester. — Nine of the Twelve present. — Established a 
Branch in Wolverhampton.— Ordained William Henshaw. — Sent him to 
Wales. — William Henshaw did a good work, but "died as a fool dieth." 
— An encounter with Evil Spirits. — Lorenzo gets the Victory. — An 
Apostacy succeeds. — April 6th, Conference in Manchester. — Nine of the 
Twelve present. — Branches represented.— Officers set apart. — A cake for 
the Twelve. — Tho cake distributed. — A joyful time. — Orson Hyde 
speaks. — Joseph Fielding speaks — P. P. Pratt composes verses. — 
Brigham Young and William Miller sing. — President B. Young dis- 
misses.— Poem addressed to L. Snow. ... - 52 

CHAPTER XI. 

Brother Snow writes to Elder Pratt. — Baptisms. — A hint to the wise. — 
Caution and instruction. — Writes to the Star. — Increase in the Church in 
London. — Good word for Bedford. — Baptisms. — To Elder Pratt. — Sad 
news. — Sister Morgan's Death. — Her faithfulness and benevolence. — 
Her triumphant departure. — Her Husband is comforted. — Conference. — 
Lorenzo informs how subscriptions are obtained. — Singing in Tongues. 
— L. appointed First Counselor.— P. P. Pratt speaks.— Stanza.— Queen 
Victoria. — Presentation of tho Book of Mormon to Her Majesty and the 
Prince Consort. ....... oS 



CONTENTS. VII 



CHAPTER XII. 

Brother Snow's Mission terminates.— Reports four hundred Members in the 
London Conference. — Is appointed to take charge of two hundred and 
fifty Saints en route to Nauvoo. — Embarks on the "Swanton." — The 
Steward's sickness. — Grows worse and worse. — Is given up, and nearly- 
dead. — Sister Martin insists with the Captain. — Is repulsed, and again 
asks that Elder Snow may administer to the Steward.— She obtains con- 
sent. — The man is healed. — Baptisms in New Orleans. — The Company 
reaches Nauvoo. — Great Reception. — Waving of Handkerchiefs. — The 
Prophet present. — Reminiscences. — My joy in meeting Lorenzo. — How 
we associated. —Appeal to my Husband. — Their Interview. — The 
Result. -------- Page 65 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Plural Marriage. — It tries the Prophet. — God commands, and he must 
obey. — Interview on the bank of the river.— The Prophet's words. — 
Gives Lorenzo a precious promise. — Lorenzo and myself visit our 
Parents, and return. — Lorenzo goes to Ohio. — Where he finds me on his 
return. — Close of 1843. — A social gathering, — Extract from Lorenzo's 
speech. — He organizes a company. — The General's compliment. — 
Lorenzo's experience in an unfortunate school. — Makes a success. — 
Mobbing at Lima. - - - - - - -69 

CHAPTER XIV. 

The Prophet instructs the Twelve. — They appoint a Delegation to seek a 
location for the Saints. — Lorenzo notified to be in readiness. — Change 
intervenes. — An unprecedented apostacy. — Joseph Smith's correspond- 
ence. — Calls for an expression from candidates for the Presidency. — 
Copy of Appeal. — Disgusted with their responses. — Offers himself as 
candidate. — Elders electioneer. — How Lorenzo succeeds. — Terrible news. 
— Assassination. — Mournful Elegy. — Meeting mobocrats. - 70 

CHAPTER XV. 

Lorenzo a Bachelor.— The Prophet instructs him.— He changes tactics. — 
Marries. — Wives and Endowments. — In the Temple. — Wrath of our 
Enemies. — Expulsion of the Saints. — Cross the Mississippi River. — 
Intensely cold.— Snow storm. — Outfit.— Camp organized. — Moves for- 
ward. — Song No. I.— Song No. 2. S4 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Garden Grove.— Pisgah. — Severe sickness.— Death of Elder Huntington.— 
Lorenzo called to preside. — Condition of the Saints. — A dilemma. — 
Lorenzo's policy. — How he succeeded. — A ludicrous and enjoyable 
entertainment. — Births. — Death. — Life incidents. — President Young's 
call.— Appointments.— Another wife. — Arrives in the Valley.— Ordained 
into the Quorum of the Twelve. — Builds a log house. - - 89 

CHAPTER XVII. 

The first celebration. — Lorenzo chairman of committee. — Description of 
Escort— Moves from Bowery to President Young's. — Receives the 
Presidency. — Returns to Bowery. — Singing by the way. — Cheers. — 
Hymn.— Prayer. — Declaration of Independence read.— Speech by Silver 
Greys. — Ode sung by Silver Greys. — Shout of hosanna. — March to the 
dinner tables.— A rich feast. — Thousands of the Saints partake.— Gentiles 
en route to California, partake. — Scores of Indians partake. — Grandeur in 
Simplicity. — Gratitude to God. - : 95 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
The Brethren covenant to help the poor out from Nauvoo.— Lorenzo called 
to obtain means.— The poverty and liberality of the Saints.— One offers 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

his only cow. — Anecdote of Captain Brown. — Called on a mission to 
Italy. — Increase of family. — Weight of responsibility. — No time for 
preparation.— Company organized. — Letter to his Sister. — The Journey. — 
Wonderful manifestations of the hand of God. — Nauvoo. — Carthage. — 
Arrival in Liverpool. — Meets the brethren. - - Page 107 

CHAPTER XIX. 

The Editor's reflections. — The responsibility of Lorenzo's Mission. — His 
trust in God. — His knowledge that God had called him — Commendable 
characteristics. — How they are strengthened. — He writes to P. D. Rich- 
ards. — Describes Genoa. — Armed men. — Priests. — Meets an acquaint- 
ance. — Curious interview. — Reflections. — Sympathy for the people. — 
Door opening for the Gospel in PiedoioDt. — Encouraging prospects. 116 

CHAPTER XX. 

Writes to President Young. — The Waldenses. — Incidents. — Calls Elder Sten- 
house. — Cathedral of St. Lorenzo. — Sends two Elders to Piedmont. — 
Describes the Country. — Published "The Voice of Joseph." — Miraculous 
healing. — Sends for Elder Woodard. — Organization of the Church — 
Prayer. — Officers chosen. — Mount Brigham. — Rock o£ Prophecy. — Testi- 
mony of an Englishman. — Invited by a Priest. — First Baptism.— ^Difficul- 
ties to meet. — LaTour. — The presence of the Elders only tolerated. — Can 
lift up his head and rejoice in spite of difficulties. - - 121 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Joseph Smith. — His anxiety on the subject of religion. — Secret vocal prayeiv 
— A brilliant light envelops him. — Two personages appear. — The Lord 
speaks to Joseph. — Instructs him. — He has another vision. — Is shown 
where records are deposited. — Obtains and translates them. — Testimonies 
of the Witnesses. — Baptisms. — Church organized. — Temple built. — 
Gifts manifested. — Saints leave Kirtland. — Scenes in Jackson County. — 
Extreme Suffering. — Expulsion. — Memorial to Congress. - 13<> 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Why the Saints are persecuted. — Persecutions in different ages of the World* 
— How Jethro came to Moses. — The Saints locate in Illinois. — A shor 1 
season of peace. — Hostilities resumed. — Perfidy of the Governor of the 
State. — Assassination. — The Prophet's testimony that his work was 
finished. — The Saints are driven. — Their journey. — War with the remain- 
der. — Extracts from Epistle. — Peace- — Perpetual Fund. — Labors of the 
Elders. — Publications. — The work of twenty years. — The power of 
truth. ...._..._ 153. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Explanatory note. — Lorenzo writes to Elder Hyde. — Brightness of natural 
scenery. — Spiritual darkness. — A courageous minister. — Inscription 
attached to his portrait. — Hymn. — Drudgery. — Expression of gratitude. — 
A dream. — First Native ordained to preach. — Ordains Elders Woodard 
and Stenhouse to the High Priesthood. — The former to preside in Italy, 
the latter in Switzerland. — A Magnificent view. — Reflections. - 16S 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Note by Editor. — Elder Woodard writes. — More Baptisms in Italy. — A 
singular scene. — A successful experiment. — Ten baptized. — Expressions 
from converts. — The Millennial Star speaks. — Encouraging reports. — 
Letter from Elder Woodard. — Extract from Elder Stenhouse's letter. — 
Opposition re-acts. — Good results. ..... 177 

CHAPTER XXV. 
Onward. — No bounds to Brother Snow's mission.— He looks towards India 
and shapes his plans. — Writes to F. D. Richards. — Expresses his views. — 



CONTENTS. IX 

Brother Woodard writes from Italy. — Brother Stenhouse from Switzer- 
land. — Lorenzo visits Wales. — Untimely plaudit. — A Bedlamite night 
encounter. — Ultimate fate of the hotel and its Landlord. Page 184 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

Address to the Saints. — Responsibility of those holding the Priesthood. — 
Eternal prospects. — The best policy in governing. — Priesthood to be 
honored. — By benefiting others we benefit ourselves. — Must pass 
through suffering. — Musc.be pure and humble. — Need patience. — Esti- 
mation of P. D. Richards. — His wise policy. — Progress of the mission. — 
Expression of gratitude. — The Editor speaks.— Lorenzo's courage and 
faithfulness. -------- 191 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Editor's reflections. — Lorenzo writes! to President Richards. — Completed 
Translation of the Book of Mormon. — Visits Paris. — Pleasure of meeting 
Saints. — Condition of the people. — Goes to Geneva. — Degradation of 
woman. — Meets Elder Stenhouse. — Interesting meetings. — At Lausanne. 
— Professor Reta — Benefit of Elder Taylor's French publications. 200 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Editor's note. — Lorenzo writes. — Leaves Geneva. — Over the hills.-^-Over the 
Alps. — A heavy snow storm. — Only two passengers in the coach. — Ten 
horses barely sufficient. — "Houses of Recovery" erected by the govern- 
ment for lost travelers. — Reaches Turin. — Meets Elders Woodard and 
Toronto. — Interesting "re-union." — Visions. — Healings. — Condition of 
Italy. — Brother Woodard 'a course commendable. — The Waldenses. 207 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Editor's Remarks. — Lorenzo writes from Malta. — Naples. — Across the Med- 
iterranean — Detention. — Disappointed. — Makes virtue of necessity. — , 
Samuel succeeds his brother. — Lorenzo explains cause of detention — 
Revised edition of the "Voice of Joseph." — Prospects in Malta. — Michael 
and Lucifer represented. — In Gibraltar. — Good news from India. — 
Extracts. — Elder Willis writes. — One hundred and eighty-nine members. 
— Ordained two Elders. — More Baptisms. t 211 

CHAPTER XXX. 

Closing the Mission. — Elder Jabez Woodard writes. — Leaves Malta. — Elde. 
Obray succeeds him. — A vision related. — Commendatory of Elder Malan 
— Extract from Elder Obray 's letter. — From Western Hindostan. — Oppo- 
sition. — What a soldier dared. — The result. — Military oppose Mission- 
aries.— A Branch organized in Poonah. — The "Voice of Joseph," by 
Elder Lorenzo Snow.— "The Only Way to be Saved" republished.— A 
remarkable vision. ..._... 222 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

Close of Mission. — Bids adieu to the Saints and scenes of his labors. — Poem, 
in which martial and ecclesiastical labors and honors are contrasted. — 
Lorenzo returns home. — Chosen Member of Legislature.— President of 
Council. — Reflections. — Joy and sorrow. — Vision. — A covenant. — Char- 
lotte's death. — Singular manifestation. — A little prattler. — Quandary. — 
Solution. — Social party. — Storm. — Drenched. — Lorenzo decides to build. 
— A struggle. — Proves a success. ----- 230 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Discourse by Elder L. Snow, delivered in the Tabernacle, Salt Lake City.— 
Blessings proportioned to faith and diligence.— Plainness of the Gospel. 
— Naaman, the Assyrian. — How the Gospel found us. — The same as that 



X CONTENTS. 

of New Testament. — Power of the Gospel. — Testimony of the Elders. — 
What Philanthropists tried to do, the Lord has done. — Joseph Smith. — 
His mission. — Obedience brings knowledge. — Elders honest and brave as 
the ancients. — Knowledge not confined to our leaders. — Falsehood 
refuted. — The dishonest will apostatize. — Persecution promised. — The 
honest will receive the truth. —The Latter-day work will triumph. Page 237 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

Polysophical Association. — Lorenzo no one-idea man. — Character of the 
Association. — Called to write. — Responded. — Speeches from ten to fifteen 
minutes. — Time fully occupied. — How it was accomplished. — Everything 
high-toned. — The effect captivating. — Anxiety to become members. — Note 
by the Editor. — Nationality. — Where is the place of my nativity? — Where 
is my home? — Not in any European country. — Not even in America. — 
Not on earth. — Here I am a stranger. — My home, my nationality in the 
courts of immortality. — Address to parents. — Our mutual aim.— Respon- 
sibilities. — Necessity of cultivating children. — What they should be pre- 
pared for. — What they are to become. - 251 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

How Lorenzo spent the interval. — His next mission. — Difficulties to be over- 
come. — Lays out a city. — Description of the premises. — Builds a house. — 
President Young visits him. — Introduces a precedent. — Description of it. 
— Succeeded by railroads. — Gift of the Gospel. — The Patriarch's promise. 
— A sick man. — Faith in Lorenzo's administration. — A handkerchief is 
sent. — He blesses and dedicates it. — Is taken to the patient. — Placed upon 
him. — He recovers. — A letter. — In memoriam. — To Elder Porter Squires. 
— Expressions of gratitude.— Good wishes and blessings. - 260 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

Necessity of recreation. — Lorenzo anticipates the need of the people. — Pro- 
vides a miniature theatre. — How it was managed. — Moves to a new 
building. — A windstorm. — House blown down. — Everything destroyed. 
— Discouragement. — President J. Young speaks prophetically. — His 
prophecy fulfilled. — The Dramatic Association organized. — Lorenzo pre- 
sides over it. — Bishop McQuarrie speaks. — Relates an incident. — The 
Social Hall erected. — Its uses. — Concerning circulating medium. — 
Checks as good as gold. — Within reach of all. — Assessment. 267 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 
Mission to the Sandwich Islands. -Elders called home. — Walter M. Gibson. 
— Goes to the Sandwich Islands. — His perfidy. — Lorenzo, with other 
Elders, sent to investigate. — Take Stage. — Arrive at a mining town. — 
Incident. — New driver. — Favorable impressions. — Sings melodiously. — 
Swears blasphemously. — Drives furiously. — Perilous predicament. — 
Other perils. — Arrive at San Francisco. — At Brother Eveleth's. — Take 
steamer. — Arrive near the landing at Lahaina. — Boat upset. — Lorenzo 
and the Captain drowned. — Both restored to life.— Rejoicing and thanks- 
giving. .....---- 272 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Mission to the Sandwich Islands concluded.— Journey to Lanai.— Mr. Gib- 
son. — Pagan superstitions. — Adopted by Miss Gibson.— Mr. Gibson rev- 
erenced h}' the natives.— His impudence.— Elder J. F. Smith's reply.— 
Elder Snow's prophecy.— Gibson cutoff from Church.— Prophecy ful- 
filled. — Sermon on the ship.— An earthquake.— Return home. — Inter- 
view with President Young. .... - 281 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 
Lorenzo's gigantic movement. — In accordance with President Young's sug- 
gestion".— A social monument.— To be perpetuated.— Letter to Bishop 



contents, xi 

Lunt. — Mercantile and Manufacturing Association. — Effort requisite. — 
First, Merchandise. — Second, Tannery. — Third, Woolen Factory. — 
Fourth, Dairy. — Fifth, a Horn Stock Herd. — Agricultural Department. — 
Hat Factory. — Between thirty and forty industrial branches. — Furnish 
employment for all.^Form of checks. — Labor received for capital stock. 
— Organization of the Association. — Directors. — Council. Page 290 

CHAPTElt XXXIX. 
All was flourishing. — Attaining to Independence. — Factory burned. — Sent a 
chill to Lorenzo's heart. — Instead of discouragement it was proof of the 
strength of their compact. — Everywhere manifest, even in the Children. 
— Union could not bo broken. — impregnability of their Order. — Deseret 
News speaks. — Commendatory.— Sympathy. — Calamity is proof of the 
strength of the Co-operative system. — Determination to rebuild. 298 

CHAPTER XL. 
Dedication. — Fourth day of July. — Gratitude andfthanksgiving. — More than 
two thousand had suffered loss. — In six months the Factory is rebuilt. 
— Great rejoicing. — Dedicatory prayer. — Address. — Speeches. — Brigham 
City M. and M. Association. — A raid. — Railroad contract. — How a village 
sprang up. — An onslaught. — Confution ensues. — The Grand Jury issues 
indictments. — Men drove to jail in a herd. — Great excitement. — Superin- 
tendent Dunn speaks. — John Merrill in custody. — Handcuffed. — Chained 
in jail. — Telegrams from the United States President. — How the Judge 
received them. — More about Merrill. — Left unguarded and unacquitted. 
— About the mill. — Dishonesty of Jurors. — Financial loss. - 300 

CHAPTER XXI. 

To President F. D. Richards. — Burning of the woolen factory. — In thirty 
minutes all consumed. — Foiebodings that the people would be dis- 
couraged. — Fears unfounded. — What was done within six months. — The 
people superior to the loss. — A raid follows the fire. — An unlawful tax 
follows the raid. — Statement of losses. — Business curtailed. — Checks 
canceled. — Eleven industrial departments in operation. — The mercantile 
flourishing. — Confidence preserved. .... 300 

CHAPTER XLII. 

Remarks by the Editor.— Lorenzo writes to George Q. Cannon. — Makes sug- 
gestions concerning the illegal assessment. — Letter two. — What Lawyer 
Sutherland says. — Letter three. — A description of Scrip.— How used. — 
Affidavits. — Correspondence. — Joseph F. Smith writes. — Lorenzo 
responds. -..-._.. 310 

CHAPTER XLIII. 
Stake Conference in Brigham City. — President B. Young expected. — Prepara- 
tions made. — Flags hoisted. — Conference in Bowery. — Box Elder Stake 
re-organized. — Lorenzo calls the officers of the United Order together. — 
Nominate officers. — All are accepted. — O. G. Snow to preside.— President 
Young's fatherly counsel and blessing. ... - 3]y 

CHAPTER XLIV. 
Oliver G. Snow speaks.— His maiden speech. — Performs a good deed. — 
Called to go to assist the emigration. — Encounter with Indians. — Mission 
to England. — Visits New York. — Arrives in Liverpool. — Goes to Man- 
chester. — An incident, relative to the death of Dickens. — Oliver attends a 
sectarian lecture. — Is challenged. — Attempts to respond. — Is repulsed. — 
The priest is disgraced and forsaken. — A visit to Scotland. — Descriptions- 
— Return to England. — Incomprehensible dialect. — Released. — Home 
again. — Ordained member of High Council. — Marries. — Mission to the 
States. — "Visits Oborlin. — Ludicrous incident. — Visits his grandmother. — 
Preaches her funeral sermon. — At home appointed President of Box 
Elder Stake. -------- 321 



Xll CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XLV. 

Discourse by Elder Lorenzo Snow, delivered in the Tabernacle, S It Lake 
City, January 14, 1872 — Progression. — The Fatherhood of God. — The 
perfect man.— The gifts of the Spirit.— His testimony. - Page 331 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

Lorenzo's birthday. — A surprise. — His escort. — Enthusiastically greeted. — 

Address. — He responds. — Singing "Grandfather'sCloek." — Ahairpieture 

presented. — Recitation by the children. — Autograph album presented. — 

Tables loaded with luxuries. — Dinner. — Singing. — Lorenzo makes a 

• speech. — Parting Hymn. — Dismissal. .... 348 

CHAPTER XLVII. 
George F. Gibbs. — His parents receive the Gospel. — His early youth. — 
Employed in a printing establishment. — How he stood with his asso- 
ciates. — Had to fight his way to maintain his integrity. — Honored the 
Word of Wisdom. — Drew a prize. — Was highly honored. — Chosen for 
out-door preaching. — Compliments his motfier. — Leaves home for 
Liverpool. — Clerk and book-keeper in Liverpool Office. — Emigrates to 
America. — In President B. Young's Office. — Goes to Liverpool Office. — 
Works there three years. — Home again. — Anecdote. — Masters Phon- 
ography. — Has been and now fs Church Reporter. - - 352 

CHAPTER XLVII I. 
M. D. Rosenbaum leaves his native country. — In San Francisco. — Goes to 
Carson. — A voice speaks to him. — Goes to Salt Lake. — At Elder Neibaur's. 
— Baptized.^Called on mission to Germany. — In Berlin. — Attends meet- 
ing. — Is arrested. — Tried and sentenced. — Banished. — Returns home. — 
F. H. Snow appointed to a mission. — Reflections. — Strangers marvel. — 
What an affrighted Catholic said. — The captain of the steamer replies. — 
An incident. — Tired and hungry. — Why he goes to bed supperless. — A 
retort. — What a priest did. — The Channel Islands.— Released and returns 
home. — Expression of gratitude. - 359 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

Discourse by Elder Lorenzo Snow, delivered in a meeting of the St. George 
Stake of Zion, iu the Temple, April 5th, 1877; reported by George Jb\ 
Gibbs. — Necessity for effort. — What the Lord said to Oliver Cowdery. — 
Regulation of temporal affairs. — Consecration and stewardship. — Prepa- 
ration for building in Jackson County. — The United Order. — Plural 
marriage. — Responsibility of Presidents. — How confidence is created. — 
The necessity of its cultivation. — Desires for the future. - 366 

CHAPTER L. 
Elijah Box says his parents embraced the Gospel in England. — Came to 
Nauvoo. — Elijah born in a turbulent time. — Moves to St. Louis. — To the 
Bluffs. — To the Valley. — Storm described. — Moves to Brigham City. — 
Struggle for an education. — How it is obtained. — Called on mission. — A 
great contrast in Liverpool. — Visits relatives. — In London meets with the 
Palestine tourists. — How poor Saints manage their Sunday clothing. — 
An incident. — Closes mission. — In charge of a company of Saints, leaves 
England. — Reflections. — Reaches home. — Engaged in teaching. — Presides 
over Improvement Associations.— Counselor to Stake President. 37!) 

CHAPTER LI. 

George Dunford. — When in his teens wants to earn living. — Decides 
on going to sea. — Leaves home without a shilling. — Applies to the 
Admiral of the British Navy. — Sent to Rio Janeiro. — Officiates he 
steward for the officers. — The brig Curlew ordered to England. — How as 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

saved this means. — Returns home with plenty of money. — Meets 
with an Elder. — Convinced of the truth of the Gospel, and is baptized. — 
Ordained Elder, presides over two branches.— Emigrates to America. — 
Presides over the St, Louis branch. — In mercantile business. — Goes to 
California, St. Louis, and settles in Salt Lake City. — Appointed Bishop 
of Malad Valley, including six settlements. — After nearly three years, is 
released.— Expression of fatherly feeling. - - Page 385 

CHAPTER LII. 

From the Deseret News. — A re-union. — A dinner. — Speeches. — Songs. — 
Expressions of love and union. — Judge Burt reads a lengthy presenta- 
tion address. — The editor comments. — The address. — Presents gold 
watch and chain to Lorenzo. — A testimonial of love, respect and 
confidence. - - - - - ■»' - 389 

CHAPTER LIU. 

Chester Loveland a modern Ajax. — Drives the Sheriff and his posse. — Holds 
a niobocratie jury. — Brings them to terms. — Captain in "Nauvoo 
Legion." — Comes to Utah. — Goes to Carson. — A scene of suffering. — 
Commissioned Probate Judge. — Is leftio preside. — Mission to the States. — 
John A. McAllister called on mission to Europe. — Interesting time on 
the steamer. — Why the "Mormons" were driven from Nauvoo. — Is sent 
to the Orkney Islands. — Stops at his uncle's in Glasgow. — Missionary 
labors. — In Dundee and Newcastle-on-Tyne. — Visits London. — Returns 
home. — Is elected County Recorder. - - - 393 

CHAPTER LIV. 

Discourse by Apostle Lorenzo Snow at the General Conference, Salt Lake 
City, April 7, 1882, Reported by George F. Gibbs. — Reference to Moses 
and ancient Israel. — Distrusting results the effect of ignorance. — Latter- 
day Saints have more faith. — No such thing as standing still. — Move on, 
trusting in God, the watchword. — Persecutions of the Latter-day Saints. — 
Move on and work on. — If we do our part, God will do His. — How the 
Lord overruled in our coming to the mountains. — Plural marriage. — 
Good resulting from the Edmunds bill. — The great worth of the Gospel. — 
Move on, move on. ... . 400 

CHAPTER LV. 

Eli H. Peiree. — Called on a mission. — Thoughtless of religion. — Taken by 
surprise. — Throws aside pipe and novel. — What his associates said. — 
What Moses Thatcher did. — Eli starts forthwith.— In New York. — To the 
coal regions, Pennsylvania. — Great success. — A testimonial. — Faptizes 
and administers to sick. — The power of God attends. — Organizes 
branches. — Heavenly messenger appears. — Release. — A second missidn. 
—On the frontier. — Baptized a Sioux.— From Deseret News. — A third 
mission. — With B. Morris Young. — Meets with suecess. — Opposition. — 
Close of mission. — Happy expression. - - - 407 

CHAPTER LVI. 

Aiphonso Snow. — Letter from President Taylor.— Called on mission.— In 
Tennessee. — Strange dialect. — Travels and preaches. — Organizes a Branch. 
— Opposition. — Ordered to leave. — A dastardly letter.— Opposition pro- 
motes good. — Professors of religion the persecutors. — What a Deacon 
said. — Presides over a Conference. — In Georgia. — Aiphonso released. — 
Visits relatives. - - - - - - - 422 

CHAPTER LVII. 
Introductory. — Letter from Lorenzo's son-in-law on the Sandwich Islands. — 
The weather. — Cane crop. — Five hundred and forty-nine baptisms. — 
King David Kalakauna is coming to visit the Saints.— Great preparations 



xiv CONTENT^. 

for his reception. — Houses decorated. — Inscriptions. — Breakfast is wait- 
ing. — The steamer comes. — The King is escorted between two files of 
men, women and children. — Cheers. — Introductions. — Breakfast, then to 
the meeting house. — Reception.— Singing choirs. — Dedication prayer by 
President Partridge. — The King speaks approvingly of the Saints. — 
Meeting adjpurned. — A "big feast" prepared by the natives. — What 
composed of. — How the King was seated. — How he ate. — How they all, 
numbering one thousand, ate. — The King escorted to the steamer. — A 
national custom. — Splendid conference. — Number of the Saints. Page 427 

CHAPTER LVIII. 

Expression of appreciation creditable. — Lorenzo speaks of his wives. — Their 
nobility. — How he made choice of them. — His earthly prospects. — How 
•they accepted the position. —The Editor explains. — They prove superior 
to circumstances of trial and hardships. — Are comfortably situated. — 
Step forth as mothers in Israel. — Their positions. — Questions to the 
defamers of Latter-day Saint women. — Lorenzo's independence of char- 
acter. — Where credit is due. — Wife-missions. — Success attributed to 
God. — Testimonials of love and respect. ... - 432 

CHAPTER LIX. 

Start for Fort Hall Agency. — Meeting in Portage. — In Malad. — Reach the 
Reservation. — Meet Indians. — Pitched tent. — With two Bishops Lorenzo 
visits the agent. — Describes Mr. Cook. — Lorenzo asks the privilege of 
preaching to the Indians. — Prevarication. — An incident. — A discussion. — 
Mr. Cook says nothing so much needed as a farmer. — Brother Snow pro- 
poses to furnish one. — Mr. Cook will not accept. — Grows uneasy and 
will not have preaching. — A grave responsibility. — Mr. Cook shoulders 
it. — The school teacher enters and •'brothers" Mr. Cook. — The brethren 
start for camp. — Meet Indians. — Yisit school. — Little Chief, wife and 
daughter. -------- 439 

CHAPTER LX. 

In Bannock Valley. — Happy meeting with Indians. — What Lorenzo said to 
them. — Lamanite Elders speak. — All shake hands. — Lorenzo describes 
the Agency. — What the Secretary of the Interior says. — A comparison 
between the two colonies. — The one at Washakie. — How located. — Sunday 
School. — Meeting exercises. — How Lamanites are taught. — How presided 
over. — Their Co-operative Store and Sheep Herd. — White families. — A 
re-action. — An Adage. — The United States Supreme Court decides. — Tele- 
grams to Hon. L. Snow. ------ 440 

CHAPTER LXI. 

Circular to the heads of families. — Names of Committees. — Exercises for 
Wednesday, a. m. — Wednesday, p. ra. — Thursday, p. m. — Friday, p. m. — 
Prompt attendance. — Letter from H. A. Hendrickson. — Extracts from 
eastern communications. — Weather propitious.— Children amused. — The 
hall. — How occupied. — Invited guests. — Table scenes. — Bachelor group. — 
The Re-union indescribable. — Article from Deseret Neics, by C. W. 
Penrose. -------- 453 

CHAPTER LXII. 

Our father's birthday. — Prose address by F. H. Snow.— Poem by M. D. 
Rosenbaum. — Prose address by G. F. Gibbs. — Poem by O. W. Snow. — 
Prose address by A. H. Snow. — Poem by E. R. S. Smith. — Closing 
address by Lorenzo Snow. ------ 465 

CHAPTER LXIII. 

Births and deaths of our parents. — Their children. — Genealogies of 
Lorenzo's wives, children, grandchildren, sons-in-law and daughters- 
in-law. — Mary Adaline's children by her first husband. - 4S8 



CONTENTS. XV 



LETTER T. 

National Monument.— Its construction.— One hundred and eighty marble 
statues.— Lofty spire. set with thousands of gems. — Embossed globe. — 
Statue of Prince Albert. — Tower of London.— Queen Elizabeth's Armory. 
— Torture rooms. — Ann Boleyn. — Earl of Essex.— Lady Jano Grey. 
— Executioner's axe. — Instruments of torture. - - Page 498 

LETTER II. 

At Haarlem. — Two thousand people executed. — Wonderful organ. — A Dutch 
wedding. — Amsterdam. — A city on piles. — Formidable army of worms. — 
One hundred islands and two hundred and eighty bridges. — Palace on 
piles. — Diamond cutting. — Charitable institutions. — Antwerp. — Notre 
Dame. — Masterpiece of Rubens. — Royal Palace. — Brussels. — St. Nicho- 
las. — Singular marriage. — Royal Theatre. — National Palace. 503 

LETTER III. 

Paris. — Visit to Versailles. — Bois de Boulogne. — St. Cloud. — Attend the 
National Assembly. — French glory. — Interview with the President of the 
French Republic. — Paris Register speaks of the Party. - 509 

LETTER IV. 

From Paris to Lyons. — Burgundy and its wines. — Famous towns. — Lyons 
and its silk industries. — Weaving portraits. — Ampitheatre eighteen 
hundred years old. — 01h r e plantations and vineyards.— At Venice. — 
Genoa. — Statue of Columbus. — The cathedral of St. Lorenzo. — Chain 
that bound John the Baptist. — Turin. — Milan. — Cathedral of our blessed 
Lady, the grandest religious edifice in the world. — Attend high mass. — 
Arrive in Venice, the City of Waters. 51 

LETTER V. 

Rome and its population. — The seven hills. — Excavations by the Govern- 
ment. — The Forum. — Antony and Julius Caesar. — Where Virginius 
stabbed his daughter. — Famous obelisks. — Temple of Venus. — The Tar- 
peian Rock. — St. Peter's. — Call on the American minister. — The Vatican. 
— Michael Angelo. — Paul III. — Appian Way. — Seneca. — Baths. — Foot- 
prints of the Savior. — Naples. — Mount Vesuvius. - - 518 

LETTER VI. 

Naples. — Beggars. — Pompeii. — Earthquakes. — Herculana3um. — Museum. — 
"Secret Cabinet." — Ascent of Vesuvius. — Pliny the Elder. — From Naples 
to Brindisi. — Hardworking women. — Corfu. — Religious service in a 
Greek cathedral. — Take steamer for Alexandria.— Egypt. — Turkish 
mosques. — Copts. — Mohammedan schools. — Male and Female attire. — 
Dervish worship. — Suez. — Red Sea. .... - 525 

LETTER VII. 

Jall'a. — Traveling arrangement. — Place where the Ark was built. — House of 
Simon the Tanner. — Mohammedan funeral ceremony. — Plains of 
Sharon. — A night in the desert. — Battlefield of David and Goliath. — Rose 
of Sharon. — Mount Zion. — Mount of Olives. — Jerusalem. — Rachel's 
Tomb. — Solomon's Pools. — Church of the Nativity. — Studio of St. 
Jerome. — Shepherds' field. — Jordan River. — Dead Sea. - 532 

LETTER VIII. 
Jordan River.— Sacred localities. — Fountain of Elisha. — Brook Cherith. — 
Plains of Jericho. — ^eihany. — Residence of Mary and Martha. — Tomb 
of Lazarus. — Garden of Gethseinane. — Hill of evil counsel. — Mizpah. — 
Valley of Jehoshaphat.— Absalom's Pillar. — Mosque of Omar. — Solo- 
mon's Temple. — Mount Moriah. — Worship of Moloch. — Place of 
Lamentation. r 539 



XVI CONTENTS. 



LETTER IX. 
At Athens.— Plains of Attica. — Hill of Mars. — Galilee.— Scriptural remi- 
niscences. — Fountain of Dan. — Cesarea Philippi. — Damascus. — An unfor- 
tunate Architect. ------ Page 540 

LETTER X. 

Famous Scripture locality. — Village of robbers. — Battlefield of Palestine. — 
Mounts Tabor and Hermon. — Nazareth. — The Holy Groito. — Table of 
Christ.— Arab plows. — Cana of Galilee. — Arab school.— Sea of Galilee. — 
Tiberias. — Bedouin spinsters. — Residence of Mary Magdalene. — Sere- 
naded by Bedouins. — Backsheesh. ----- 553 

LETTER XI. 

The Slone of Unction. — The Holy Sepulchre. — The Chapel of the Angel. — 
Hill of Calvary. — The hole in which the Cross was planted. — House of 
Pilate. — "Behold the Man!" — The true Cross. — A terrible Massacre. — 
Turkish Guards. — Christianity despised by Jews and Mohammedans. — 
Farewell to Jerusalem. — Gala day. — Arab Agriculture. — Shechem. — 
Ferocious People. — The Olive. — Samaria. ... 558 

LETTER XII. 

Beyrout. — Protestant college and schools. — Embark for Constantinople. — 
Island of Cyprus. — Mount Olympus. — Sea of Marmora. — Arrival at the 
Turkish Metropolis. — Greek Independence Day. — At Athens.— Classical 
ruins. — Peculiar Greek customs. — Funeral ceremony. - • - 564 

LETTER XIII. 

Munich. — Visit to a Royal Palace. — Statue of Bavaria. — Imperial Wedding. — 

Vienna. — The Arsenal. — Summer Palace.- — The Great Exhibition. — 

^Berlin. — Royal Palace. — Banquet Hall. — Monuments. — U. S. Minister. — 

Parliament. — Soldiers. — Moral condition of Berlin. — Hamburg. — In 

London. - -.'- . . - _ - 572 

LETTER XIV. 

At St. Louis. — Fine scenery.— Visit relatives. — Poem. — Obtain genealogies. — 
Acknowledgment. ------- 570 

LETTER XV. 
Home again. — Reception by friends. - - - - - 581 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY 

AND 

FAMILY RECORD 

OF 

LORENZO SNOW. 



CHAPTER I. 

Lorenzo Snow's Birth and Parentage — Parents settled in Ohio.— Hardships 
and Privations. — Their Hospitality. — Lorenzo's early Characteristics. — 
Fondness for Books. — Military Aims.— Change in Pursuits.— Starts for 
Oberlin College.— Falls in Company with David W. Patten. — Conversa- 
tion. — In College. — Eliza Embraces the Gospel. — Moves to Kirtland. — 
How she obtained a House and Lot. — Lorenzo in College.— Investigates. 
— Is disgusted — Writes to Eliza. — Her Invitation. — He accepts and comes 
to Kirtland.— Studies Hebrew.— Is Baptized. — How he receives the Holy 
Ghost. 

ORENZO SNOW, son of Oliver and Rosetta L. Petti- 
bone Snow, was born April 3, 1814, in Mantua, 
Portage County, Ohio. Our father was a native" of 
Massachusetts, our mother of Connecticut, and were descend- 
ants of the genuine Puritan stock — those who fled from 
religious persecution in the "old world," and landed on 
Plymouth Rock, of historic celebrity. 

Early in the settlement of that portion of country now 
known as the Middle States, our parents, with their family, 
consisting of two daughters, Leonora Abigail, and Eliza 



& AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

Roxcy, (the writer of this history,) left the home of their 
youth, and moved to what was at that period considered the 
extreme West, or, as it was sometimes styled, "the jumping 
off place," and settled in Mantua, Portage County, Ohio, 
making the eleventh family in the township. There two 
daughters and three sons were added to the family, to wit: 
Amanda Percy, Melissa, Lorenzo, Lucius Augustus, and 
Samuel Pearce. 

. Many times, and with intense interest, have their chil- 
dren listened to recitals of the hardships our parents encoun- 
tered, and the privations they endured in that new and 
heavily timbered country, so very forbidding when compared 
with the beautiful prairie landscapes of the West. But as 
true and worthy representatives of our noble ancestors, our 
parents were proof against discouragement, surmounted 
every difficulty, and through the blessing of God on their 
efforts, created for themselves and their children an enviable 
home. 

In their religious faith our parents were by profession 
Baptists, but not of the rigid, iron-bedstead order; their house 
was a resort for the good and intelligent of all denominations, 
and their hospitality was proverbial. Thus, as their children 
grew up they had ample opportunities for forming acquaint- 
ances with the erudite of all religious persuasions. 

Without the least shadow of vanity we can truly say of 
our parents, their integrity was unimpeachable, and they 
were trustworthy in all the social relations and business trans- 
actions of life; and carefully trained their children to habits 
of industry, economy, and strict morality, and extended to 
them the best facilities for scholastic education the country at 
that time afforded. 

Although a farmer by occupation, father was much 
abroad on public business, and Lorenzo, being the eldest of 
the three brothers, was left in charge, and early in life became 
accustomed to responsibilities, which he discharged with scru- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 3 

pulous punctuality and that inflexibility of purpose which 
ensures success; and from early childhood exhibited the 
energy and decision of character which have marked his 
progress in subsequent life. An unseen hand evidently was 
guiding him, for in his boyhood he was energetically, yet 
unconsciously, preparing 'for the position in life he was des- 
tined to occupy. Ever a student, at home as well as in school, 
(most of his schooling after his twelfth year was during the 
winter terms,) his book was his constant companion when 
disengaged from filial duties; and when sought by his asso- 
ciates, "Kid up with his book" became proverbial. With the 
exception of one term in a High School in Ravenna, Ohio, 
also a' special term of tuition under a Hebrew professor, he 
completed his scholastic training in Oberlin College, which at 
that time was exclusively a Presbyterian institution. Through 
the solicitation of an intimate friend, connected with the col- 
lege, he was induced to enter, and through whose influence, 
as a special favor, he was admitted. 

Although religiously trained from infancy, up to this 
time my brother had devoted little or no attention to the 
subject of religion, at least not sufficiently to decide in prefer- 
ence of any particular sect. 

In the progress of his development, his ambition strongly 
led in the direction of military distinction, so much so, that, 
watching with a sisterly, jealous eye, the steps one by one, by 
which he gained promotion in the military road to honor, I 
feared lest in the course of human events his path might lead 
to the battle field, and his earthly career prematurely close on 
a gory bed. I frequently plead, entreated, and at times 
exhausted my stock of persuasion, but without effect. 

At length he must have a first class military suit, and no 
one could make it so precisely to his liking as his sister; she 
had made his "freedom suit" (at the time referred to he had 
passed his twenty-first year), which every one admired — it 
fitted him exactly, and now this most important of all mortal 



4 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

habiliments should be entrusted to no other. I made the 
suit — it was beautiful, magnificent, and my brother donned it 
with as much, if not of military pride, of self-satisfaction *as 
ever Napoleon won a battle, but it proved of short duration, 
for he soon felt that his ambition could not be satisfied with- 
out a collegiate education. Determined on this, he laid his 
military ambition on the altar, disposed of his paternal 
inheritance, and started for Oberlin. His classical purpose 
was very satisfactory to my views — forming a permanent 
quietus to my imaginary forebodings. 

On his way to Oberlin, my brother accidentally fell in 
company with David W. Patten, an incident to which he fre- 
quently refers as one of those seemingly trivial occurrences in 
human life which leave an indelible trace. This gentleman 
was an early champion of the fulness of the Gospel as taught 
by Jesus and His Apostles in the meridian of time, and 
revealed in our own day through the Prophet Joseph Smith; 
to which cause Elder Patten fell a martyr on- the 24th of 
October, 1838, in Missouri, during the terrible scenes of perse- 
cution through which the Latter-day Saints passed in that 
State. He possessed a mind of deep thought and rich intelli- 
gence. In conversation with him, my brother was much im- 
pressed with the depth and beauty of the philosophical reason- 
ing with which this inspired Elder seemed perfectly familiar, 
as he descanted on the condition of the human family in con- 
nection with the sayings of the ancient Prophets, as recorded 
in the Scriptures — the dealings with, and the purposes of God 
in relation to His children on the earth. From that time a 
new field, with a new train of reflections, was open to my 
brother's mind, the impress of which has never been erased. 

We will now leave the subject of these sketches, in Ober- 
lin, clubbed with three or four of his classmates, alternately 
cooking their meals and pursuing their studies with combined 
energies, while we digress in order to form a connecting link 
in our narrative. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 5 

Having been thoroughly convinced of the authenticity of 
the Gospel in its purity as revealed through Joseph Smith, I 
was baptized on the fifth of April, 1835, and in the autumn 
of the same year, left my father's house and united my 
interest with the Latter-day Saints in Kirtland, Ohio. 

Soon after my arrival, I sent for the " Building Committee 
of the Kirtland Temple," and, on my asking them if they 
would like a little money, they replied that they had a pay- 
ment to make soon, and did not know where the means was 
coming from. I do not recollect how much I gave them; 
however, it was sufficient to cover the present liability of the 
committee, who felt greatly relieved, and proposed to send me 
their note of hand for the amount. I told them that I did 
not want a note — they were welcome to the money: however, 
they sent the note, and some time after wished me to accept a 
house and lot — thus redeeming their note. The lot was a 
very valuable one — situated near the Temple, with fruit trees 
— an excellent spring of water, and a house that accommo- 
dated two families. It was truly an enviable situation, and, 
although I was teaching the Prophet's family school, and had 
my home with them, my eldest sister, a widow with two chil- 
dren, wanted a home in Kirtland, and I rented one part of 
the house while she occupied the other. In all this, the hand 
of God was too plainly visible to be mistaken, as will be 
manifest in the following events. 

Now to our narrative: So intimately was my brother 
associated while in college, with professors and students, that 
he became thoroughly acquainted with the profession and 
the practice of the denomination by which that popular insti- 
tution was controlled; and, although he cherished very friendly 
regards for the people, he was unfavorably impressed with 
their system of religion. A short time before leaving Oberlin, 
he wrote, asking me many questions concerning revealed 
religion, at the same time saying, "If there is nothing better than 
is to be found here in Oberlin College, good bye to all religions" 



6 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

I answered his questions, and knowing he intended 
crowning his studies with a thorough knowledge of Hebrew, 
invited him to come to Kirtland at the close of his term in 
Oberlin, as a school was soon to commence there, under the 
tuition of an able Hebrew professor, for the sole study of that 
language. Accordingly he came, but not with the most dis- 
tant idea of embracing the faith of the Latter-day Saints, of 
which were most of the Hebrew students, with whom, includ- 
ing Apostles and the Prophet Joseph, he became familiarly 
associated; and while he studied the dead language of the 
ancient Hebrews, his mind also drank in, and his heart 
became imbued with the living faith of the everlasting Gos- 
pel — "the faith once delivered to the" ancient "saints," and 
not many weeks passed after his arrival, before he was bap- 
tized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

What a marvelous change crossed the path of the young 
aspirant! This one act of stepping into the waters of bap- 
tism, with its accompanying ordinance of the laying on of 
hands for the reception of the Holy Ghost, by authorized 
administrators, opened up a new world before him. He now 
sees with a changed and vastly enlarged vision— having been 
invested with an additional, a sixth sense, a sense which com- 
prehends the things of God — which penetrates into futurity 
and estimates eternal values. 

How wonderfully changed all his youthful aims! How 
suddenly they sink into insignificance! How extended the 
sphere of his youthful anticipations! How glorious — how 
exalted the motive power, -the incentive that now prompts his 
youthful ambition! Instead of earthly military renown, he 
now enters the arena for championship with the armies of 
heaven — the achievements of the Gods, crowned with the 
laurels of eternity, everlasting glory, honor and eternal lives. 
Not to be armed with carnal weapons, and to be decked with 
glittering badges and costly equipage, to march forth in the 
pomp and pride of battle array, for the shedding of , human 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 7 

blood: but to go "forth without purse or scrip," clothed in 
the power of the Gospel of the Son of God, wielding the 
sword of the Spirit of the Almighty, he now takes the field 
to battle with the powers of darkness, priestcraft, superstition, 
and wickedness, until the kingdoms of this world shall 
become the kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. 

In my brother's journal I find the following incidents 
recorded by himself: 

I was baptized by Elder John Boynton, then one of the 
Twelve Apostles, June, 1836, in Kirtland, Ohio. Previous to 
accepting the ordinance of baptism, in my investigations of 
the principles taught by the Latter-day Saints, which I proved, 
by comparison, to be the same as those mentioned in the New 
Testament taught by Christ and His Apostles, I was thoroughly 
convinced that obedience to those principles would impart 
miraculous powers, manifestations and revelations. With 
sanguine expectation of this result, I received baptism and 
the ordinance of laying on of hands by one who professed to 
have divine authority; and, having thus yielded obedience to 
these ordinances, I was in constant expectation of the fulfil- 
ment of the promise of the reception of the Holy Ghost. 

The manifestation did not immediately follow my bap- 
tism, as I had expected, but, although the time was deferred, 
when I did receive it, its realization was more perfect, tangible 
and miraculous than even my strongest hopes had led me to 
anticipate. 

Some two or three weeks after I was baptized, one day 
while engaged in my studies, I began to reflect upon the fact 
that I had not obtained a knowledge of the truth of the work — 
that I had not realized the fulfilment of the promise "he that 
doeth my will shall know of the doctrine," and I began to 
feel very uneasy. I laid aside my books, left the house, and 
wandered around through the fields under the oppressive 
influence of a gloomy, disconsolate spirit, while an indes- 
cribable cloud of darkness seemed to envelop me. I had 



8 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

T 

been accustomed, at the close of the day, to retire for secret 
prayer, to a grove a short distance from my lodgings, but at 
this time I felt no inclination to do so. The spirit of prayer 
had departed and the heavens seemed like brass over my 
head. At length, realizing that the usual time had come for 
secret prayer, I concluded I would not forego my evening' 
service, and, as a matter of formality, knelt as I was in the 
habit of doing, and in my accustomed retired place, but not 
feeling as I was wont to feel. 

I had no sooner opened my lips in an effort to pray, than 
I heard a sound, just above my head, like the rustling of 
silken robes, and immediately the Spirit of God descended 
upon me, completely enveloping my whole person, filling me, 
from the crown of my head to the soles of my feet, and O, the 
joy and happiness I felt! No language can describe the 
almost instantaneous transition from a dense cloud of mental 
and spiritual'darkness into a refulgence of light and knowl- 
edge, as it was at that time imparted to my understanding. 
I then received a perfect knowledge that God lives, that Jesus 
Christ is the Son of God, and of the restoration of the holy 
Priesthood, and the fulness of the Gospel. It was a complete 
baptism — a tangible immersion in the heavenly principle or 
element, the Holy Ghost; and even more real and physical in 
its effects upon every part of my system than the immersion 
by water; dispelling forever, so long as reason and memory 
last, all possibility of doubt or fear in relation to the fact 
handed down to us historically, that the "Babe of Bethlehem" 
is truly the Son of God; also the fact that He is now being 
revealed to the children of men, and communicating knowl- 
edge, the same as in the Apostolic times. I was perfectly sat- 
isfied, as well I might be, for my expectations were more than 
realized, I think I may safely say in an infinite degree. 

I cannot tell how long I remained in the full flow of the 
blissful enjoyment and divine enlightenment, but it was 
several minutes before the. celestial element which filled and 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 9 

surrounded nie began gradually to withdraw. On arising 
from my kneeling posture, with my heart swelling with grati- 
tude to God, beyond the power of expression, I felt — I knew 
that He had conferred on me what only an omnipotent being 
can confer — that which is of greater value than all the wealth 
and honors worlds can bestow. That night, as I retired to 
rest, the same wonderful manifestations "were repeated, and 
continued to be for several successive nights. The sweet 
remembrance of those glorious experiences, from that time to 
the present, bring them fresh before me, imparting an inspir- 
ing influence which pervades my whole being, and I trust will 
to the close of my earthly existence. 



CHAPTER II. 

A Blessing Meeting. — Lorenzo's Opinion of the Patriarch. — The Patriarch's 
Marvelous Prediction. — Lorenzo is Puzzled. — Explained to him by- 
Revelation. — Lorenzo in Kirtland. — Fast-day Meetings. — Outpouring of 
the Spirit. — Gifts Manifested. — Lorenzo's First Speech from the Pulpit. — 
Description of the Temple. — Fast Meetings. — A Striking Incident. — 
Effect of the Meetings on Lorenzo's Mind.— Wants to Preach.— Is 
Ordained an Elder. 

iEING present at a "Blessing Meeting," in the Temple, 
previous to his baptism into the Church; after listen- 
ing to several patriarchal blessings pronounced upon 
the heads of different individuals with whose history he was 
acquainted, and of whom he knew the Patriarch was entirely 
ignorant; he was struck with astonishment to hear the pecu- 
liarities of those persons positively and plainly referred to in 
their blessings. And, as he afterwards expressed, he was con- 
vinced that an influence, superior to human prescience, dic- 
tated the words of the one who officiated. 




10 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

The Patriarch was the father of Joseph, the Prophet. 
That was the first time Lorenzo had met him. After the 
services, they were introduced, and Father Smith said to my 
brother that he would soon be convinced of the truth of the 
latter-day work, and be baptized; and he said: "You will 
become as great as you can possibly wish — even as great as 
God, and you cannot wish to be greater." 

Unenlightened as his mind was at the time, the forego- 
ing saying of the Patriarch was a puzzle which my brother 
could not comprehend, as will be seen by the following expres- 
sion from his journal: 

The old gentleman's prediction, that I should ere long be 
baptized, was strange to me, for I had not cherished a thought 
of becoming a member 'of the "Mormon" Church; but when 
he uttered the last clause, I was confounded. That, to me, 
was a big saying, and, I then thought, approaching almost to 
blasphemy. And why not? After years of study and dili- 
gent search after knowledge, in that which most intimately 
concerned me — "From whence came I?" "Why am I 
here?" "What is my future destiny?" In all this, I was 
profoundly ignorant. As yet I had received no key that 
could unlock those mysteries — that could make known, 
to my satisfaction, my relationship to Him who controls the 
universe. 

I looked at Father Smith, and silently asked myself the 
question: Can that man be a deceiver? His every appear- 
ance answered in the negative. At first sight, his presence 
impressed me with feelings of love and reverence. I had 
never seen age so prepossessing. Father Joseph Smith, the 
Patriarch, was indeed a noble specimen of aged manhood. 

But with all my favorable impressions of the Patriarch, 
that big saying was a dark parable. The prediction that I 
should soon be baptized was fulfilled in two weeks from the 
time it was spoken, and in about four years from that time I 
was reminded of the foregoing prediction by a very wonder- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 11 

ful revelation on the subject in which the principle, as well 
as the promise, was made clear to my understanding as the 
sun at noonday. 

My brother spent most of the winter of 1837-8 in Kirt- 
land, where he witnessed many marvelous manifestations of 
the power of God; also exhibitions of the power and opposi- 
tion of the -adversary. During the time he became intimately 
acquainted with Joseph Smith, the Prophet, and with his 
father, the Patriarch — with the Twelve Apostles and other 
leading men in the Church. In his journal he speaks of the 
fast meetings, prayer and testimony meetings in the Temple, 
as follows: 

There we had the gift of prophecy — the gift of tongues — 
the interpretation of tongues — visions and marvelous dreams 
were related — the singing of heavenly choirs was heard, and 
wonderful manifestations of the healing power, through the 
administrations of the Elders, were witnessed. The sick were 
healed — the deaf made to hear — the blind to see and the lame 
to walk, in very many instances. It was plainly manifest 
that a sacred and divine influence — a spiritual atmosphere 
pervaded that holy edifice. Yes, indeed, for the Son of God, 
in His glory, had honored it with His royal presence. His 
voice, like the sound of many waters, was heard, saying: 

I am the first and the last, I am he who liveth', I am he that 
teas slain, lam your advocate with the Father. * * * Let 
the hearts of your brethren rejoice, and let the hearts of all my 
people rejoice, who have, ivith their might, built this house to my 
name. . 

For behold, I have accepted this house, and my name shall be 
here, and I will manifest myself to my people in mercy in this 
house, etc. (See Doctrine and Covenants.) 

No language can describe my feelings when, for the first 
time, I stood up in one of those pulpits to address an audi- 
ence — a pulpit on the breastwork of which, only a short time 
before, this holy Personage stood — "his hair as white as pure 



12 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

snow, his eyes as a flame of fire" — where also Moses, Elias and 
Elijah came and committed the keys of their dispensations to 
Joseph Smith. " (Here the journal closes for the present.) 

Public meetings were regularly held in ,the Temple, after 
its dedication, on Sundays; and on the first Thursday in each 
month a fast meeting, commencing at or before 10 a.m., and 
closing at 4 p.m. The Temple was so constructed, that with 
white canvas curtains, which could be dropped and raised at 
pleasure, the lower story was, whenever occasion required, 
divided into four sections or apartments. This was invariably 
done at those fast meetiugs. The two sets of pulpits, one on 
the east and the other on the west end of the building, were 
intersected by the curtain extending from east to west, so as 
to leave half their lengths in each apartment, and they were 
occupied by the presiding officers who directed the services. 
Thus four separate meetings were in session at the same time, 
without, in the least, interfering with each other — giving 
opportunity for four to exercise instead of one. 

On the aforementioned days, Father Smith (the Prophet's 
father) was in the habit of entering the Temple very early in 
the morning, and there offering up his prayers to God, in that 
holy place, before the rising of the sun, after having told the 
Saints, publicly, ,that they were welcome to come as early as 
they pleased. The result was that many assembled before the 
hour of 10 a.m., and did not leave till after 4 p.m. 

Father Smith, in the capacity of his calling as President, 
gave general counsel and instructions on fast day; recom- 
mending that the greater portion of the forenoon should be 
spent in prayer, with testimonies of manifestations of the 
power of God, and with exhortations to faithfulness. At 
about 3 p.m. he would order the curtains to be drawn up — 
bringing the four congregations into one, over which he then 
presided until the close of the meeting. 

The Saints were humble, and through our united faith, 
the Spirit of God was poured out in copious effusion, and, for 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 13 

one hour, we enjoyed pentecostal refreshings from on high. 
On these occasions the gifts of the Gospel were powerfully 
manifest — speaking and singing in tongues, the interpretation 
of tongues, the gift of healing and of prophecy, were freely 
exercised. These monthly fast meetings were so interesting, 
and so very enjoyable, "that people came long distances to 
attend them. 

At one of these meetings, an insane woman came into the 
quarter of the house where I had convened; she came before 
the opening services, and her tongue ran incessantly, making 
so much confusion as to render it improper, if not impossible, 
for the presiding Elder to commence religious services. The 
more she was coaxed and supplicated to be silent the more 
impetuous she became. At length, Elder John P. Greene, who 
was appointed to preside in that department, requested the 
congregation to kneel down -and all simultaneously pray to 
God, vocally, that the evil spirit which was actuating that 
woman might be bound. The request was immediately com- 
plied with," and when we arose from our kneeling position 
Brother Greene, addressing the unfortunate woman (who was 
then silent), said: "Sister, you may now speak, for thou wilt 
not speak unless thou shalt speak by the Spirit of God." She 
instantly arose to her feet, and, in a sputtering, stammering 
manner, tried to speak but could not, and flew out of the 
Temple like a dart, and we saw no more of her that day. 

I will relate one more remarkable circumstance which 
transpired in that interesting season — a circumstance which 
was not confined to either section of the Temple, but was wit- 
nessed by the many who were congregated on that day; and 
certainly all now living who were present on that occasion 
will remember. It is a testimony of answer to prayer that 
never can be forgotten. Father Smith presided over the meet- 
ing in the northwest section of the Temple, and after the meet- 
ing was opened by singing, he was -mouth in prayer, and in 
course of supplication he very earnestly prayed that the Spirit 



14 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

of God might be poured out as on the day of Pentecost — that 
it might come "as a rushing mighty wind." Some time after, 
in the midst of the exercises of the forenoon, it did come; and 
whether Father Smith had forgotten what he had prayed for, 
or whether in the fervency of his heart, when praying he did 
not realize what he prayed for, I never ascertained; but when 
the sound came and filled the house, with an expression of 
great astonishment he raised his eyes, exclaiming, "What! Is 
the house on fire?" But presently he comprehended the cause 
of his alarm, and was filled with unspeakable joy. 

In attending these meetings, and listening to the young 
Elders as they bore testimonies of their marvelous experiences 
in the work of God, my brother became inspired with a strong 
desire to engage at once in the labors of the ministry. On 
this subject he says: 

The testimonies of young missionaries as they rehearsed 
their experiences as laborers in the vineyard, proclaiming the 
joyful news that God was again speaking to His children on 
the earth ; that He had raised up a Prophet through whom He 
was communicating His will, and calling on all the inhab- 
itants of the earth to "repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at 
hand," stirred within me an irresistible desire to join in the 
glorious enterprise. 

About this time a proclamation of the First Presidency 
was given from the stand, inviting those who wished to 
become members of the Elders' Quorum to present their 
names," and if accounted worthy- by the Presidency, they 
should be ordained. With many others, I submitted my 
name for approval or otherwise, which is the only time in my 
life that I have offered my name for or solicited an office or 
calling. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 15 



CHAPTER III. ' 

My Brother started on Mission.— Without Purse or Scrip.— Hard work to 
Beg.— Affectionate Aunt.— First Meeting in Medina County, Ohio.— 
Baptisms. — Preaches in Court House. — Ludicrous Anecdote.— Visits 
Relatives.— Preaches to Schoolmates.— Baptizes some of them. 

<£ffl SHORT time after my ordination and reception into the 
JjA, Elders' quorum, i. e., early in the spring of 1837, I 
♦ shouldered my valise and started out like the ancient 
missionaries, "without purse or scrip," on foot and alone, to 
proclaim the restoration of the fulness of the Gospel of the 
Son of God, and to bear witness of what I had seen and 
heard, and of the knowledge I had received by the inspiration 
of the Holy Ghost. 

It was, however, a severe trial to my natural feelings of 
independence to go without purse or scrip — especially the 
purse; for, from the time I was old enough to work, the feel- 
ing that I "paid my way" always seemed a necessary adjunct 
to self respect, and nothing but a positive knowledge that God 
requiredit now, as He did anciently of His servants, the Dis- 
ciples of Jesus, could induce me to go forth dependent on my 
fellow creatures for the common necessaries of life. But my 
duty in this respect was clearly made known to me, and I 
determined to do it. 

I walked upwards of twenty miles the first day, and stayed 
over night with Mrs. Granger, my father's sister. She was a 
devoted Presbyterian, and a noble hearted woman; she 
thought very highly of my father's family, and that there 
must be something valuable in "Mormonism" or they would 
not have embraced it. She held me in so great esteem that 
she could not believe that I would suffer the same abuse, be 
maltreated and refused accommodation as other "Mormon" 



16 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

Elders. I differed in opinion, and told her I thought I need 
not expect to travel a smoother path than my brethren. The 
following morning I left my aunt and her hospitable roof, and 
traveled about thirty miles, and just as the sun was setting I 
made my lirst call for a night's lodging, as a "Mormon" Elder, 
and was refused; then another, and so on, until the eighth 
call, when I was admitted to a night's lodging — going to bed 
supperless, and leaving in the morning, minus a breakfast. . 

- The first meeting I held was in the neighborhood of my 
uncle, by the name of Goddard, near the county seat of 
Medina County, Ohio. The people were notified and a 
respectable congregation assembled. It was a sore trial to 
face that audience in the capacity of a preacher, but I 
believed and felt an assurance that a Spirit of inspiration 
would prompt and give me utterance. I had sought by 
prayer and fasting — I had humbled myself before the Lord, 
calling on Him in mighty prayer to impart the power and 
inspiration of the holy Priesthood; and when I stood before 
that congregation, although I knew not one word I could say, 
as soon as I opened my mouth to speak, the Holy Ghost 
rested mightily upon me, filling my mind with light and 
communicating ideas and proper language by which to 
impart them. The people were astonished and requested 
another meeting. 

After the second meeting the court house was offered me, 
which I accepted, and had a very interesting time, and was 
treated very courteously by several of the officials. I bap- 
tized and confirmed into the Church my uncle, aunt and 
several of my cousins, of whom Adaline was one, who after- 
wards became my wife. , 

I traveled and preached during the following summer 
and autumn, in different parts of Ohio, baptizing quite a 
number — always traveling on foot, "without purse or scrip," 
and often meeting with trying and sometimes amusing cir- 
cumstances. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 17 

When at the house of Brother Smith, in Stark County, 
Ohio, I dreamed one night that arrangements were in pro- 
gress to mob me. The following evening 'after I had the 
dream, as T sat conversing with friends who had called on 
me, a loud rap at the door preceded the entrance of two well 
dressed young men, who politely invited me to accompany 
them to a school house about one mile distant, and address an 
audience already assembled. After a little hesitation on my 
part, they began to urgently request my acceptance of their 
invitation, when the dream of the preceding night instanta- 
neously flashed across my mind, and I told them that I could 
not comply with their wishes. They still persisted to urge 
and insist on my accompanying them. When they were con- 
vinced that I was immovable in my determination of non- 
compliance, they not only manifested disappointment, but 
were exceedingly angry. 

The next day I learned that they told the truth so far as 
a congregated audience waiting my appearance at the school 
house was concerned, but the object was entirely different 
from that reported by the young men — it corresponded pre- 
cisely with my dream. 

On one occasion (having been joined by Brother A. But- 
terfield) I called at a hotel for our night's lodging, I think, in 
Stark County, Ohio. As we approached the house, we saw 
the landlord standing upon the porch. Accosting him, I told 
him we were Mormon preachers, traveling as the Elders in 
former times, and asked him if* he would be so kind as to 
accommodate us with supper and a night's lodging. He very 
gruffly refused, saying he kept travelers for their money — not 
for Gospel pay; and advised us to go home, get employment, 
earn money, then give him a call, and he would be happy to 
entertain us. I replied that inasmuch as he had met our 
request with a decided refusal, we would bid him a good 
evening. But as I was turning to go, it forcibly occurred to 
me to say something further. Therefore, I said to. him, My 

3 



18 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

friend, it is not our wish to crowd ourselves upon you, but we 
think it might be well for you to know the fact that two ser- 
vants of God have called upon you for a supper and night's 
lodging, which you have thought proper to refuse. The 
future results of what you have done you do not now know; 
but we know, and a time will come when you also will 
know. When that Scripture is fulfilled which says, "When 
the Son of Man shall come in His glory, and all the holy 
angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His 
glory: and before Him shall be gathered all nations: and He 
shall separate them as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the 
goats." "Then shall the King say unto them on His right 
hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom 
prepared for you from the foundation of the world, for I was 
hungry, and ye fed me; I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink; 
I was a stranger, and ye took me in: naked, and ye clothed 
me." "Then shall the righteous say, Lord, when saw we 
Thee hungry and fed Thee? Or when saw we Thee a stranger 
and took Thee in? Then shall the King say to them, Inas-. 
much as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my 
brethren, ye have done it unto me." When this event takes 
place, you will be there with us, and you will then know that 
we were the servants of God, commissioned to preach His 
Gospel, and when engaged in this work, we asked you to 
administer to our necessities, and you turned us away. This 
is all I wished to say: we will now .go. Good night. 

The gentleman seemed struck with amazement, and at a 
loss what to say or do. We had not proceeded far, however, 
before our ears were saluted with "Stop, gentlemen, hold on — 
you need not go off mdd — your talk is all stuff and nonsense: 
but you have plenty of money, I'll be bound. Turn back, 
gentlemen, walk in — walk in." Of course, we turned back 
and walked in, and were invited to sit down to a good supper, 
after which the neighbors were called in, who, with" the land- 
lord and family, listened- attentively and with apparent 



. AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 19 

interest to our preaching. We had excellent lodging and a 
good breakfast in the morning, and left without a question 
whether we had money or not. 

The journal continues: I had a strong desire to make 
known the way of life as God had revealed in plainness, to 
my relatives, friends and associates. For that purpose I vis- 
ited my native town and had the privilege of preaching in 
the school houses, and was offered the town house, in which I 
met a large audience, and had the pleasure of addressing 
many of my school fellows and the neighbors of my parents, 
among whom I had been associated from childhood. How 
muchsoever I craved the privilege, and hailed with gratitude 
to God this opportunity, it was a trying position. I was well 
aware that the principles of the everlasting Gospel, which I 
estimated dearer than my mortal life, were in contrast to the 
creeds of the day, to which many of my friends adhered with 
unyielding tenacity. I was listened to. with respectful atten- 
tion, and although many of my audience acknowledged their 
belief in my sincerity; with few exceptions, my testimony 
was unheeded. I had the satisfaction, however, of baptizing 
some of my schoolmates, who bore testimony that they 
received a knowledge of the truth of the work by revelation, 
through the reception of the Holy Ghost. 

I addressed a large congregation in the meeting house, in 
the town of Aurora, adjoining my native town; also in 
Auburn, Geauga County, in a school house, mostly filled by 
my relatives — my grandfather, uncles, aunts, and cousins. 

While on this mission, I traveled in various parts of the 
State of Ohio, and during the time baptized many persons 
who have remained faithful to the truth. The Lord was with 
me, and I was greatly blessed in performing my arduous labors. 



20 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 



CHAPTER IV. 

A change — Great Apostacy. — Disaffection creeps into every Quorum. — Pride 
and speculation. — Apostates claim the Temple. — Warren Parrish a ring- 
leader.— A fearful, terrible scene in the Temple. — The scene described. — 

• What occurred the next Day.— Very interesting Court scene.— John 
Boynton portrayed. — Joseph and Sidney flee for their_ lives. — Father 
Smith served with State's Warrant. — How he escaped. — Luke Johnson 
befriends him. — Luke's death. 

^OURING the time my brother was on this, his first mission, 
TJrjl a great change had been going on in Kirtland, in the 

* midst of the Saints. A spirit of speculation had crept 
into the hearts of some of - the Twelve, and nearly, if not 
every quorum was more or less infected. Most of the Saints 
were poor, and now prosperity was dawning upon them — the 
Temple was completed, and in it they had been recipients of 
marvelous blessings, and many who had been humble and 
faithful to the performance of every duty — ready to go and 
come at every call of the Priesthood, were getting haughty in 
their spirits, and lifted up in the pride of their hearts. As 
the Saints drank in the love and spirit of the world, the Spirit 
of the Lord withdrew from their hearts, and they were filled 
with pride and hatred toward those who maintained their 
integrity. They linked themselves together in an opposing 
party — pretended that they constituted the Church, and 
claimed that the Temple belonged to them, and even attempted 
to hold it. 

Warren Parrish, who had been/ a humble, successful 
preacher of the Gospel, was the ringleader of this apostate 
party. One Sabbath morning, he, with several of his party, 
came into the Temple armed with pistols and bowie-knives, 
and seated themselves together in the Aaronic pulpits, on the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 21 

east end of the Temple, while Father Smith 'and others, as 
usual, occupied those of the Melchisedec Priesthood on the 
west. Soon after the usual opening services, one of the 
brethren on the west stand arose, and just after he commenced 
to speak, one on the east interrupted him. Father Smith, 
presiding, called to order — he told 'the apostate brother that 
he should have all the time he wanted, but he must wait his 
turn — as the brother on the west took the floor and commenced 
first to speak, he must not be interrupted. A fearful scene 
ensued — the apostate speaker becoming so clamorous, that 
Father Smith called for the police to take that man out of the 
house, when Parrish, John Boynton, and others, drew their 
pistols and bowie-knives, and rushed down from the stand 
into the congregation; J. Boynton saying he would blow out 
the brains of the first man who dared to lay hands on him. 
Many in the congregation, especially women and children, 
were terribly frightened — some tried to escape from the con- 
fusion by jumping out of the windows. Amid screams 
and shrieks, the policemen, in ejecting the belligerents, 
knocked down a stovepipe, which fell helter-skelter among 
the people; but, although bowie-knives and pistols were 
wrested from their owners, and thrown hither and thither 
to prevent disastrous results, no one was hurt, and after a 
short, but terrible scene to be enacted in a Temple of God, 
order was restored, and the services of the day proceeded as 
usual. 

But the next day Father Smith, and sixteen others, were 
arrested on complaint of the apostate party, charged with 
riot, and bound over for their appearance in court to answer 
to the charge. < "With others, I was subpoenaed as a witness, 
and I found the court scene as amusing as the Temple scene 
was appalling. The idea of such a man as Father Smith — so 
patriarchal in appearance — so circumspect in deportment and 
dignified in his manners, being guilty of riot, was at once 
ludicrous and farcical to all sane-minded persons. And after 



22 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

the four Gentile lawyers (two for each party) had expended 
their stock of wit, the court dismissed the case with "no cause 
for action," and Father Smith and his associates came off 
triumphant. 

• During the proceedings, it was very interesting to hear 
the lawyers for the defence describe the opposite traits of 
character exhibited in the lives and appearances of the men 
who had apostatized from what they were when faithful in the 
work of God. One of them, Mr. Bissell, of Painesville, Ohio, 
pointing to John Boynton, said: "Just look at Mr. Boynton, 
see how changed! Before he apostatized, we used to see him 
in Painesville — he then was humble, and seemed truly a 
follower of the meek and lowly Jesus; but how does he seem 
now? all puffed up with pride. He looks more like a celestial 
dandy than a Saint." 

Five of the quorum of the Twelve were in this apostacy; 
and some in every organized quorum became disaffected. 
Wherever the spirit of speculation — a grasping for the things 
of the world — obtained, the light of the Spirit of God departed, 
and impenetrable darkness ensued. Some even became so 
blind as to seek to depose the Prophet of God. At length 
the hostility of the belligerent party assumed such threatening 
attitude that, late in the autumn of 1837, Joseph Smith and 
Sidney Rigdon had to flee for their lives; and at a moment's 
warning, started for Missouri. But their absence did not check 
the persecution waged by those apostate brethren — others 
became the targets of their malice. Through their influence, 
the aged Father Smith was served with a State's warrant, but 
fortunately for him he was placed in the custody of Luke 
Johnson, who, although one of the apostates, was averse to the 
bitter spirit of persecution which characterized others. 
Naturally of a jovial turn, he was more inclined to ridicule 
than hostility. Having been somewhat conversant with law 
usages, he volunteered his services as legal adviser for Father 
Smith, although his custodian. He privately told Father 



AUTOBIOGKAPHY. 23 

Smith's friends that the suit was instigated through malice — 
that he knew Father' Smith was innocent, and he was 
determined to do all he could for him; and he was true to 
his word. 

A room adjoining the one in which the court was in 
session, was lighted by one window. Before Father Smith 
was brought for trial, Mr. Johnson had examined the 
premises, and under the aforesaid window, on the outside, he 
had cautiously made preparation so that the old gentleman 
could reach the ground without injury. Before the court 
proceeded to business, Mr. Johnson said he would like a few 
minutes private conversation with his client. Permission was 
granted for him to take the prisoner into the room aforemen- 
tioned. When in, he drew the nail which was the only 
fastening to the window — raised the window, and said to 
Father Smith, "Go right up to Esquire Snow's— he is a qujet 
man, and no one will think of going there for you." The old 
gentleman did his bidding, and came directly to our father's, 
who had purchased a home in Kirtland, and was living a 
mile and a quarter distant from the court scene; when 'he 
arrived, it was nearly midnight. 

Mr. Johnson replaced the nail in the window, and, after 
giving Father Smith time to clear the premises, proceeded to 
the court room, where he soon discovered that his client had 
not followed him; whereupon he hurried back to the room 
to see what was detaining him. After hunting about there a 
short time, he came back to the court room, apparently very 
much disconcerted, and reported the unaccountable fact that 
the prisoner was not tobe found. After close search by those 
present, who found the nail fastening in the window all right, 
the question was, ''How did he make his escape?" The 
constable, who manifested the greatest astonishment of all 
present, finally settled the question by saying, "It is another 
Mormon miracle." 

Father Smith remained* between two and three weeks at 



24 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

our father's house, "hid up" from his enemies; but during the 
time, with the legal assistance of the justice of the peace (an 
honorable Gentile), he arranged his business matters prepara- 
tory to leaving for the west. Before he left, he was joined by 
six others, whose lives were threatene'd by apostates. 

Before closing this subject, I think a further notice is due 
the unantagonistic apostate, Luke Johnson. I happened to 
meet him the day after the scene in the court room — he 
enquired after his released prisoner, and after hearing that 
he reached his destination all right, he, in a jocose manner, 
related the foregoing circumstances, and closed with, "Father 
Smith will bless me for "it, all the days of his life." To which, 
when I repeated it to Father Smith on my return home, he 
replied in the affirmative; and Luke Johnson is the only one 
of those five Apostles that returned to the Church. He was 
re-baptized, and lived a faithful member — was much 
respected, and died an honorable death in the midst of his 
friends, in Salt Lake City. 



CHAPTER V. 

Leave KirtlancL— Grand Entertainment.— A noble Woman.— Lorenzo drives 
one Team.— He is very Sick.— Arrive in Far West, Missouri.— Elder 
Rigdon's Kindness. — Dr. Avord's Meanness. — His Nurse, Nightwatcher 
and Doctor.— An Incident.— Arrive in Adam-ondi-Ahman.— Lorenzo 
takes his Gun and goes out to Hunt. — A new Train of Reflections. — 
Hunting for Sport.— The old Settlers.— Their Antagonism.— Preparation 
for Defense. — False Alarm explained. 

'OWARDS the last of April, 1838, our father left Kirt- 
land with twenty-one souls in company, to wit: his 
own family, consisting of his wife, two daughters, three 
sons, and two grand-daughters, children of our eldest sister 
who was at this time a widow; Brother Huntington and 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. , 25 

family; Brother James Moses and family; Brother Pearce and 
family, and Julian Moses, brother to James. We started 
with horse and ox teams, my brother Lorenzo having charge 
of one of our father's teams, which he drove until about one 
hundred miles from Far West, Missouri, when he was taken 
very sick with bilious fever. - 

On our first night out from Kirtland, our whole company 
stopped, in accordance with a previous pressing invitation, 
with one of our father's sisters, Mrs. Charlotte S. Granger. 
Had we been a bridal party we could not have been treated 
with more respect, or served more bountifully, although we 
were "Mormons" and she a popular Presbyterian. She was too 
noble minded to be a bigot. She and her husband are dead. 
Lorenzo has been baptized for her husband — I for her, and 
we have had the sealing ordinances performed in their behalf. 

Our journey from Kirtland to Far West was rendered 
tedious in consequence of rainy weather. We arrived in Far 
West on the sixteenth of July, with my brother very sick in 
bed. For nearly one hundred miles he suffered such a rack- 
ing pain in his head that when we traveled I held it as steady 
as possible to prevent excruciating suffering being produced 
by the motion of the wagon. On our arrival in Far. West, 
Elder Pigdon met us and requested our father to take my sick 
brother to his house, which was gratefully accepted, and I 
was to stop with him, as Adam-ondi-Ahmari, thirty miles dis- 
tant, was father's destination; and as he had considerable 
stock which he could not keep in Far West, he started out 
the next morning, to return for us when Lorenzo should have 
so far recovered as to be able to ride that distance. Dr. 
Avord, who afterwards made himself' notorious as an unscru- 
pulous apostate, spent most of his time sitting under an 
awning in front of Elder Rigdon's house, and as I was under' 
the necessity of obtaining some medicine for my brother, as a 
matter of convenience I applied to him, at the same time 
endeavoring to make him understand that it was the medi- 



26 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

cine I wanted, and not his medical attendance; but come he 
would, and continued to come. My brother grew worse — the 
fever increased until he became 'quite delirious, and I deter- 
mined to get rid of Avord, and to accomplish this desirable 
yet disagreeable task, I asked him for his bill as kindly and 
politely as possible. The idea struck him at once that this 
request signified non-attendance, and he was very angry and 
tried to frighten me concerning my brother's condition, by 
telling me that his skill was needed more then than when he 
first saw the patient. I tried to be as pacific as possible, but 
thought that this concession did not recommend him to fur- 
ther attendance. However, when the doctor found me un- 
yielding, he presented his bill, and although sitting in front of 
the house day after day, he neither called in to see nor inquire 
after the sick man. I realized that the family of Elder Rig- 
don, himself included, at that time had more faith in medical 
treatment than in the healing ordinances, and they all 
thought me to blame for discharging the physician. But my 
trust was in God, the prayer of faith, and good, sisterly 
nursing. As soon as the fever- abated, my brother's conscious- 
ness returned, and in two weeks from the time father left us 
he was sufficiently restored, was sent for, and' we took a pleas- 
ant wagon ride to Adam-ondi-Ahman, Daviess County, 
although my brother had to ride on a bed. 

. I will here mention one little incident with which con- 
valescents, many of them, will sympathize. As his fever 
began to break, my brother tried to think of something he 
could relish, and his memory went back to college associa- 
tions and college scenes, and to one college dish. At one time 
while attending college, he and three of his fellow students 
took it into their heads to try the novelty of bachelor board- 
ing, each taking his turn in the cooking department. One 
particular dish, which at that time was relished very exquis- 
itely, now haunted my brother's recollection — if he had a dish 
precisely like that he felt certain he could eat. His sister at 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 27 

that time, was his only nurse and night watcher, for the 
people of the house were so displeased with me for dis- 
charging the doctor that they were but little disposed to assist, 
and I was as little disposed to trouble them, although in 
every other respect they were hospitable and kind, and in fact 
for years had been quite pa'rtial to our family. But the dish ; 
it must be precisely after the pattern, and could I do it? Cer- 
tainly; for "what 'has been done can be done," and I am not 
afraid to try. The ingredients, as he named them, were all at 
my command, and, after listening anxiously to his descrip- 
tion, I went to work and a dish was produced, but alas! it 
was not the dish — "it did not taste like the bachelor dish." 
Try, try again, was my motto, and after listening attentively 
to a more critical description, I went at it again, and although 
that effort was a pronounced improvement on the first, it was 
not quite up to the original, but the third time trying proved 
a success — not so much from improvement in the skill of the 
cook as improvement in the appetite of the patient. 

The following is copied from his journal: In Adam- 
ondi-Ahman, while gradually recovering from the effects 
of a malignant' fever which had detained me a fortnight 
in Far West, under the constant and skilful nursing of 
my sister Eliza, for some time I was unable to either do, 
or read much. One day, to while away the slowly passing 
hours, I took my gun with the intention of indulging in a 
little amusement in hunting turkeys, with which that section 
of the country abounded. From boyhood I had been particu- 
larly, and I may say strangely attached to a gun. Hunting, 
in the forests of Ohio, was a pastime that to me possessed the 
most fascinating attractions. It never occurred to my mind 
that it was wrong — that indulging in "what was sport to me 
was death to them;" that in shooting turkeys, squirrels, etc., I 
was taking life that' I could not give; therefore I indulged in 
the murderous sport without the least compunction of con- 
science. 



28 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

But at this time a change came over me. While moving 
slowly forward in pursuit of something to kill, my mind was 
arrested with-the reflection on the nature of my pursuit — that 
of amusing myself by giving pain and death to harmless, 
innocent creatures that perhaps had as much right to life and 
enjoyment as myself. I realized that such indulgence was 
-without any justification, and "feeling condemned, I laid my 
gun on my shoulder, returned home, and from that time to 
this have felt no inclination for that murderous amusement. 
In fact, years had. elapsed since the days of boyhood sport, 
and in the interval I had neither time nor opportunity for 
reckless indulgence. Education, the leading star of my youth, 
had so entirely engrossed my ambition that, until the Gospel 
of the Lord Jesus took possession of my mind, it was the 
genii before which everything else had to bow; then, almost 
simultaneously, missionary labors succeeded book studies, and 
no room was left for sportive scenes. 

A spirit of mobocracy, which had previously manifested 
itself, was continually on the increase all around us, and very 
naturally suggested to our minds the thought of preparation 
for defense. The house we lived in, with the plantation on 
which it stood, father purchased on his arrival, and paid for 
in full. It was a "double log house," with an alley about 
three feet wide between the two. In this alley our faithful 
watchdog was stationed, and we knew that no intruder could 
possibly reach either door before the dog would give an alarm, 
which, so far, was very satisfactory. But, to our deep regret, 
the mobocrats, finding the dog out of sight of the house, shot 
him down. He had, by his affectionate faithfulness, so won 
our love and confidence that he almost seemed one of the 
family — we sincerely mourned his loss, and I assisted my 
brothers in giving him a formal burial. 

Amid the threatenings of mobocrats' to either drive or 
destroy us, a circumstance occurred, which, though seriously 
exciting at the time, afterwards afforded us much amusement. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 29 

One night at about 11 o'clock, we all were suddenly aroused 
from sleep by the discharge of fire arms, accompanied with 
loud shouts, apparently about a mile distant. We supposed 
that our enemies had commenced their depredations by put- 
ting their threats into execution, and were making an attack 
on our people, and the probability was that they would visit 
us in turn. We immediately began to prepare for defense by 
barricading the doors and windows, and distributing among 
all the members of the family such weapons for protection as 
were available, viz: one sword, two or three guns, pitchforks, 
axes, shovels and tongs, etc. We proposed that mother take / 
her choice, and she thought that she could do the best execu- 
tion with the shovel. With no small degree of anxiety, not 
only for ourselves, but also in behalf of our friends situated 
at the point from which the exciting sounds proceeded, we 
kept up a sleepless watch until morning, when' intelligence 
was brought, explaining the cause of the night alarm, as fol- 
lows: A company of our brethren had been to a distant settle- 
ment to accomplish some business requisite in consequence of 
threatened mob violence, and on their return, having peace- 
fully and successfully accomplished their object, discharged 
their fire arms, accompanied with a shout expressive of their 
happy success — resulting in our false alarm and subsequent 
amusement. 



30 . AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 



' CHAPTER VI. 

Wants to go on Mission. — Elder Butterfield wishes to accompany him. — 
They go.— Arrive in Far West on the second day. — Father Smith blesses 
Lorenzo. — Blindness of Thomas B. Marsh. — Leave Far West. — Meet a 
camp of Brethren at the Missouri River. — Construct a craft. — Started in 
snow storm down the river.— Perilous times. — Narrow escapes. — A 
savage band. — Make their escape.— Find camping place in peace. — 
Leave the boat and travel on foot. — Get lodging at the house of a 
Mobocrat. — Mobocratic narrative. — A Campbellite Preacher's Polite- 
ness. — Courtesy of a Methodist Preacher. — A crowded house. — A Dona- 
tion just in time. — Saved from a Mob by his pocket Bible. — Other 
Mobocrats foiled. 
••. 

'HE journal speaks: About the first of October of this 
year (1838), the spirit of my missionary calling pressed 
* so heavily upon my mind, that I longed to engage in 
its labors. Elder Abel Butterfield, who had accompanied me 
on a mission in Ohio, proposed to be my traveling companion 
at this time, and although not having yet fully recovered 
from the effects of my summer sickness, and had not strength 
sufficient to endure much fatigue, I felt that I must go. My 
father and others thought it not prudent, but my trust was in 
God, and I felt an assurance that He would give me strength 
and restore me to soundness of health sooner if I went forth 
depending on Him, than 'if I remained at home. Accord- 
ingly, with the necessary books and a few underclothes 
packed in my valise, I bid adieu to father, mother, brothers 
and sisters, and, with Brother Butterfield, started forth to 
proclaim the word of the Lord to those who had ears to 
hear. At first I could only walk a short distance before I 
was compelled to sit down and rest, but my ability to walk 
gradually increased until I was perfectly restored. 

The second day after we started, we arrived in Far West, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 31 

where we stopped a short time to visit our friends. Father 
Smith, the Patriarch, gave us his blessing and much good 
fatherly counsel, and expressed much sympathy for us in 
connection with our mission through the southern part of 
Missouri, the immediate field of our prospective labors. At 
that time the excitement "against the Latter-day Saints had 
been fanned to fever heat in every part of the State, conse- 
quently it was more than probable that we should meet with 
abuse and have to submit to many hardships. 

In going the rounds in Far West, we called on Elder 
Thomas B. Marsh, then President of the Quorum of the 
Twelve. I think at that time he was indulging a spirit of 
apostacy, which, not long after, culminated in his severance 
from the Church. In our conversation with him, our spirits 
and his did not intermingle, and he seemed utterly blind in 
relation to the condition of things and the spirit of the times.. 
He expressed unbounded charity for our enemies — said he 
did not think they intended us much harm — they were not 
naturally inclined to wickedness, etc. It is a noticeable fea- 
ture in those who cherish a spirit of apostacy from the light of 
the Gospel, that they adopt the doctrine of Universalism 
and think none too wicked for a complete and unconditional 
salvation. 

On leaving Far West, we directed our course to the Mis- 
souri River, .where we found a camp of our brethren, some of 
whom were intending to go down the river and return to their 
homes, somewhere in the southern part' of the State. We 
joined together in constructing a kind of water-craft — it was 
not a canoe, neither a skiff or raft, and to name it a boat would 
be preposterous; but, whatever its proper cognomen, its capa- 
city was sufficient to accommodate five men, and, on the sev- 
enteenth of October, in the midst of a heavy fall of snow, we 
launched it, and started on a most perilous passage down the 
turbid waters of a turbulent river. At that season of the year 
the stream was very low, and frequently through the day we 



32 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

experienced much difficulty in following the channel. We 
took turns in rowing, and, as night approached, we began in 
sober earnest' to look out for a suitable landing, but were 
forced to continue on until it was quite dark, when we were 
every moment in danger of being upset by "sawyers," for we 
could hardly discern them in time to shun them. Those 
"sawyers" were trees or parts of trees — one end firmly 
' embedded in the bottom of the stream, while the other end, 
by the motion and pressure of the current, was constantly 
vaccillating up and down, often swiftly and powerfully. 

We met with several narrow escapes, and anxiously 
watched for a place of landing. At length we espied upon 
the bank a bright light, to which we directed our course, and, 
much to our relief, were enabled to bring our little bark 
safely to land, and after securing it, we climbed up the bank, 
and directly found ourselves in the presence of rough, savage 
looking fellows, who told us they were hunters and trappers; 
but their appearance and conversation, and the whisperings 
of the Spirit, impressed us at once with the feeling that there 
was more safety on the river, searching our way amid the 
threatening "sawyers," than in remaining through the night 
in such forbidding company. Accordingly we again em- 
barked, and pushed into the fluctuating stream. It was very 
dark, and as we cautiously wended our way, our ears were 
ever and anon saluted with the fearful sounds of the dashing 
"sawyers" ahead. It was prudent to keep as close to the bank 
as possible, in order to avail ourselves of the first opportunity 
to secure a landing. 

We had one man at the bow to watch for "sawyers," 
while the others kept a vigilant look out for a place to haul 
up. The dense darkness of the stormy night prevented us 
discovering danger until we were on the point of being envel- 
oped in it, and in several instances, our escape seemed truly 
miraculous. At last our perilous night voyage terminated, 
having drifted into a swift current which fortunately forced 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 33 

us upon a low place in the bank, covered with willows, briers 
and thorns, through which, after having fastened our bark, 
we made our way, and soon reached a very welcome camping 
ground, in .the midst of a thick grove of small timber. We 
were not long in starting a rousing fire, and having taken 
from our little bark the provision we brought along, we did 
justice to a hearty meal, while the gratitude of our hearts 
arose in evening incense to Him, the Giver of all good, to 
whom we ascribed our safe deliverance. After vocally and 
unitedly returning thanks to Him for His miraculous provi- 
dence in preserving us from the perils of the night, we spread 
our blankets, couched down and enjoyed refreshing sleep, 
with occasional interruptions by the wonderful clamor of 
•seemingly thousands upon thousands of wild geese, which 
had gathered upon an island in the river, a short distance 
from our camp. 

The following morning we were struck with astonish- 
ment, as we viewed, by the light of day, the river below us 
thickly dotted with sand-bars and bristling "sawyers," there 
being, apparently, no possible chance of having proceeded one 
dozen yards farther without steering nearly a direct course to 
the opposite bank of the stream, which, with our ignorance 
of the circumstances, and the darkness of the night, would 
naturally have resulted very disastrously. 

After this brief but impressive experience in the labors 
and dangers in traveling on this celebrated river, we concluded 
to abandon our boat and proceed on foot. In carrying out 
this programme, the first night after leaving the river, we 
called at a gentleman's house and asked for a night's lodging," 
without making ourselves known as "Mormons." We were 
very kindly entertained by our host, whom we soon discovered 
was a bitter mobocrat, and had acted the part of leader of a 
mob in raiding one of our settlements. He was very wealthy, 
and had with him, as guest, a rich southern planter, who told 
us that he, as neutral, accompanied his friend, the captain of 

4 



34 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

the mob above mentioned, and he narrated the particulars of 
the fight, and its termination. He said that the two parties 
met and fought with desperation. He sheltered himself 
behind a large tree which was struck by "Mormon" bullets, 
several times. At length a parley was held, and a council 
between the leaders of the parties, in which the "Mormons" 
agreed to abandon their location. Our host and his friend 
said they justified the manner in which they were expelling 
the "Mormons," only on the ground that they were mostly 
Yankees, and opposed to slavery, and they feared that by 
settling in the State, the interest of the inhabitants, as slave- 
holders, would be infringed upon. We all listened with 
respectful attention, but those gentlemen' little thought who 
composed their audience, and they knew not our thoughts 
and .the feelings of our hearts. 

The next day we parted with our brethren who came 
down the river with us, Brother Butterfield and I traveling 
together and holding neighborhood meetings. We made the 
acquaintance of a Campbellite preacher, who became so much 
interested with the principles we taught, that he invited us to 
attend his conference, and I had a very enjoyable time in ' 
preaching to his congregation. But opportunities for preach- 
ing, in that time of excitement and belligerent feeling toward 
our people, did not often come when unsought, and very fre- 
quently not then. The many false reports in circulation 
against us were so' exasperating the feelings of the people in 
that section, that the spirit of mobocracy was everywhere 
manifesting itself ; in many instances it really assumed the 
appearance of a species of insanity. Our main object was, by 
giving correct information, to disabuse the minds of those we 
gained access to, and allay the feverish sentiment of bitter- 
ness. Whenever we succeeded in securing the attention of 
people,- to listen to our testimonies, we were pretty sure of 
their confidence. We held meetings in several places where 
we were threatened, and in one instance preached to a con- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 35 

gregation in which were those who had come expressly to 
mob us, but on seeing and hearing us, had changed their 
minds, and at the close of the meeting, came and made their 
acknowledgments. 

Finding, after continued efforts, that very little good 
could be accomplished while excitement was running at so 
high pitch, and the mob spirit so rampant, we concluded to 
leave the State of Missouri until it cooled off from its fer- 
mented condition. Brother Butterfield took for his field of 
labor the northern sections of Indiana and Illinois, while I 
continued my course through Missouri, the southern portion 
of Illinois, and into Kentucky. 

Just before leaving the State, as I approached a beautiful 
little village, called Jacksonville, I felt an anxiety to preach 
to the people, and yet felt that it would not be proper to 
make myself known as a "Mormon" Elder. Just as I arrived 
at the suburbs of the town, I accosted a stranger whom I met, 
and desired him to inform me who was the principal min- 
ister in the place. He told me the minister's name, and said 
he was a Methodist, directing me to his residence. On my 
arrival at the house, a very fine and intelligent appearing 
lady responded to the door-bell, and informed me that her 
husband was not at home. I told her I was a minister of the 
Gospel — a stranger in that part of the country — that I wished 
to stop in town over night, and desired to improve the oppor- 
tunity of preaching to the people, if a suitable house could 
be obtained. "To what religious persuasion do you hold, 
sir?" was the first inquiry. "I wish, madam," said I, "this 
evening, to speak to a promiscuous congregation, embracing 
all classes of people, therefore, I had thought, on this particu- 
lar occasion, and for this special purpose, I would beg to sup- 
press the name of the religious denomination of which I am 
a minister; but," I continued, "I was christened Lorenzo, 
having been named as you see, madam, after the celebrated 
Lorenzo Dow." Her eyes lighted up, and her countenance 



36 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

assumed a pleasant smile; she invited me to walk in and be 
seated — said her husband would be in directly — that he had 
charge o£ the principal chapel, and would be delighted to 
accord to me its accommodations. The minister soon made 
his appearance, to whom I was introduced by his lady. The 
gentleman at once assented to my wishes — sent notice around 
of the meeting, and had the bell of his chapel rung long and 
loud. 

. That evening I had a large, appreciative audience, and 
spoke with great freedom; in fact, I seldom, if ever, enjoyed 
greater liberty than on that occasion. What my hearers 
thought of me or whom they imagined I was, or whence I 
came, or whither I was going, I am left in ignorance to this 
day, as I was not required to inform any of my audience, and 
of course was entirely reticent on those, points. I stayed over 
night with the minister, and after breakfast the next morn- 
ing, took my departure, no further questions having been 
asked in relation to my business or profession, excepting as 
shown in the following incident: - 

At this time, I was, as usual, traveling "without purse or 
scrip." I had proceeded two or three miles, when I noticed 
that just ahead of me the road 'forked, and being at a loss 
which to take, I called at a house a little in the distance, to 
inquire. A gentleman was standing on the porch, who, after 
satisfying my inquiry, with much apparent diffidence, asked 
if I was not a minister of the Gospel, and if I would not 
allow him the pleasure of contributing a little to aid in the 
good cause in which I was engaged, at the same time drawing 
from his pocket the willing offering, which I very thankfully 
accepted. Probably he was one of the audience at the meet- 
ing the evening before. No!: more than an hour later, I found 
myself in actual need of a portion of the kind gentleman's 
donation, for I soon came to a large stream where money was 
necessary to pay for ferryage. 

In passing through the southern portion of Illinois, I 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 6 I 

found, in general, very little interest manifest in reference to 
the principles of the fulness of the Gospel, but any amount 
of ignorance and prejudice. 

I spent the remainder of the winter in travel and preach- 
ing, chiefly in the northern part of Kentucky, with varied suc- 
cess, and treatment — sometimes received in the most courteous 
manner and listened to with intense interest, and, at other 
times, abusively and impudently insulted; but in no instance 
treated worse than was Jesus, whom I profess to follow. He 
said: "If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, 
how much more they of his household?" What a fine test the 
Gospel is, to prove the hearts of the people! On one occa- 
sion, I was very courteously tendered a court house, and at 
the close of the services, I was invited home by a member of 
the legislature — was seated at the head of his table, and other- 
wise as highly honored, and as hospitably treated, as though I 
had been a sceptered monarch. Then, on another occasion, 
one evening, I was preaching in a large room of a private 
house, and afterwards learned that a portion of my audience 
had gathered for the purpose of mobbing me. They had 
arranged with a party that lay concealed at a little distance, 
and within call, to join them immediately on my leaving 
the house to return to my lodgings, and all proceed together 
to execute their schemes of vengeance. It was a very cold 
night, and after the close of the services I stood with my back 
to the chimney fire, with a number of others — some of whom 
belonged to the mob party. One of the latter persons, amid 
the jostling of the crowd, accidentally brought his hand in 
contact with one of the pockets in the skirt of my coat, which 
struck him with sudden alarm on his feeling, what he sup- 
posed to be, a large pistol. He immediately communicated 
the discovery to his affrighted coadjutors, all of whom 
directly withdrew, and, to their fellows outside, imparted the 
astounding news that the "Mormon" Elder was armed with 
deadly weapons. That was sufficient — the would-be outlaws 



' 38 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

abandoned their evil designs for fear of signal punishment; 
but the supposed pistol which caused their alarm and my 
protection, was my pocket Bible, a precious gift to me from 
the dearly beloved Patriarch, Father Joseph Smith. 

Ou another occasion, while addressing a congregation in 
a dwelling house, in fulfilment of a previous arrangement by 
a lawless set, to throw a rope over my head and then drag me 
to the river and duck me through a hole in the ice, one of 
the fellows who was in front of me was in the act of throw- 
ing his lariat, when he was discovered by the mistress of the 
house, who instantly gave the alarm, and he sneaked out of 
the congregation like a whipped dog. 



CHAPTER VII. . 

Leaves Kentucky. — Travels on foot five hundred miles.— Reaches his friends 
in Ohio.— Through fatigue and exposure, is very sick. — Receives kind 
attention. — Traveled and preached. — Taught school. — Great effort, and 
great success. — A thrilling narrative. — Arrives in Nauvoo. — The Father 
and Family in LaHarpe. 

#N the last of February, 1839, I left the State of Ken- 
tucky with one dollar and twenty-five cents in my 
* pocket, to visit my former home in Ohio, and to 
settle up some unfinished business, having received, by letter 
from my sister Eliza, the news of the expulsion of our people 
from Missouri. The distance of the journey before me was 
about five hundred miles, and in the worst season of the year 
for traveling, and at a time when very little interest was felt 
by the people for Gospel truths, and few opportunities afforded 
for public preaching. The trip was a tedious one — on foot 
and in the midst of snow and rain storms — sometimes hard, 
frozen ground — sometimes mud and water soaking through 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 3^ 

my boots until my socks were wringing wet at night, and of 
course, hard and stiff in the morning when I was fortunate 
enough to get them dry. It was a hard pull, but I accom- 
plished the feat, and worn out by fatigue and exposure, I 
arrived anymg my friends in Ohio. 

The first place I reached was a Brother Smith's, where 
one year before I had performed missionary labors — preached 
and baptized, and, at his house, made my home. Fatigue and 
its consequences had so changed my appearance, that at first 
Brother Smith and family did not recognize me. As soon as 
recognized, and my condition known, every attention was 
extended that kindnefes could suggest, and everything done 
for. my comfort that warm hearts and willing hands could 
bestow. Then came a reaction of the overstraining of my 
physical powers, and with a burning fever, I was confined to 
my bed, and for days remained in a prostrate condition, when, 
through the kind ministrations of my friends and the bless- 
ing of God in the manifestations of His power, I soon 
recovered, and resumed my missionary labors. 

The summer and fall I spent principally traveling and 
preaching in the northern part of Ohio. In the winter of 
1839 and 1840, I was employed in teaching a district school 
in the township of Shalersville, Portage County, Ohio. The 
school was large, and its patrons all Gentiles with the excep- 
tion of one family. Previous to this time, the directors had 
been very unfortunate in the selection of teachers; conse- 
quently the .scholars were, in their studies, far behind 
adjacent schools. Here an opportunity presented for me to 
make a mark, and I determined to do it, and set myself to the 
arduous task of arousing and instilling intellectual life into 
the mentally dormant brain. I labored day and night to 
accomplish my purpose, i. c.,'to elevate my students to a 
higher standard of intellectual improvement. I succeeded, 
and before its close, my school had attained to such celebrity, 
that it was everywhere spoken of for its wonderful pro- 



40 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

gress, and as having outstripped all of the neighboring 
schools. 

But my extra exertions told seriously on my physical 
system, as the following little incident will illustrate: One 
evening I was in company with a gentleman whp was with 
Napoleon Bonaparte's army in its retreat from Moscow. He 
possessed peculiar descriptive powers, and portrayed so life- 
like the terrible scenes of suffering and death he had witnessed 
in that memorable defeat, that my mind was entirely absorbed, 
and my feelings and sympathies so aroused and carried along 
with him in his thrilling narrative, that my bodily strength 
was completely overcome, and I suddenly fainted and fell 
from my chair. This circumstance admonished mc of the 
necessity of rest, of which I availed myself, and soon 
regained my usual health. 

After having arranged my secular affairs, I took leave of 
my friends and kindred in Ohio, and started for Nauvoo, 
where I arrived about the first of May, 1840. I found my 
parents, brothers and sisters, whom I had left about eighteen 
months before, in Adam-ondi-Ahman, living in LaHarpe, 
about thirty miles from Nauvoo. 0, what changes, priva- 
tion, hardship and suffering, the cruel hand of persecution 
had produced in those eventful months! But God was with 
His people, and they knew in whom they trusted, and in the 
midst of severe trials, rejoiced that they were counted worthy 
to suffer for the truth's sake. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 41 




CHAPTER VIII. 

In Di-Ahman. — Our father's purchases.— Friendliness of the "old settlers." 
— A spirit of hostility prevalent. — Millers would not grind our wheat. — 
Grating corn for our bread. — How we cooked the grated meal. — A 
strange move; the old settlers abscond. — Their reports in the surround- 
ing country. — The Military quells the uprising. — A horse mill in opera- 
tion. — Mobs arouse with increased force. — Government sends Militia. — 
They are set to guard the Saints, who are ordered to leave the county 
within ten days. — The halfway house. — Food frozen.— How we ate sup- 
per. — Sleepless and jolly.— Arrive in Far West.— Seven miles out. — 
Move to Illinois. — To Warren County. — To LaHarpe. — To Nauvoo. 

[E will now leave Lorenzo in LaHarpe, preparing for a 
visit to Nauvoo, and return to Adam-ondi-Ahinan, 
where he left us. In Di-Ahman, Daviess County, 
Missouri, our father purchased and paid in full for two home- 
steads, including the farm crops. The "old settlers," as the 
inhabitants were called, were very anxious to sell to the Lat- 
ter-day Saints, who, at the time, did not comprehend nor 
suspect their villainy. They were obsequiously kind and 
friendly in their manner towards us as strangers, and we did 
not, for the time being, suspect their sincerity; but the sequel 
proved that they had made arrangements for mobbing and 
driving us, previous to selling, and then, according to their 
programme, re-take possession of the purchased premises. 

Before Lorenzo started on his southern mission, as 
reported in his journal, a spirit of mobocracy was boldly 
manifested by leading citizens in the county opposing the 
Latter-day Saints, and at the August election preventing their 
vote — also putting them to great inconvenience by laying an 
embargo on all of the flouring mills in that section, and pre- 
venting our people from obtaining breadstuff. Our father 
had abundance of wheat, but could get no grinding. In this 



42 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

dLemma we had to resort to graters, made by perforating tin 
pails and stovepipes, on which we grated corn for bread mate- 
rial. We tried boiled wheat, but found that it did not retain 
much nourishment; and our grated corn meal, when cooked 
by the usual process of bread making, was not quite so solid 
as lead, but bore a more than satisfactory resemblance to it. 
''Necessity, the mother of invention," prompted experiment- 
ing, and we set our wits to work to make our meal not only 
eatable, but palatable. 

We had a fine crop of "Missouri pumpkins" (which, 
being interpreted, means the choicest kind), produced from 
the soil our father bought; these we stewed with a good sup- 
ply of moisture, and when boiling hot, stirred it into our 
grated meal, which, when seasoned with salt and nicely 
baked — well buttered or in milk, was really very delicious; 
the main thing was to get enough, especially after the mob 
had driven in the scattered settlers, by which the number of 
our family was increased to twenty-five. 

Elder Abel Butterfield, Lorenzo's traveling companion, 
was stopping with us, while waiting for my brother to regain 
his strength sufficient. for travel, and as he required clothing 
made, previous to departure, my sister proposed to join me in 
doing his needle work, tailoring, etc., if, he would give his 
time in grating meal for the family, which he gladly accepted. 
It was hard work, and after he left, we took it by turns, soak- 
ing the corn when it became so dry as to shell from the cob. 

Not long after our young missionaries left us, very early 
one morning, we were utterly astonished with the announce- 
ment that all of our neighbors, the "old settlers," including 
those of whom our father had purchased, had fled the coun- 
try. On entering some of the vacated houses, clocks were 
seen ticking the time, coffee-pots boiling the coffee, and every- 
thing indicating a precipitate and compulsory flight. What 
could be the cause, and what the meaning of this unprece- 
dented and really ominous* movement was veiled in the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 43 

\ 

deepest mystery, until the reaction solved it by bringing to 
light the most cruel perfidy. We soon learned that those 
unscrupulous hypocrites had scattered abroad through* the 
.settlements, arousing a mob feeling against the Latter-day 
Saints, by reporting that the "Mormons" had driven them 
from their homes, they having barely escaped with their lives 
at the expense of all they possessed. 

This unprecedented move was sufficient pretext for an 
onslaught, and a general uprising of the people threatened 
an immediate extermination of the Latter-day Saints, which 
was prevented by an appeal to, and the intervention of, the 
military authority of the State. A posse was sent, which 
quelled the mob, and for a few days we had peace. The 
Saints took advantage of the quietus, purchased a horse-mill 
and soon had it in operation, and released the family graters. 

But the peaceful interim was of short duration. It 
seemed that the turbulent spirit had gained strength by the 
recess, and broke out with redoubled fury. No Latter-day 
Saint was safe, and although our trust was in God, and we 
felt assured of His protection, it was wise for us to keep up a 
show of defence, as it had a tendency to awe "our enemies. 
To us it was a novel sight, and would have been ludicrous 
(were it not painfully symptomatical of the situation) to see 
our venerable father walking to meeting on the Sabbath, 
with a Bible in one hand and a rifle in the other. At iength 
an order was issued by the Governor of the State, for all of 
the Saints to leave Daviess County within ten days from date, 
the sixth of December, and a company 0? militia was sta- 
tioned in Di-Ahman, for that length of time, ostensibly to 
protect us from the mob, but it was difficult to tell whether 
the mob or the militia was most dangerous. 

Before we left, the former owner of the place where we 
lived, came in, and looking around very im'pudently, in- 
quired how soon we would be out of the house. It required 
an effort, but we suppressed our feelings of indignation. 



44 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

The weather was extremely cold, and the morning we 
bid adieu to our honorably and honestly acquired transitory 
home, and much property which we were obliged to leave, 
after assisting what I could, I started before the teams, to 
warm my feet by walking. While musing on the changing 
and wonderful vicissitudes of mortal life as I walked quietly 
and alone, I was interrupted in my meditations by the 
approach of one of the militia. After the usual salutations 
of "Good morning," he said: "I think this will cure you of your 
faith. 1 " I looked him in the eye, and, with emphasis, replied, 
"No, sir, it will take more than this to cure me of my faith." 
His countenance dropped, and he said, " Well, I must confess 
you are a better soldier than I am." And we parted. 

It took two days to go by team to Far 'West, and seventy- 
five persons, pilgrims like ourselves, put up at our stopping 
place for the night. It was a small vacated log house of one 
room only, which was the general nightly resort of people 
traveling from Di-Ahman to Far West. As we found it, 
the chinkings between the logs had been torn out, leaving 
open spaces through which gusts of wind had free play. 
When we arrived, the provisions we brought were solidly 
frozen, and the crowd of people was so dense, we could not 
avail ourselves of the fire. But we must have supper, and we 
could not eat hard frozen bread, and we adopted the follow- 
ing: The boys milked our cows, and before the milk was 
strained, one of us held the dish while another sliced the 
bread, and the third strained the warm milk into it, which 
thawed the bread; thus one after another, until all were plen- 
tifully served. 

Bed time came, but there was no room for beds, except 
for the sick, and, indeed, there was very little sitting room. 
Our mother was quite feeble through fatigue and exposure, 
and we managed to fix a place for' her to lie down, while our 
sister and myself sat on the floor, one on each side, to ward 
off the crowd. I can well' remember that ever memorable 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 45 

night — how I. dare not move lest I should disturb those 
around me, so closely were we packed. And withal, it was a 
jolly time, although with the majority, a sleepless night. 
Some ten or fifteen feet from the house was a small horse 
shed, in the centre of which the brethren built a roaring fire, 
and around it they stood, sometimes dancing to keep warm, 
some roasting potatoes, while others parched corn, and all 
joining in singing hymns and songs, merrily passing off the 
hours till the morning dawn. Many started very early, 
which gave us access to the fire for our morning meal. 

Little would strangers, could they have witnessed those 
seventy-five Saints, without knowing our circumstances; I 
say, little would they have thought that we were exiles from 
our homes, going to seek among strangers, abiding places for 
the winter, in an adjoining county, and by order of the gov- 
ernor, leave the State and go we knew not where, in the 
Spring. They would naturally have thought us a pleasure 
party. 

On the fifth of March, 1839, after wintering seven miles 
from Far West, in Caldwell County, we started en route for 
Illinois, landing in Quincy; we stopped there a short time, 
and from there our father moved to Warren County, in the 
same State; from there to LaHarpe, where Lorenzo found us, 
thence to Commerce, afterwards called Nauvoo. 



46 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Called on mission to England. — Extraordinary communication. — Calls on 
families of the Twelve. — In Ohio. — Borrows money. — On board a sailing 
vessel. — In Liverpool. — Writes to his aunt. — Why he is there. — How he 
came there. — Crossing the ocean. — Terrific storms. — An ocean storm 
scene. — The calm. — Gratitude. — Arrives in Liverpool. — Manchester. — 
Birmingham. — Lorenzo says: 



m 



|ARLY in the spring of 1840, I was appointed to a 
'TEL mission in England, and I started on or about the 
* twentieth of May. I here record a circumstance 
which occurred a short time previous — one which has been 
riveted on my memory, never to be erased, so extraordinary 
was the manifestation. v At the time, I was at the house of 
Elder H. G. Sherwood; he was endeavoring to explain the 
parable of our Savior, when speaking of the husbandman who 
hired servants and sent them forth at different hours of the 
day to labor in his vineyard. 

While attentively listening to his explanation, the Spirit 
of the Lord rested mightily upon me — the eyes of my under- 
standing were opened, and I saw as clear as the sun at noon- 
day, with wonder and astonishment, the pathway of God and 
man. I formed the following couplet which expresses the 
revelation, as it was shown me, and explains Father Smith's 
dark saying to me at a blessing meeting in the Kirtland 
Temple, prior to my baptism, as previously mentioned in my 
first interview with the Patriarch. 

As man now is, God once was: 
As God now is, man may be.-> 

I felt this to be a sacred communication, which I related 
to no one except my sister Eliza, until I reached England, 
when in a confidential private conversation with President 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 47 

Brigham Young, in Manchester, I related to him this extra- 
ordinary manifestation. 

Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt, Orson 
Pratt, and others of the Quorum of the Twelve, nine in all, were 
at this time laboring in England, and before leaving Nauvoo, the 
home of the Saints, I visited several of their families. I found 
Sister Young occupying an unfinished log hut, with a loose 
floor, and no chinking between the logs; consequently the 
sides and ends of the hut were open, leaving the inmates 
exposed to wind and storms. When I called, she had just 
returned from a long, fatiguing and fruitless search for her 
milch cow, which had strayed the day before, and on which 
she much depended for sustenance for her little ones. On my 
asking her what she wished me to say to her husband, she 
replied, "You see my situation, but tell him not to trouble, or 
worry in the least about me — I wish him to remain in his 
field of labor until honorably released." Her apparent 
poverty-stricken, destitute condition deeply stirred my 
sympathy. I had but little money — not sufficient to take me 
one- tenth the distance to my field of labor, with no prospect 
for obtaining the balance, and was then on the eve of starting. 
I drew from my pocket a portion of my small pittance, and 
presented her, but she refused to accept it; while I strenuously 
insisted on her taking, and she persisting to refuse — partly 
purposely, and partly accidentally, the money was dropped on 
the floor, and rattled through the openings between the loose 
boards, which settled the dispute, and bidding her good bye, I 
left her to pick it up at her leisure. When I called on the 
wife of Orson Pratt, she said she wished her husband to return 
home as soon as possible — she needed his assistance. 

On my way to New York, my point of embarkation, I 
called on my friends in Ohio, held a few meetings, borrowed 
money at a heavy interest, and proceeded on my way, travel- 
ing to New York chiefly on canal boats. I took steerage 
passage on board a sailing vessel, having supplied myself with 



48 AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 

blanket, buffalo robe, and a supply of provisions. I had 
heard tell of deck passage — I had read of deck passage, but 
when I experienced deck passage, with its peculiar make-up, 
on this voyage, I could truly say, with the Queen of Sheba, 
"the half had not been told;" and I felt assured that the 
other half never could be told. And, after all, the almost 
unbearable discomfort I experienced on the voyage was not 
attributable particularly to deck passage, but to the unpleas- 
ant peculiarities of the situation. I was surrounded with a 
huddled crowd of rough, uncouth people, very filthy in their 
appearance and habits. We had a long passage of about six 
weeks, in which we encountered storms and tempests, and 
suffered much for want of fresh water, and also a sufficient 
supply of food. For further particulars I transcribe the 
following letter written to my aunt in Ohio: 

London, England, Feb. 16, 1841. 

My Dear and Highly Respected Aunt: 

With pleasure I improve the present opportunity in ful- 
filling the promise made at our last interview. You see by 
this heading, I am in the city of London, the great metropolis 
of the British empire. The thought that I am between four 
and five thousand miles from the home of my childhood and 
all of my early, fond associations, very naturally prompts the 
question, Why am I here? To me, a question of no small 
magnitude — one, the results of which probably lie far in the 
future. In answer to the foregoing I would say, I am here 
because God has spoken, and raised up a Prophet, through 
whom He has restored the fulness of the everlasting Gospel, 
with all its gifts, powers, ordinances, and blessings; with a 
proclamation to all peoples, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven 
is at hand." In the providence of God, I have been called as 
an ambassador, to bear this message to the nations of the 
earth, which I realize devolves on me a great responsibility 
which I cannot discharge 'without the aid of the Almighty. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 49 

And now, another question suggests itself — How came 1 
here? In answer to this, I can truly say, the hand of the 
Lord has led me, and His power has protected and preserved 
me in the midst of those perilous scenes to which voyagers 
are often exposed when on the briny deep in their passage to 
foreign lands. 

I was nearly two weeks on the way from Cleveland, Ohio, 
to New York — traveled upwards of three hundred miles on 
the Erie canal. At Albany I took steamboat to New York, 
and the next day, after having supplied myself with what 
little necessary articles and comforts I needed on the voyage, 
went on board a ship just ready to sail, bidding good bye to 
New York, after a brief introduction and hasty glance at its 
temptations for sight-seeing; and, for the first time, turned 
my face from my native land. 

I was forty-two days crossing the ocean, and during this 
time we encountered three terrible storms — storms which 
those accustomed to the ocean pronounced very dangerous. 
Unacquainted as I was with the turbulent waves, I was unable , 
to judge comparativel}', but, in a number of instances, to say 
the least of it, the scene was fearfully terrific. I did not feel 
surprised that men, women and children who had not 
learned to trust in God, wrung their hands in an agony of 
fear, and wept. My trust was in Him who created the seas 
and defined their bounds. I was on His errand — I knew that 
I was sent on this mission by the authority He recognizes, 
and, although the elements raged and the ship swayed and 
trembled amid the heaving billows, He was at the helm, and 
my life was safe in His keeping. 

I think, aunt, that you moved from Massachusetts to 
Ohio by land, and that you have had no experience in ocean 
life; now, to realize the answer to "How came I here?" Just 
look at me in your lively imagination, in one of these terrific 
storms, seated on a large hogshead of water — holding on, with 
both hands, to ropes near by, in order to retain my position — 



50 BIOGRAPHY AND 

« 

the ship reeling and dashing from side to side — now and 
then a monster wave leaping over the bulwarks, treating all 
present with a shower bath — see, sitting near me, a man 
weeping bitterly with terror in his countenance — the next, 
moment a wave shoots over the bulwarks, dashing him from 
his seat and landing him precipitately against the bulwark 
on the opposite side, from which he arises with a broken 
arm and dripping wet; while many others are badly bruised 
by having been furiously thrown about. So much for the 
upper deck. Now take a peep into the deck below, where 
boxes, chests and barrels, having broken loose from their 
storage, are slipping and tumbling about among the women 
and children, whose groans and cries for help are in vain, so 
long as each man has all he can possibly do to take care of 
himself, for none but sailors and those accustomed to marine 
life can control their movements in a fierce storm on the 
mighty deep. No doubt but an imaginative glance at the one 
storm will suffice. Now, after the storm subsided and the 
bosom of the great deep settled irito calm repose, see the tall 
masts bow gently before the mildly moving breeze — the 
white sails unfurl in placid swells, and again the ship moves 
through the parting waves with stately pride, while joy and 
gratitude fill every heart. 

When we arrived at the Liverpool docks, as the vessel 
approached within a few feet of the shore, the hand of an 
Englishman was reached forth to assist me. I immediately 
seized it and landed upon the -island of Great Britain, just- 
three months from the time I left my father's house in 
Illinois, to which place my father and family had been 
driven by the ruthless hand of mobocracy. The twenty- 
second of this month I shall have been four months in 
England. The pleasure I realized on the termination of 
a long and tedious voyage on the ocean cannot be expressed. 
Suffice it to say, my heart was full of the highest gratitude 
to Him who preserves and sustains those whom He calls 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 51 

and sends forth as ministers of salvation to the nations of the 
earth. 

In Liverpool, I found a branch of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, with about one hundred mem- 
bers. I tarried a few days and spoke in an evening meeting, 
then took the train to Manchester, distant thirty miles. On 
my arrival, I experienced inexpressible joy in greeting once 
more my brethren, from America. I stopped in Manchester 
about ten days, during which I preached a number of times 
and baptized several persons. The population of this city 
consists of over three hundred thousand inhabitants. 

From Manchester I went by coach to Birmingham. 
There I labored in the ministry about three months, and 
never enjoyed myself better, nor received kinder treatment. 
This great city contains about two hundred thousand inhabit- 
ants. 

On the eleventh of February, in about five hours I pro- 
ceeded by train to London, from which I write you. I am 
here, presiding over the Church in London; I also have 
charge of several branches established in the vicinity. The 
work of the Lord moves on with rapidity in all parts of Her 
Majesty's kingdom — in England, Scotland and Wales. 

With kind regards to you, dear aunt, and to each mem- 
ber of your family, I subscribe myself, 

Your affectionate nephew, 

L. Snow. 



52 BIOGRAPHY AND 




CHAPTER X. 

Writes from Birmingham. — Church numbers Sixteen. — Conference in Lon- 
don. — Lorenzo appointed to preside over the London Conference. — Con- 
firmed in Manchester. — Nine of the Twelve present. — Established a 
Branch in Wolverhampton.— Ordained William Henshaw.— Sent him to 
Wales. — William Henshaw did a good work, bnt "died as a fool dieth." 
— An encounter with Evil Spirits. — Lorenzo gets the Victory. — An 
Apostacy succeeds. — April 6th, Conference in Manchester. — Nine of the 

Twelve present. — Branches represented Officers set apart. — A cake for 

the Twelve. — The cake distributed. — A joyful time. — Orson Hyde 
speaks. — Joseph Fielding speaks — P. P. Pratt composes verses. — 
Brigham Young and William Miller sing. — President B. Young dis- 
misses.— Poem addressed to L. Snow. 

ROTHER Snow writes from Birmingham under date 
of 6th December, 1840. He says the Church there 
now numbers sixteen, and that many more are on the 
eve of being baptized. He also informs us that the Church 
at Greet's Green now numbers about forty members, and that 
several in that place will soon become citizens of the King- 
dom of God. One of the Methodist preachers has yielded 
obedience to the faith." — Millennial Star. 

February 14, 1841. — At a conference in London, it was 
moved by Heber C. Kimball, seconded by Wilford Woodruff, 
that Lorenzo Snow be appointed president of this conference; 
also to take the superintendency of the Church in London. 
This appointment was confirmed on the 6th of April, at the 
annual * conference in Manchester. At that conference, nine 
of the Quorum of the Twelve were present, viz: Brigham 
Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, 
Orson Pratt, Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, John Tay- 
lor and George A. Smith. 

The records show that after Brother Snow's return from 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 53* 

# 

conference up to the 26th of May, he had baptized eighteen 
persons. 

Before leaving Greet's Green to take charge of the Church 
in London, Brother Lorenzo held several meetings in Wolver- 
hampton, a flourishing town numbering- several thousand 
inhabitants. There he succeeded in establishing a branch of 
the Church. A man, by name William Henshaw, was one of 
the number who embraced the Gospel at that time; a man of 
ability and force of character, he became very useful as a 
minister of and advocate for the truth. 

Brother Snow ordained William Henshaw to the Priest- 
hood, and sent him on a mission to Wales to introduce and 
open the Gospel door to that people. He was very successful 
and greatly blessed in his labors. He had baptized several 
hundred persons and organized quite a number of branches 
of the Church in that country previous to the arrival of 
Captain Dan Jones, who was sent as a, missionary from Salt 
Lake to that people. 

It is a matter of deep regret that, after having performed 
a great and good work — after having been instrumental in 
bringing into the Church, among the many whom he baptized, 
several persons who became prominent and influential 
preachers of the Gospel, that he should make shipwreck of 
his faith through that destructive demon, intemperance, and 
by intoxication destroy the powerful faculties with which God 
had endowed him. . He crossed the ocean, and, in St. Louis, 
died a drunkard. Once beloved and highly respected, he 
yielded to the weakness of the flesh, and "died as a fool 
dieth" — an object of regret and pity, a warning to those simi- 
larly tempted. 

Not long after Brother Snow was appointed to preside 
over the Church in London, a circumstance occurred which 
plainly illustrated the interference of evil spirits in human 
affairs, and most strikingly their use as instruments to oppose 
the progress of the latter-day work. A band of them under- 



54 BIOGRAPHY AND 

i » 

took to frighten him from his post; but Lorenzo Snow is one 
whom neither favor, fright nor force can move from the post 
of duty. , 

At the time referred to, he occupied a well furnished 
upper room, and directly after his appointment to the presi- 
dency, after retiring to bed at night, he was aroused from sleep 
by the most discordant noises. It seemed as though every 
piece of furniture in the room was put in motion, going slash- 
dash, helter-skelter, back and forth against each other in such 
terrible fury that sleep and rest were utter impossibilities. 

He endured the unceremonious visitation for several 
nights, each night thinking it was the last, that they would 
leave as unbidden as they came, until the fact forced itself 
upon his mind that so long as he would tamely submit to 
their aggressions, so long they would continue to repeat them. 
Something must be done. He must claim the right of master 
over his own premises. 

Accordingly, after a day of fasting and before kneeling to 
pray, as was his custom before retiring for the night, he read 
aloud a chapter in the Bible, and then, in the name of Jesus 
of Nazareth, and by the authority of the Holy Priesthood, 
rebuked those spirits, and commanded them to leave the 
house — went to bed and had no more disturbance. But those 
spirits were not discouraged with one defeat. It was not long 
before several members of the Church became disaffected 
and came out in open rebellion, insomuch that it was pain- 
fully necessary to expel quite a number. 

Manchester, April 6, 1841. — The council of the Twelve 
assembled in Manchester Hall, on the 6th day of April, 1841, 
for the first time, to transact business as a quorum, in the 
presence of the Church, in a foreign land, being the first day 
of the twelfth year of the rise of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. 

Nine of the Quorum were present. At this Conference 
much was done in appointing and setting apart to offices — 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 55 

•ordaining, etc., as well as representing the various branches 
and conferences. All being accomplished, appropriate in- 
structions were delivered by different members of the High 
Council relative to the duties of the officers 'in their respec- 
tive callings,' etc., etc. 

A very richly ornamented cake from New York, from 
Elder Adams' wife to the Twelve, was then exhibited to the 
meeting. This was blessed by them, and then distributed to 
all the officers and members, and then to the whole congrega- 
tion, consisting, probably of seven hundred people. A large 
fragment was still preserved for some who were not present. 

During the distribution, several appropriate hymns were 
sung, and a powerful and general feeling of delight seemed 
universally to pervade the meeting. While this was proceed- 
ing, Elder P. P. Pratt composed and handed over to the clerk 
the following lines, which the clerk then read to the meeting, 
as follows: 

When in far distant regions, 

As strangers we roam, 
Far'away from our country, 

Our friends and our home: 
When sinking in sorrow, 

Fresh courage we'll take, 
As we think oh our friends, 

And remember the cake. 

Elder 0. Hyde appealed powerfully to the meeting, and 
covenanted with the Saints present, in a bond of mutual 
prayer, during his mission to Jerusalem and the East, which 
was sustained on the part of the hearers with a hearty amen. 

Elder Joseph Fielding remarked that it was with the 
most pleasing and grateful feeling that he had witnessed the 
scenes of this day. And respecting the rich cake of which 
they had been partaking, he considered it a type of the good 
things of that land from whence it came, and from whence 
they had received the fulness of the Gospel. He expressed a 



56 BIOGRAPHY AND 

hope that they might all hold out till that day, when they 
should be assembled to partake of the marriage supper of the 
Lamb. 

Elder B. Young and Elder William Miller sang the 
hymn, "Adieu, my dear brethren, adieu," etc. This was after 
the number of the official members present had been "taken — 
one hundred and seven. 

President Brigham Young blessed the congregation and 
dismisse'd them. — Millennial Star. 

At this meeting, Brother Lorenzo reported the London 
Conference. No one who has never been located far from 
home can realize the happiness he enjoyed while associated 
with so many of the Quorum of the Twelve on this occasion. 

TO ELDER LORENZO SNOW, LONDON, ENGLAND. 

Dearest brother, wherefore leave us? 

Why forsake your friends and home ? 
Of your presence, why bereave us, 

And in foreign countries roam ? 

Must the dearest ties be broken ? 

Must affection's garland fade? 
No, no! • But God has spoken, 

And His voice must be obeyed. 

You have gone to warn the nations, 

In the name of Israel's God; 
You are called to bear salvation's 

Joyful tidings far abroad. 

Now the Gospel proclamation 

Must be sounded far and near, 
That the best of every nation 

May in Zion's courts appear. 

In the spirit of devotion 

To Messiah's glorious Cause, 
You have crossed the pathless ocean, 

To proclaim Redemption's laws. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. • 57 

You are now a standard bearer 

On a distant mountain top, 
And perchance ofttimes a sharer 

In privation's bitter cup. 

God designs to try and prove you. 

If you will His .voice obey; 
Therefore from your friends who love you, 

You are parted far away. 

You are called yourself to sever 

From the land where kindred dwell; 
But it will not be forever — 

Time will surely break the spell. 

Here warm friends await your greeting — 

Noble friends of Abra'm's line: 
Here are gentle pulses beating 

In soft unison with thine. 

Here are daily prayers ascending 

For th' appointed hour to come; 
When your mission nobly ending, 

We shall bid you " Welcome home." 

Nauvoo, Jan., 1841. E. R. Snow.' 



58 BIOGKAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XL 

Brother Snow writes to Elder Pratt. — Baptisms. — A hint to the wise. — 
Caution and instruction. — Writes to the Star. — Increase in the Church in 
London.— Good word for Bedford. — Baptisms. — To Elder Pratt. — Sad 
news. — Sister Morgan's Death. — Her faithfulness and benevolence. — 
Her triumphant departure. — Her Husband is comforted.— Conference. — 
Lorenzo informs how subscriptions are obtained. — Singing in Tongues. 
— L. appointed First Counselor. — P. P. Pratt speaks.— Stanza.— Queen 
Victoria, — Presentation of the Book of Mormon to Her Majesty and the 
Prince Consort. 
■*• 

^(JPXTRACT of a letter written from London on the third 
m, of May, 1841: 

Elder Pratt: 

I improve a few moments in communicating some few 
items in reference to the prosperity of our Redeemer's king- 
dom in this metropolis. 

I feel happy in having the privilege of stating that the 
prospects of ,Zion's extension and enlargement' in this city are 
far more encouraging now than at any former time since I 
located in London. 

Though surrounded with high-handed wickedness of 
every description, Zion begins to break forth, and, I trust, ere 
long will become a shining lamp in this city. 

Many people in various directions are inquiring the way 
of salvation, and thanks to her glorious King, Zion is begin- 
ning to array herself in her beautiful garments, even with 
light and intelligence, faith and power, and her children are 
pointing out in plainness the one and only pathway that leads 
up into the holy, celestial mansions of eternal rest. 

On Sunday, our preaching room is crowded to overflow- 
ing. Yesterday morning I had the pleasure of baptizing 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 59 

eleven into the fold of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. 
Others, also, will soon follow the glorious example. 

Lorenzo Snow. 

a hint to the wise. 

London, May 13, 1841. 

The Savior has commanded not to cast pearls before 
swine. I am sorry to say that this instruction is not always 
sufficiently regarded by those to whom our Lord has given, 
through the Everlasting Covenant, His pearls of wisdom, 
knowledge, and precious gifts. The consequence is, we lose 
blessings instead of retaining them — a decrease of the Holy 
Spirit follows, instead of an increase, and our minds become 
darkened. 

What I allude to is this: we too frequently engage in con- 
versation concerning things of the kingdom of God, with 
persons of a wrong spirit; and feeling over anxious to make 
them see, understand, and acknowledge the light presented, 
we urge on, and persist in the conversation until we partake 
of the spirit of those with whom we are conversing. We 
ought to be particularly guarded against falling into errors of 
this kind. 

It is very easy to understand when conversation is 
attended with profit. We then feel our minds enlightened, 
and the power of God resting upon us through the Holy 
Spirit — ideas flow into our minds, and we express them with 
ease, freedom, and calmness. 

Conversation conducted in this spirit proves highly 
profitable, not only to ourselves, but also to those with whom 
we converse; and after its close, our hearts are 'drawn out in 
gratitude to the Most High for the privilege of imparting the 
glorious truths of the Gospel to the children of men. 

L. Snow. 

The following is from the 31illennial Star of September, 
1841: 



60 JUOG11APHY AND 

Elder Snow writes from London, under date of August 
21, as follows: Dear Brother — This morning I occupy a few 
moments in communicating a general view of the present 
state and prosperity of the London Conference. 

Six months since, when I took charge of this conference 
we numbered less than one hundred members; since then we 
have increased to two hundred and twenty. 

I recently had the pleasure of spending three weeks in 
Bedford and vicinity. My heart truly rejoiced to witness the 
good order, peace and love prevailing there. The zeal and 
untiring perseverance of the officers of the Church in Bed- 
ford, in leaving their homes on Sunday morning, after hav- 
ing labored with their hands all the week, and then walking 
eight and ten miles to proclaim the fulness of the Gospel, is 
truly worthy of commendation and of imitation by all who 
labor in the name, and by the authority of Jesus Christ. 
During the time I was in Bedford, twenty-three persons were 
baptized into Zion's fold, in that place and vicinity. 

London, October 28, 1841. 
Elder Pratt: 

Dear Brother. — In a moment our joys are turned to sor- 
row, our pleasures into pain. Death has entered this part of 
Zion's fold, and taken one of her best and most worthy 
daughters. 

This morning, our beloved sister, Elizabeth Morgan, after 
a short illness, bid adieu to her weeping husband, children 
and friends, and took her departure to the fair climes of 
Immortality. She was beloved by all the Saints, and much 
respected throughout the extensive circle of -her worldly 
acquaintance. 

By her faith and knowledge, the curtains of Zion have 
been extended, and through her benevolence the Saints have 
been made to rejoice. With herself and husband, our Elders 
first found a home when they were strangers in London, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 61 

i 

endeavoring to rear the, standard of Zion. Their house has 
been my home ever since my arrival. 

The Church has cause to mourn her loss, especially those 
who participated in her friendship when laying the foundation 
of this branch, when dark clouds gathered thickly over their 
prospects, and all their efforts seemed baffled. But let them 
not mourn as for one who dies without hope. She died, not 
only in hope, but in the perfect assurance of future glory; 
and in her dying moments, wished me to express to Elder 
Kimball that she blessed the hour in which he baptized her. 

One remarkable circumstance connected with this melan- 
choly event, I wish to relate. About two o'clock this morn- 
ing, we had given up all hopes of her recovery. We saw it 
was the will of God to take her to Himself. We had con- 
tinued to offer our prayers in her behalf, and done everything 
consistent with scripture and the mind of God. She con- 
tinually expressed a wish that no medicine should be admin- 
istered to her by a doctor, and particularly requested that "no 
blame should be attached to, and no reflections cast upon, he?" dear 
husband and children, because no doctor had been employed;, for 
she wanted no physician but the Lord." 

About two o'clock, she requested me to kneel by her bed- 
side, and, for the last time, offer my supplications, and she 
said she would depart in peace. I complied with her request, 
and while calling upon the Lord in presence of her weeping 
husband, children and friends, the Holy Spirit rested on me 
in power, and I was moved upon to ask the God of Israel that 
her disconsolate husband might be comforted, even if it were 
by the ministering of Sister Morgan's departed spirit, that he 
might have thereby consolation and fulness of hope. 

At the same hour, Sister Bates, of this city — a worthy 
member of the Church, had an open vision, in which she saw 
Sister Morgan, standing in full view before her, clothed in 
robes beautiful and white, and around her head were clouds 
of glory, surpassing in splendor and brilliancy, the sun at 



G2 BIOGRAPHY AND 

noonday. Sister Bates rejoiced in the vision. It was not a 
dream, but an open vision, continuing some length of time. 
When the vision closed, she immediately related it to her 
husband. 

When the vision was made known to Deacon Morgan, 
the bereaved husband, he lifted up his head and rejoiced in 
sorrow, receiving consolation even in the valley of grief. He 
has not a shadow of doubt that the companion of his bosom 
now rests in mansions of peace and glory. 

Yours in the Everlasting Covenant, 

L. Snow. 

In the minutes of a general Conference held in Manches- 
ter, commencing on the 5th of May, 1842, published in the 
Millennnial Star, we find the following: 

" Elder Snow then addressed the meeting, and stated the 
method they had adopted in London Conference of raising 
funds for the Temple, which was by holding tea meetings; at 
which time any person wishing to appropriate for this pur- 
pose, had the opportunity. Elder Snow concluded his address 
by singing beautifully in tongues." 

Just before leaving England, Elder P. P. Pratt, through 
the Star, in a general address to the Saints in Europe, writes 
the following — "I therefore recommend and appoint Elder 
Thomas Ward as my successor in the office of the General 
Presidency of the Church in Europe, in connection with El- 
ders Lorenzo Snow and Hiram Clark. To these persons I 
commit the care and government of the Church in this 
country for the present, trusting that they will conduct and 
counsel in all things according to the mind of the Spirit, and 
according to the counsel that shall be given them from 
Nauvoo from time to time by the Quorum of the Twelve or 
the First Presidency. 

"I sincerely hope that the officers and members in the 
several conferences will uphold and support these men in 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 63 

their high and holy calling by the prayer of faith, and by a 
willing, submissive and teachable spirit; and in so doing 
they will prosper." 



STANZA ON THE PRESENTATION OF THE BOOK OF MORMON 
TO QUEEN VICTORIA. 

BY ELIZA R. SNOW. 

Before leaving Loudon, Elder Lorenzo Snow presented 
to Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, and His Royal Highness, 
Prince Albert, through the politeness of Sir Henry Wheatley, 
two neatly bound copies of the Book of Mormon, which had 
been donated by President Brigham Young, and left in the 
care of Elder Snow for that purpose; which circumstance sug- 
gested the following lines: 

QUEEN VICTORIA. 

Of all the monarchs of the earth, 

That wear the robes of royalty, 
She has inherited, by birth. 

The broadest wreath of majesty. 

_ From her wide territorial wing, 

The sun does not withdraw its light; 
While earth's diurnal motions bring 
To other nations, day and night. 

All earthly thrones are tottering things, 

Where lights and shadows intervene; 
And regal honor often brings 

The scaffold or the guillotine. 

But still her sceptre is approved; 

All nations deck the wreath she wears; 
Yet, like the youth whom Jesus loved, 

One thing is lacking, even there. 



64 BIOGRAPHY AND 

But, lo ! a prize possessing more 

Of worth than gems with honor rife — 

A herald of salvation bore 
To her the words of endless life. 

That gift, however fools deride, 
Is worthy of her royal care; 

She'd better lay her crown aside 
Than spurn the light reflected there. 

would she now her influence bend — 

The influence of royalty, 
Messiah's Kingdom to extend, 

And Zion's " nursing mother" be : 

Thus, with the glory of her name 
Inscribed on Zion's lofty spire, 

She'd win a wreath of endless fame, 
To last when other wreaths expire. 

Though over millions called to reign — 
Herself a powerful nation's boast, 

'Twould be her everlasting gain 
To serve the King, the Lord of Hosts. 

For there are crowns and thrones on high, 
And kingdoms there to be conferred — 

There honors wait that never die — 
There fame's immortal trump is heard. 

Truth echoes — 'tis Jehovah's word ; 

Let kings and queens and princes hear : 
In distant isles the sound is heard : 

Ye heavens, rejoice! earth, give ear! 

The time — the time is near at hand 
To give a glorious period birth : 

The Son of God will take command, 
And rule the nations of the earth. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 65 



CHAPTER XII. 

Brother Snow's Mission terminates.— Reports four hundred Members in the 
London Conference. — Ts appointed to take charge of two hundred and 
fifty Saints en route to Nauvoo. — Embarks on the "Swanton." — The 
Steward's sickness. — Grows worse and worse. — Is given up, and nearly- 
dead. — Sister Martin insists with the Captain. — Is repulsed, and again 
asks that Elder Snow may administer to the Steward.— She obtains con- 
sent. — The man is healed. — Baptisms in New Orleans. — The Company 
reaches Nauvoo.— Great Reception. — Waving of Handkerchiefs. — The 
Prophet present. — Reminiscences. — My joy in meeting Lorenzo. — How 
we associated. — Appeal to my Husband. — Their Interview. — The 
Result. 

X April, 1842, at the Conference in Manchester, President 
P. P. Pratt presiding, Lorenzo Snow represented the 
London Conference, consisting of four hundred mem- 
bers, fourteen Elders, thirty-two Priests, seven Teachers, eight 
Deacons, including ten branches. During his presidency he 
visited and preached to congregations in many places, bearing 
testimony to the truths of the Gospel of the Son of God, hav- 
ing, at the time of embarking for his native country, traveled 
in England four thousand miles. 

At the close of his mission, he was appointed to take 
charge of a company of Saints, consisting of about two hun- 
dred and fifty souls, en route for Nauvoo ; and in January, 
1843, embarked on the ship "Swanton." The commander, 
Captain Davenport, and officers of the crew were kind and 
courteous, which contributed much' to ameliorate the dis- 
comfort incident to life on the ocean. 

The steward, a German by birth, was a young man, very 
affable in manner, and gentlemanly in deportment — a general 
favorite and highly respected by all. During the latter part 
of the voyage he took sick, and continued growing worse and 



66 BIOGRAPHY AND 

worse, until death seemed inevitable. All means proved una- 
vailing, and the captain, by whom he was much beloved, 1 
gave up all hope of his recovery, and requested the officers 
and crew to go in, one by one, and take a farewell look of 
their dying friend, which they did silently and solemnly, as 
he lay unconscious and almost breathless on his dying couch. 

Immediately after this sad ceremony closed, one of our 
sisters, by the name of Martin, without my brother's knowl- 
edge, went to the captain and requested him to allow my 
brother to lay hands on the steward, according to our faith 
and practice under such circumstances, saying that she 
believed that the steward would be restored. The captain 
shook his head, and told her that the steward was now breath- 
ing his last, and it would be useless to trouble Mr. Snow. 
But Sister Martin was not to be defeated ; she not only 
importuned, but earnestly declared her faith in the result of 
the proposed administration, and he finally yielded'and gave 
consent. 

As soon as the foregoing circumstance was communicated 
to my brother, he started toward the cabin where the 
steward lay, and in passing through the door met the cap- 
tain, who was in tears. He said, " Mr. Snow, it is too late; 
he is expiring, he is breathing his last ! " My brother made 
no reply, but took a seat beside the dying man. After devot- 
ing a few moments to secret prayer, he laid his hands on the 
head of the young man, prayed, and in the name of Jesus 
Christ rebuked the disease and commanded him to be made 
whole. Very soon after, to the joy and astonishment of all, 
he was seen walking the deck, praising and glorifying God 
for his restoration. The officers and sailors acknowledged the 
miraculous power of God, and on landing at New Orleans 
several of them were baptized, also the first mate, February 
26, 1843. 

At New Orleans the Saints left the "Swanton," and, on 
board the "Amaranth," wended their way up the Missouri and 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 67 

Mississippi rivers to the city of Nauvoo. Descriptive of their 
arrival, I clip the following paragraph from the " History of 
Joseph Smith," under date of April 12/1843: 

"Before the Elders' Conference closed, the steamer 'Ama- 
ranth' appeared in sight of the Temple, coming up the river, 
and about noon landed her passengers at the wharf opposite 
the old Post Office building, consisting of about two hundred 
and forty Saints from England, under the charge of Elder 
Lorenzo Snow, who left Liverpool last January, after a mis- 
sion of nearly three years. This is the first boat up this sea- 
son."- 

The time of the arrival had been announced, and many 
hearts (mine not excepted) were anxiously and expectantly 
beating, and when the steamer came in sight, every eye was 
turned in the direction, and as it neared the landing, white 
handkerchiefs were waving along the shore, up and down, for 
a great distance. President Joseph Smith, with a large num- 
ber of brothers and sisters, was present to greet our friends, 
and he gave notice to the new comers to meet at the Temple 
on the next day at ten o'clock, to receive instructions. 

It should be borne in mind that time and progress have 
wrought great changes since that event — at that time steam- 
ers were not navigating the ocean with the astonishing 
rapidity they are doing forty years later — crossing in a few 
days ; and, at that time, letter communication was very tardy 
in comparison with the present fast age, and cablegram non- 
existent. In consideration of these circumstances, it will be 
readily understood that a mission to England ndw differs very 
considerably from a mission to England then — saying nothing 
about the aid and facilities of the railroads of the present 
day. In view of all these improvements, it is easy to compre- 
hend that the arrival of a company of Saints from Europe 
was hailed as an important event. To me, personally, the 
one alluded to above was particularly so. 

The appearance of the "Amaranth," as it came in sight, 



68 BIOGRAPHY AND 

attracted the gaze of many eyes, but I then thought, and still 
think, that of all the crowd that watched its progress up the 
Mississippi, as it approached the wharf, no one felt a deeper 
interest than myself. Knowing that the steamer held a dear 
brother with whom, three years. before, I parted for an indefi- 
nite period, I watched it coming, and the white handkerchiefs 
waving from its deck — perhaps one is his, and in a few 
moments I shall clasp the hand that waves it! Although I 
determined to appear to the bystanders undemonstrative, I 
have not forgotten how my heart beat when the steamer 
reached the wharf. It may seem trivial to others, but that 
is one of the incidents in my life that has fastened indelibly 
on my memory. 

While my brother was absent on this, his first mission to 
Europe, changes had taken place with me, one of eternal 
import, of which I supposed him to be entirely ignorant. The 
Prophet Joseph had taught me the principle of plural, or 
Celestial Marriage, and I was married to him for time and 
eternity. In consequence of the ignorance of most of the 
Saints, as well as people of the^world, on this subject, it was 
not mentioned only privately between the few whose minds 
were enlightened on the subject. 

Not knowing how my brother would receive it, I did not 
feel at liberty, and did not wish to assume the responsibility 
of instructing him in the principle of plural marriage, and 
either maintained silence, or, to his indirect questioning, gave 
evasive answers, until I was forced, by his cool and distant 
manner, to feel that he was growing jealous of my sisterly 
confidence — that I could not confide in his brotherly integ- 
rity. I could not endure this — something must be done. I 
informed my husband of the situation, and requested him to 
open the subject to my brother. A favorable opportunity 
soon presented, and, seated together on the lone bank of the 
Mississippi river, they had a most interesting conversation. 
The Prophet afterwards told me that he found that my broth- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. , ' 69 

er's mind had been previously enlightened on the subject in 
question, and was ready to receive whatever the spirit of rev- 
elation from God should impart. That Comforter which 
Jesus said should " lead into all truth" had penetrated his 
understanding, and while in England had given him an inti- 
mation of what at that time was, to many, a secret. This was 
the result of living near the Lord, and holding communion 
with Him. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Plural Marriage. — It tries the Prophet. —God commands, and he must 
obey.— Interview on the bank of the river.— The Prophet's words. — 
Gives Lorenzo a precious promise. — Lorenzo and myself visit our 
Parents, and return. — Lorenzo goes to Ohio. — Where he finds me on his 
return. — Close of 1843. — A social gathering, — Extract from* Lorenzo's 
speech. — He organizes a company. — The General's compliment. — 
Lorenzo's experience in an unfortunate school. — Makes a success. — 
Mobbing at Lima. 

T was at the private interview referred to above, that the 
Prophet Joseph unbosomed his heart, and described the 
trying mental ordeal he experienced in overcoming the 
repugnance of his feelings, the natural result of the force of 
education and social custom, relative to the introduction of 
plural marriage. He knew the voice of God — he knew the 
commandment of the Almighty to him was to go forward — to 
set the example, and establish Celestial plural marriage. He 
knew that he had not only his own prejudices and pre- 
possessions to combat and to overcome, but those of the 
whole Christian world stared him in the face; but God, 
who is above all, had given the commandment, and He 
must be obeyed. Yet the Prophet hesitated and deferred 
from time to time, until an angel of God stood by him 



70 BIOGRAPHY AND 

with a drawn sword, and told him that, unless he moved for- 
ward and established plural marriage, his Priesthood would 
be taken from him and he should be destroyed ! This testi- 
mony he not only bore to my brother, but also to others — a 
testimony that cannot be gainsayed. 

From my brother's journal: "At the interview on the 
bank of the Mississippi, in which the Prophet Joseph ex- 
plained the doctrine of Celestial Marriage, I felt very humble, 
and in my simplicity besought him earnestly to correct me 
and set me" right if, at any time, he should see me indulging 
any principle or practice that might tend to lead astray, into 
forbidden paths; to which he replied, 'Brother Lorenzo, the 
principles of honesty and integrity are founded within you, 
and you will never be guilty of any serious error or wrong, to 
lead you from the path of duty. The Lord will open your 
way to receive and obey the law of Celestial Marriage.' Dur- 
ing the conversation, I remarked to the Prophet I thought he 
appeared to have been endowed with great additional power 
during my mission in England. He said it was true; the 
Lord had bestowed on him additional divine power." 

On the 22d of May, Lorenzo and I started on a visit to 
our parents in Walnut Grove, seventy-five miles northeast 
from Nauvoo, and we returned on the 1st of June. On the 
12th, he left for Ohio; and when he returned on the last of 
August, he found me at our sister's, Mrs. Leonora A. Snow 
Morley, where our brother's occasional visits were highly ap- 
preciated. He spent a few days with us at the close of, the 
year 1843. On the evening of December 31, a social circle of 
a few choice friends convened at the house of our sister, and 
we had a lovely time. 

My brother being one of the orators of the evening, and 
his sister secretary pro tern., I copy from my own journal the 
following extracts from his parting speech, ' on the closing 
year:~ 

Lima, Sunday Evening, December 31, 1843. The year 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 71 

1843 is just closing upon us with all its eventfulness. While 
meditating upon the subject, the thought suggested to my mind 
that it was brother Lorenzo's turn to address those present. 
I made the motion, which was seconded and carried unani- 
mously (of course); and responding, he gave a very interest- 
ing address — beautifully adapted to -the occasion and to the 
peculiar circumstances of those present. 

He spoke of the anticipations of the future, on which the 
past had a very important bearing — the probable eventful 
scenery of the year about to open before us. In referring to 
the past, he said that the individuals present, while standing 
on the threshold of the year now closing, did not and could 
not imagine it possible for the changes to transpire which have 
transpired, with the reception and understanding — the light 
and intelligence connected with principles of salvation, etc., 
which will have an important bearing upon our future wel- 
fare; and we may also expect that the coming year will be as 
replete with interesting changes, and with consequences of 
more importance than our minds at present are capable of 
comprehending. 

But from the marvellous dealings of Divine Providence 
in overruling all things for our good — in bringing us safely 
through difficult scenes, we may look forward without the 
least anxiety — having everything to hope and nothing to fear. 

In referring to his own personal experience he said that 
one year ago he was in the great city of. London, presiding 
over the conference of Saints in the metropolis, and officiat- 
ing as first counselor to the President of all the Churches in 
the British Empire — looking forward with deep solicitude, 
anticipating the difficulties and dangers that awaited him in 
crossing the boisterous ocean, and holding the responsibility 
attendant on leading up to Zion a compan3'-of Saints; but the 
Lord had brought him through most successfully; and we 
are here together, enjoying the blessings of social life, etc., etc. 

He said, the year upon which we are soon to enter will, 



72 . BIOGRAPHY AND 

probably, release some of us from the difficulties into which 
the changes of the past have placed us; it will open our path 
and make things clear before us, but, perhaps we shall then 
meet other things of an unpleasant nature, as consequent 
attendants on those circumstances, and that scenery in 
which we may find ourselves. 

He forcibly suggested the utility of suppressing all anxi- 
ety with respect to the future, saying, " How illy were we 
qualified one year ago to pass through the scenes through 
which we have been led with success ! From which, let us 
realize the folly of an over anxiety to pry into scenes that are 
lying before us, inasmuch as God will prepare the way by a 
gradual process, step by step; and leading us forward in a 
manner that will prove easy, as we pass along, but which, if 
presented to our view at once, would seem insurmountable." 

He said that inasmuch as we are disposed to do right, we 
may learn from the past 'year's experience, that those things 
which we are called to suffer, produce a very different effect 
upon the mind from what we should anticipate if they were 
presented before us in prospect; producing pleasure and sat- 
isfaction where we would look for misery. While we reflect 
with astonishment on the past, we may be instructed to set 
our hearts at rest with regard to the future; and also by con- 
trasting the situations of some present with our situations one 
year ago, and taking into consideration our present enjoy- 
ments, we find it practicable for the mind to rise superior to 
circumstance; by having cultivated in our bosoms such prin- 
ciples as are calculated to elevate the affections — bring the 
feelings into subjection and give stability to the mind ; thus 
producing happiness independent of outward contingencies — 
possessing our happiness within ourselves. 

He said, in taking a retrospective view of our lives, even 
from the time we embraced the Gospel, although we had 
passed through some scenes of severe trials, God had borne 
us off victoriously thus far, even to our great astonishment 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 73 

and we may confidently trust in His guidance and protection 
for the coming year ! 

I will here record a little circumstance which transpired 
a short time after my brother returned from his English mis- 
sion, as follows: 

By request of Lieutenant General Joseph, Smith. for him 
to organize a military company, which was to constitute a por- 
tion of the celebrated " Nauvoo Legion," Lorenzo proceeded 
at once. The company which he organized was mostly com- 
posed of volunteers from the company of Saints he had re- 
cently conducted from England. In the selection of officers, 
he was chosen captain. 

At their first parade they were inspected by Gen. Smith, 
by whom the captain was highly complimented for the fine 
martial appearance and good military maneuvering of his 
company. It would not be at all surprising if an encomium 
from that source should arouse the long dormant military 
spirit of a man, who, as his early history tells, had so strik- 
ingly manifested a chivalrous vein in his " make up." Suffice 
it to say, the " Legion " claims the finale of Lorenzo's military 
tactics. 

An interval occurred between the missionary travels of 
my brother, which he decided to spend alternately between 
Nauvoo and the home of our sister, Mrs. L. A. Morley. 

Her home was in a small town called Lima, thirty miles 
south of Nauvoo. A few families of the Saints had clustered 
there, but most of the inhabitants were " old settlers," and 
anti-Mormon in their feelings, yet, when there was no up- 
rising, very friendly and respectful to those of our people who 
sojourned among them. 

Knowing that Lorenzo was rather leisurely that winter, 
the trustees solicited him to teach their district school. He 
consented, although, at the time, he well knew that he was 
taking an elephant by the bitts. The condition of that school 
was simply preposterous. A club of rough, ungovernable, 



74 BIOGRAPHY AND 

rowdy boys, for some time previous, had prided themselves 
on whipping teachers and breaking up schools. The Saints 
being a small minority, could exercise no authority to remedy 
the evil, and the " old settlers" too indifferent on the subject 
of education to do so, and the roughs carried the day, inso- 
much that no teacher had been able to complete his term for 
some time before this, without serious difficulty. 

Lorenzo was unaccustomed to defeat, and in this instance 
was willing to risk the chances. In the first place, he must 
obtain a school certificate of his moral character and proper 
qualifications, in order to secure the share of public money to 
which the district was entitled. Mr. Williams/ a notorious 
mobocrat, was the one authorized to issue certificates, and to 
him my brother applied. The examination was not only 
brief, but very superficial — sufficiently so to exhibit Williams' 
profound ignorance, which was truly amusing. 

The day arrived — he opened school — the belligerents were 
at their post, and" as he proceeded in the arrangements, he 
noticed a half dozen of those boys grouped together, eying and 
scrutinizing him in that kind of earnestness that means busi- 
ness. Without a wise policy on his part, a battle was inevita- 
ble. "Stoop to co?iqner," was at this juncture.his watchword. 
Physically they had decidedly the advantage of him, but 
mentally . the advantage was altogether on his side. He 
resolved to win respect by conferring it. " Love, and love only, 
is the loan for love" and he addressed those boys as though 
they were most respectable gentlemen. Grown up without 
either moral or mental culture, they were larger, and some of 
them' perhaps older than himself. 

He took especial pains to impress them with a sense of 
the interest he felt in their behalf, and the efforts he pur- 
posed making to assist them forward in their studies, with 
his peculiar faculty for teaching— the ambition he felt in this 
direction, etc., etc. In this way, by kindness and persuasion? 
their feelings relaxed — their confidence was won, and with 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 75 

patient and continued exertions, the unscrupulous roughs 
were transformed into respectful students; and long before 
the expiration of the term, with surprising progress, they had 
become habitually studious. 

The parents of those sons 'whom, through the wisdom 
that God had given, my.brother had civilized, moralized and 
mentalized, were delighted with the wonderful changes, and 
expressed their high appreciation and deep gratitude for the 
interest he had taken in their behalf. 

Patriarch Morley, the husband of our sister Leonora, pre- 
sided over the ^Saints at Lima. A few families, mostly his 
family connections, had grouped together and formed a little 
neighborhood of their own, which was known as the " Morley 
Settlement." Here occurred the first violent outbreak of hos- 
tilities against the Latter-day Saints in the State of Illinois. 
It commenced in a sudden raid in which houses and other 
conbustible property were burned, to that extent that the 
Saints had to flee precipitately, and destitute, to Nauvoo, leav- 
ing their real estate possessions to a heartless mob. 



76 BIOGRAPHY AND 



. CHAPTER XIV. 

The Prophet instructs the Twelve.— They appoint a Delegation to seek a 
location for [the Saints. — Lorenzo notified to be in readiness. — Change 
intervenes. — An unprecedented apostacy. — Joseph Smith's correspond- 
ence. — Calls for an expression from candidates for the Presidency. — 
Copy "of Appeal. — Disgusted with their responses. — Offers himself as 
candidate. — Elders electioneer. — How Lorenzo succeeds. — Terrible news 
— Assassination. — Mournful Elegy. — Meeting mobocrats. 

N the 20th of February, 1844, the Prophet Joseph 
Smith instructed the Twelve Apostles to send a dele- 
gation and make explorations in Oregon and Califor- 
nia, and seek a good location to which w 7 e can remove after 
the Temple is completed, and "where we can build a city in 
a day, and have a government of our owji." 

' In accordance with the foregoing instructions, the Twelve 
apppointed the following committee: Jonathan Dunham, 
Phineas H. Young, David D. Yearsley, David Fullmer, 
Alphonso Young, James Emmett, George D. Watt, Daniel 
Spencer. Subsequently others, including Lorenzo Snow, were 
called, and some volunteers were added to the above list. 

Previous to this, the Prophet had remarked to me that 
he anticipated moving to the Rocky Mountains with all his 
family, where he could live in peace and worship God unmo- 
lested. But other scenes and prospects awaited us. Ever busy 
change was hurrying onward to a fearful point. The most 
inveterate apostacy that this Church has yet had to meet was 
inaugurated in open rebellion against the authorities and the 
Priesthood in general. 

After the expulsion of the Latter-day Saints from the 
State of Missouri, the authorities of the Church, from time to 
time, appealed to the rulers of the nation for redress. When 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 77 

Martin Van Buren filled the presidential chair, the Prophet 
Joseph, after acquainting His Excellency with the causes of 
our grievances, received from our Chief Magistrate the laconic 
response: "Your cause is just, but I can 'do nothing for 
you." 

When the campaign, of 1843 opened, Joseph Smith 
opened correspondence with those brought forward as candi- 
dates for the presidency, requesting an expression of their 
views and the policy they proposed to pursue toward the 
"Mormons," if elected. The following is a copy of the docu- 
ment : 

Nauvoo, III., November 4, 1843. 

Dear Sir. — As we understand you are a candidate for the 
presidency at the next election, and as the Latter-day ^Saints 
(sometimes called "Mormons," who constitute a numerous 
class in the school politic of this vast republic) have been 
robbed of an immense amount of property, and endured 
nameless sufferings, by the State of Missouri, and from her 
borders have been driven by force of arms, contrary to our 
national covenants; and as in vain we have sought redress by 
all constitutional, legal and honorable means, in her courts, 
her executive councils, and her legislative halls; and as we 
have petitioned Congress to take cognizance of our sufferings, 
without effect, we have judged it wisdom to address you this 
communication, and solicit an immediate, specific and candid 
reply to, What will be your rule of action relative to us as a 
people, should fortune favor your ascension to the Chief 
Magistracy? 

Most respectfully, sir, your friend, and the friend of 
peace, good order and constitutional rights, 

Joseph Smith, 

In behalf of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. 

A copy of the above was sent to John C. Calhoun, Lewis 



78 BIOGRAPHY AND' 

Cass, Richard M. Johnson, Henry Clay and Martin Van 
Buren. 

After receiving their answers, he was so thoroughly dis- 
gusted with their narrow, illiberal sentiments, that he pub- 
lished a manifesto, in which he boldly expressed his "Views 
op the Powers and Policy of the Government of the 
United States," a document well worthy the study of the 
most erudite student of national policies. 

At length, to the surprise and intense gratification of 
many of his friends, Joseph Smith acceded to their repeated 
solicitations, and consented to become a candidate for the 
presidency of the United States. 

Those who best knew him — those who comprehended the 
depth of his understanding, the greatness of his soul, the 
superhuman wisdom with which he was endowed, the magni- 
tude of his calling as the leacler of the dispensation of the ful- 
ness of times, and the mouthpiece of God to this generation, 
considered it a marked condescension for him to be willing to 
accept the position of President of the United States; while 
those who, not having any personal acquaintance with him, 
had formed their opinions by the scurrilous reports circulated 
about him, and only knew of him as a base impostor — an 
ignorant leader of a poor, despised people, designated it as 
one of the most absurd and even ludicrous of all pretensions. 
The idea of "old Jo Smith" aiming at the highest gift of the 
nation — "the money digger" assuming such prerogative, 
struck them with as much astonishment, and was treated 
with as much derision as though he had been one of Mac- 
beth's ghosts. 

But his friends were in earnest. They knew that through 
the revelations of God he was in possession of higher intelli- 
gence, and more correct understanding of national policies, 
and particularly the needs of our own government as a 
republic, than any other man living. After he had submitted 
himself to be announced as a candidate for the presidency, a 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 79 

national convention assembled in Nauvoo, in which eighteen 
States were represented. 

Subsequently to this the Twelve (with the exception of 
Willard Richards and John Taylor) and many other promi- 
nent Elders were sent to various parts of the United States, 
which the following extract from Lorenzo's journal will 
explain : 

I was appointed to take the supervision of the political 
interests of General Joseph Smith, as candidate for the presi- 
dential chair, in Ohio, my native State. For this purpose I 
left Nauvoo, and proceeded directly, by steamboat and stage, 
to the neighborhood of Kirtland, in the northern part of the 
State, where I secured the printing of several thousand 
pamphlets, sotting forth his political views, suggestions, pro- 
positions, etc., for distribution. 

I then procured a horse and buggy, and traveled through 
the most populous portions of tho country, lecturing, canvass- 
ing, and distributing pamphlets. Many people, both Saints 
and Gentiles, thought this a bold stroke of policy; however, 
our own people generally, whom I met, were quite willing to 
use their influence and devote their time and energies to the 
promotion of the object in view. 

I had a very interesting time — had many curious inter- 
views, and experienced many singular circumstances, on this 
my first and last electioneering tour. To many persons who 
knew nothing of Joseph, but through the ludicrous reports in 
circulation, the movement seemed a species of insanity, while 
others, with no less astonishment, hailed it as a beacon of 
prosperity to our national destiny. In the midst of these 
extremes, my progress was suddenly brought to a close, by a 
well confirmed report of the massacre of the Prophet and his 
brother Hyrum. 

When this terrible news reached me, I was near Cincin- 
nati, to which place I immediately repaired, and found the 
Apostle, Amasa Lyman,' who had just arrived from Nauvoo 



80 BIOGRAPHY AND 

with intelligence of the martyrdom, and with counsel and 
instructions to the Saints and Elders. 

The news of this sad event, of course, came wholly unex- 
pected, and struck me with profound astonishment and grief, 
which no language can portray. As a partial expression of 
my thoughts and feelings, I quote thie following lines, written 
by my sister: 



THE ASSASSINATION OF GENERALS JOSEPH SMITH AND 
HYRUM SMITH, 

FIRST PRESIDENTS OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS, 

WHO WERE MASSACRED BY A MOB, IN CARTHAGE, HANCOCK 

CO., ILL., ON THE 27TH OF JUNE, 1844. 

- And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls 
of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which 
they held: i 

And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, Lord, holy and 
true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the 
earth? 

And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said 
unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellow- 
servants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should 
be fulfilled.— Rev., vi; 9, 10, 11. 

Ye heavens, attend! Let all the earth give ear! 

Let Gods and seraphs, men and angels hear: 

The worlds on high — the universe shall know, 

What awful scenes are acted here below! 

Had Nature's self a heart, her heart would bleed 

At the recital of so foul a deed; 

For never, since the Son of God was slain, 

Has blood so noble flowed from human vein, i 

As that which now on God for vengeance calls 

From "Freedom's" ground — from Carthage prison walls. 

Oh, Illinois! thy soil has drunk the blood 
Of Prophets, martyred for the truth of God. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 81 

Once loved America! what can atone 

For the pure blood of innocence thou'st sown? 

Were all thy streams in teary torrents shed, , 

To mourn the fate of those illustrious dead, 

How vain the tribute for the noblest worth, 

That graced thy surface, degraded earth! 

Vile, wretched murderers, fierce for human blood, 
You've slain the Prophets of the living God; 
Who've borne oppression from their early youth, 
To plant on earth, the principles of truth. 

Shades of our patriot fathers! Can it be, 
Beneath your blood-stained flag of liberty, 
The firm supporters of our country's cause, 
Are butchered while submissive to her laws? 
Yes, blameless men, defamed by hellish lies, 
Have thus been offered as a sacrifice, 
T' appease the ragings of a brutish clan, 
That has defied the laws of God and man! 
'Twas not for crime or guilt of theirs, they fell: 
Against the laws they never did rebel. 
True to their country, yet her plighted faith • • 
Has proved an instrument of" cruel death. 

Great men have fallen, mighty men have died— - 

Nations have mourned their fav' rites and their pride; 

But, two so wise, so virtuous and so good," 

Before on earth, at once, have never stood 

Since the Creation — men whom God ordained, 

To publish truth where error long had reigned; 

Of whom the world itself unworthy proved; 

It knew them not, but men with hatred moved, 

And with infernal spirits have combined 

Against the best — the noblest of mankind. 

0, persecution! shall thy purple hand 
Spread utter desolation through the land? 
Shall Freedom's banner be no more unfurled? 
Has peace, indeed, been taken from the world? 



82 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Thou God of Jacob, in this trying hour, 
Help us to 1 trust in Thy Almighty power — 
Support the Saints beneath this awful stroke — 
Make bare Thine arm to break oppression's yoke. 
We mourn Thy Prophet, from whose lips have flowed 
The words of life Thy Spirit has bestowed — 
A depth of thought no human art could reach, 
From time to time, flowed in sublimest speeeh, 
From Thy celestial fountain, through his mind, 
To purify and elevate mankind; 
The rich intelligence by him brought forth, 
Is like the sunbeam spreading o'er the earth. 

Now Zion mourns — she mourns an earthly head; 
Her Prophet and her Patriarch are dead; 
The blackest deed that men and devils know, 
Since Oalv'ry's scene, has laid the brothers low. 
One while in life, and one in death — they proved 
How strong their friendship — how they truly loved; 
True to their mission, until death they stood, 
Then sealed their testimony with their blood. 

All hearts with sorrow bleed, and every eye 
Is bathed in tears; each bosom heaves a sigh; 
Heart broken widows' agonizing groans 
Are mingled with the helpless orphans' moans. 

Ye Saints! be still, and know that God is just — 
With steadfast purpose in His promise trust; 
Girded with sackcloth, own His mighty hand, 
And wait His judgments on this guilty land. 
The noble Martyrs now have gone to move 
The cause of Zion in the courts above. 

Xauvoo, July 1, 1844. 

With saddened heart I then returned to the vicinity of 
Kirtland, from whence I started — arranged some matters of 
business and set my face homeward, traveling with horse and 
buggy; nothing of interest, worthy of notice, occurring, 
except, perhaps, I might mention a little incident which hap- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 83 

pened after passing through Carthage, the place of Joseph 
and Hy rum's martyrdom. 

, The spirit of destruction, mobocracy and murder was 
rampant, and our enemies in Carthage, and other towns and 
settlements in the vicinity of Nauvoo, were seeking every 
opportunity to wreak vengeance upon our people, especially 
when it could be accomplished without endangering them- 
selves. 

One morning, near the break of day, as I approached the 
summit of a long hill, I saw about a dozen fierce looking 
men, armed with guns and bowie knives, advancing towards 
me. As we approached each other about half way down the 
hill, they eyed mevery suspiciously — stopped, talked low and 
excitedly, but just at that moment one of my buggy wheels 
struck a stone, giving the vehicle a sudden jolt, upon which 
I turned towards them, and in an angry- voice exclaimed, 
"Boys! Why in hell don't you repair this road!" "He is 
one of us," quickly remarked one of the group. "He is all 
right, let him pass." 

I had several hundred dollars about my person, most of 
which had been entrusted to me to be delivered to various 
parties; how far my uncouth and undignified expression 
went as security for their money, must be left to conjecture. 



84 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XV. 

Lorenzo a Bachelor.— The Prophet instructs him.— He changes tactics. — 
Marries. — Wives and Endowments. — In the Temple. — Wrath of our 
Enemies. — Expulsion of the Sainta. — Cross the Mississippi River. — 
Intensely cold.— Snow storm. — Outfit. — Camp organized. — Moves for- 
ward. — Song No. 1. — Song No. 2. 

■4. » 

€P to this time my brother lived a bachelor. The great 
work in which he was engaged as a missionary of the 
* Gospel of salvation to the nations of the. earth, had so 
engrossed his mind and engaged the energies of his soul, that 
virtually he had ignored the first commandment to "multiply 
and replenish the earth." To devote his time, his talents, his 
all to the ministry was his all-absorbing desire; and in conso- 
nance with this desire, he had cherished' the idea that domes- 
tic responsibility would lessen his usefulness; and, until the 
law of Celestial Marriage was fully explained to him by the 
Prophet Joseph Smith, in a prolonged interview while the 
two were seated alone on the bank of the Mississippi river, as 
before related, he had not conceived the idea that marriage 
was one of the duties of the great mission of mortal life. 

With him, this, as well as every other practical doctrine, 
was only to be understood to be obeyed. It is one of his 
peculiarities to do nothing by halves; and when convinced of 
the duty of marriage, and that it was a privilege accorded 
him in connection with his ministerial calling, he entered into 
it on an enlarged scale, by having two wives sealed to him in 
the -holy bonds of matrimony, for time and eternity, at the 
same time; and not long after, another was added to the num- 
ber, and then another. Thus, all at once, as it were, from the 
lone bachelor he was transformed into a husband invested 
with many domestic responsibilities. Probably a realizing 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 85 

sense of the fact that he had arrived at the mature age of 
thirty-one years in celibacy, suggested to him the propriety of 
making up for lost time by more than ordinary effort, and out 
of the old beaten track. 

Previous to the administration of those sacred sealing or- 
dinances, he explained to each of the chosen ones the law, 
obligations and object of Celestial Marriage, and that he might 
be expected to take others — that- the ceremony being precisely 
the same for each, they would all occupy the same equal posi- 
tion, no one having a higher claim than another. 

It was distinctly understood and agreed between them 
that their marriage relations should not, for the time being, 
be divulged to the world; but if circumstances should be such 
that he would wish to acknowledge as wife, before the world, 
either one of them, he should be permitted to do so. 

Early in the winter of 1845-6, the Nauvoo Temple was 
so far completed that the administration of the sacred ordi- 
nances of the Holy Priesthood was commenced, and contin- 
ued until about the first of February — thousands of the Saints 
receiving endowments and sealings. My brother and his 
wives, among the number, had their washings, anointings and 
endowments, and were sealed at a holy altar, a privilege and 
blessing which they estimated above all earthly honors. 
When Lorenzo walked across the inner court of the Temple 
proceeding to the aitar, accompanied by his four wives, all 
stately appearing ladies, one of the Temple officiates 
exclaimed, "And his train filled the Temple ! " 

The wrath and bloodthirsty spirit of our enemies, sus- 
tained and encouraged by State authority, at this time pre- 
dominated to that degree that the labors in the Temple were 
closed, and the energies of the Saints directed towards a hasty 
flight, to avoid impending extirpation. Time and circum- 
stances admitted of very little, and in many instances, no 
preparation for a journey "of an indefinite length; and to what 
point we did not know, but go we must. 



86 BIOGRAPHY AND 

I crossed the Mississippi river on the 12th of February; 
my brother, with a portion of his famity, a few days later, 
after having made the necessary arrangements for the others 
to follow. On the day in which he crossed the river, the 
Nauvoo Temple took fire, but fortunately the fire was extin- 
guished before much damage was sustained. 

We camped near the bank of the river, in a small grove. 
We were poorly prepared for the journey before us, especially 
a.t this season of the year. A heavy snowstorm occurred, 
after which the weather turned intensely cold, and caused 
considerable suffering. My brother had two wagons and a 
small tent, one cow and a scanty supply of provisions and 
clothing, and yet was much better off than some of our neigh- 
bors in our general encampment. 

On the 7th of February, 1846, Brigham Young, our great 
leader under God, organized the Camp in order for traveling. 
Lorenzo was, at this time or soon after,' appointed captain 
over the ten in which Parley P. and Orson Pratt and their 
families were included. On the first day of March, the 
ground covered with snow, we broke encampment about noon, 
and soon nearly four hundred wagons were moving to — ice 
knew not where. 

As applicable to the circumstances, I here insert two 
poems which I wrote in Camp: 



CAMP OF ISRAEL. 

No. 1. 

Although in woods and tents we dwell, 
Shout ! shout ! Camp of Israel: 
No " Christian " mobs on earth can bind' 
Our thoughts, or steal our peace of mind. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 87 



Chorus. 



Though we fly from vile aggression, 
We'll maintain our pure profession — 
Seek a peaceable possession, 
Far from Gentiles and oppression. 

.We'd better live in tents and smoke, 
Than wear the cursed Gentile yoke ; 
We'd better from our country fly, 
Than by monocracy to die. 

Chorus. — Though we fly, etc. 

We've left the City of Xauvoo, 
And our beloved Temple too ; 
And to the wilderness we go, 
Amid the winter frosts and snow. 

Chorus. 

Our homes were dear — we loved them well — 
Beneath our roofs we fain would dwell, 
And honor our great God's commands, 
By mutual rights of Christian lands. 

Chorus. 

Our persecutors will not cease 
Their murd'rous spoiling of our peace, 
And have decreed that we shall go 
To wilds where reeds and rushes grow. 

Chorus. 

The Camp, the Camp — its numbers swell — 
Shout! shout! Camp of Israel! 
The King, the Lord of hosts is near, 
His armies guard our front and rear. 

Chorus. 



West side of the Mississippi, Feb. 19th, 184G. 



88 BIOGRAPHY AND 

CAMP OF ISRAEL. 

No. 2. 

Lo, a mighty host of Jacob, 

Tented on the western shore 
Of the noble Mississippi, 

They had crossed, to cross no more. 
At the last day-dawn of winter, 

Bound with frost and wrapped in snow; 
Hark! the cry is "Onward, onward ! 

Camp of Israel, rise and go." 

All at once is life and motion — 

Trunks, and beds, and baggage fly; 
Oxen yoked, and horses harnessed, 

Tents rolled up and passing by: 
Soon the carriage wheels are moving, 

Onward to a woodland dell,' 
Where at sunset all are quartered — 

Camp of Israel, all is well. 

Thickly 'round the tents are clustered, 

Neighb'ring smokes together blend; 
Supper served, the hymns are chanted, 

And the evening prayers ascend. 
Last of all the guards are stationed — 

Heavens! must guards be serving here? 
Who would harm the houseless exiles? 

Camp of Israel, never fear. 

Where is Freedom? Where is Justice? 

Both have from this nation fled; 
And the blood of martyred Prophets 

Must be answered on if s head ! 
Therefore, to your tents, Jacob! 

Like our Father Abra'm dwell; 
God will execute His purpose — 



March 1st, 1846. 



Camp of Israel, all is well. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 89 




CHAPTER XVI. 

Garden Grove.— Pisgah.— Sever© sidcness. — Death of Elder Huntington.— 
Lorenzo called to preside. — Condition of the Saints. — A dilemma. — 
Lorenzo's policy. — How he succeeded. — A ludicrous and enjoyable 
entertainment. — Births. —Death. — Life incidents. — President Young's 
call. — Appointments.— Another wife. — Arrives in the Valley. — Ordained 
into the Quorum of the Twelve. — Builds a log house. 

[E moved slowly forward. As this was the breaking 
up of winter, travel with teams was exceedingly 
difficult, especially as our teams were not suitably 
provided for; the animals lived mostly on browse (buds and 
twigs of trees, which were felled for this purpose), and, conse- 
quently, were weak and poor. 

At a locality which we named Garden Grove, we made a 
halt, and commenced an improvement by building a few log 
, huts, etc. This was done, more especially, for the benefit of 
those who would follow — a few remaining to cultivate the 
ground and prepare a resting place for the weary Saints, while 
the main body of the camp moved forward to another halt- 
ing place, which we named Pisgah. 

Now to my brother's journal: At this place I was taken 
seriously and dangerously ill with a burning fever, which so 
affected my brain that I was delirious many days, lying at 
the point of death. While in this condition, Elder Phineas 
Richards, the father of Apostle F. D. Richards, assisted 
by other kind brethren, took me from my bed, wrapped in 
a sheet — placed me in a carriage, drove to a stream of 
water, and baptized me in the name of the Lord, for 
my recovery. The fever immediately abated, and through 
kind, unwearied nursing and attention, by my faithful, lov- 
ing wives, and my dear sister, E. R. S. Smith, aided and 



90 BIOGRAPHY AND 

sanctified through the power and blessing of God, I was deliv- 
ered from suffering and restored to health. The sickness was 
the result of extreme hardships and exposures consequent on 
the journey. 

Elder William Huntington was called to preside over 
the settlement in Pisgah, which position he filled until, as 
many others in that location, he was removed by death, and 
his mortal remains consigned to the silent grave. After his 
death, Elder Charles G. Rich was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. In the following Spring, 1847, Elder Rich left for the 
Bluffs, to join the main body of emigrants, and I succeeded 
him as president of Pisgah. • 

By this time the Saints in Pisgah were in a-very destitute 
condition, not only for food and clothing, but also for teams 
and wagons to proceed on their journey. Several families 
were entirely out of provision, and dependent on the charity 
of their neighbors, who, in most- cases, were illy prepared .to 
exercise that virtue. But, above all this, a sweeping sickness 
had visited the settlement, when there were not sufficient 
well ones to nurse the sick; and death followed in the wake, 
and fathers, mothers, children, brothers, sisters and dearest 
friends fell victims to the destroyer, and were buried with 
little ceremony, and some destitute of proper burial clothes. 
Thus were sorrow and mourning adde'd to. destitution. (Here 
the journal closes for the present.) 

What a dilemma! And who better calculated to cope 
with it than Lorenzo Snow? With an indomitable energy — 
a mind fruitful in expedients, and a firmness of purpose 
that never yielded to discouragement, he proved himself 
equal to au emergency which would have terrified men of 
ordinary abilities. 

In the first place he moved to arouse and combine the 
energies of the people — organized the brethren in companies, 
making selections of suitable men, some to proceed to the 
Gentile setlements to- obtain work for provisions and 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 91 

clothing, others to put in crops at home and look after xhe 
families of those who were called away — to repair wagons, 
making new ones out of old, and to manufacture chairs, bar- 
rels, tubs, churns, baskets and such other articles as could be 
disposed of to advantage in the neighboring settlements. 

In creating the desirable and necessary union and per- 
fecting thes3 arrangements, he met with much opposition 
from some who professed to be Latter-day Saints, in conse- 
quence of their ignorance and selfishness; but through the 
blessings of the Lord, he succeeded in having his plans suc- 
cessfully executed. 

He sent Elders Dana and Cambell, two intelligent and 
judicious brethren, to the State of Ohio and other parts of the 
country, to solicit aid, to invite rich Gentiles to contribute to 
the wants of the Saints and assist them in their journey west- 
ward. They succeeded in gathering funds amounting to 
about six hundred dollars. The arrangements entered into 
resulted in supplying the people with abundance of food and 
clothing, besides facilitating the exodus of those who wished 
to proceed on the journey as early as practicable. 

Now the journal speaks:- 1 had the pleasure of taking a 
wagon load of provisions up to the Bluffs, and in behalf of 
the Saints of Pisgah, presenting it to President Brigham 
Young as a New Year's gift, who manifested a warm feeling 
of gratitude for this kind token of remembrance. 

During the long winter months, I sought to keep up the 
spirits and courage of the Saints in Pisgah, not'only by inau- 
gurating meetings for religious worship and exercises, in 
different parts of the settlement, but also by making provi- 
sions for, and encouraging .proper amusements of various 
kinds. These entertainments corresponded with our circum- ' 
stances, and, of course, were of a very unpretentious and 
primitive character; their novel simplicity and unlikeness to 
anything before witnessed, added greatly to the enjoyment. 
They were truly exhibitions of ingenuity. « 



92 BIOGRAPHY AND 

As a sample, I will attempt a description of one, which 
I improvised for the entertainment of as many as I could 
reasonably crowd together in my humble family mansion, 
which was a one-story edifice, about fifteen by thirty, con- 
structed of logs, with a dirt roof and ground floor, displaying 
at one end a chimney of modest height, made of turf cut 
from the bosom of Mother Earth. Expressly for the occasion 
we carpeted the floor with a thin coating of clean straw, and 
draped the walls with white sheets drawn from our feather- 
less beds. 

How to light our hall suitably for the coming event was 
a consideration of no small moment, and one which levied a 
generous contribution on our ingenuity. . But we succeeded. 
From the pit where they were buried, we selected the largest 
and fairest turnips — scooped out the interior, and fixed short 
candles in them, placing them at intervals around the walls, 
suspending others to the ceiling above, which was formed 
of earth and cane. Those lights imparted a very peace- 
able, quiet, Quakerlike influence, and vthe light reflected 
through those turnip rinds imparted a very picturesque 
appearance. 

During the evening exercises, several of my friends, in 
the warmest expressions possible, complimented me and my 
family for the peculiar taste and ingenuity displayed in those 
unique and inexpensive arrangements. 

The hours were enlivened, and happily passed, as we 
served up a dish of succotash, composed of short speeches, 
full of life and sentiment, spiced with enthusiasm, appro- 
priate songs, recitations, toasts, conundrums, exhortations, 
etc., etc. At the close, all seemed perfectly satisfied, and 
withdrew, feeling as happy as though they were not homeless. 

In Pisgah, my family was composed of the following 
individuals: Mary Adaline (my eldest wife); Hyrum, Orville 
and Jacob, her sons by a former husband; Charlotte, Sarah 
Ann, Harriet Amelia. Porter and John Squires continued as 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 93 

members of my family until we arrived in Salt Lake Valley, 
and, in fact, till I returned from my Italian mission. 

All of the women above mentioned were sealed to me as 
my wives in the Temple at Nauvoo, where we all received our 
second anointings. 

In Pisgah, Charlotte gave birth to a daughter (my first- 
born), which we named Leonora, after my eldest sister. Also 
Adaline gave birth to a daughter, named Rosetta, after my 
mother. 

Little Leonora was taken sick and died, and with deep 
sorrow we bore her remains to their silent resting place, to be 
left alone, far from her father and the mother who gave her 
birth. Sarah Ann also gave birth to a daughter, named after 
my sister and her mother, Eliza Sarah. 

Before the spring opened and grass grew sufficient to sus- 
tain our stock, we were under the necessity of felling trees, to 
feed our animals upon the buds and twigs, to keep them 
alive. 

In the latter part of winter, my only cow sickened and 
died, a loss which we seriously felt. She had been a great 
help to us on our journey, by supplying us with milk — was 
remarkably domesticated, kind and gentle. She was a present 
from Sister Hinckley, of Portage County, Ohio. People 
familiar with the circumstances of the Saints at that time 
would readily pardon my family for shedding a few tears on 
the occasion. Incidents which in after years would seem of 
very little or no consequence were<at that "time subjects of 
grave consideration. 

One night, when our animals were driven into the corral, 
after having browsed among the tree tops through the day, it 
was discovered that one steer was missing. Early the next 
morning, with great anxiety, we went in search of it. About 
a mile from home we came to the river, along the bank of 
which our stock had been feeding. The stream was much 
swollen in consequence of the melting snow and ice. For a 



94 BIOGRAPHY AND 

» 

long time our search was fruitless; at last, when about to give 
up the pursuit, I discovered, on the opposite side of -the river, 
the head and horns of my drowned ox protruding out between 
some large cakes of ice. I must confess a feeling of sadness 
stole over me at the unwelcome sight. It broke* up one of my 
teams which it really seemed impossible for me either to spare 
or replace. 

Early in the spring of 1848, Lorenzo was counseled by 
President Young to join him and his company, and proceed 
to the valleys of the mountains. Prompt to the instructions, 
he organized a company comprising about twenty-live families 
and started westward. 

' On arrival at the " Horn," he was appointed captain over 
one of the " hundreds," embracing one hundred wagons. He 
selected-'Elder Leman Hyde captain over one "fifty," and 
Elder John Stoker captain of the other "fifty."' 

On the day his company left their encampment at the 
"Horn," another wife, Eleanor, was sealed to him by Presi- 
dent Brigham ..Young. The journal says: I managed to 
discharge my obligations as captain of my "hundred" very 
satisfactorily, for which I felt truly grateful to the Lord. 

He arrived in the valley with his family without further 
serious accident — all in good health and rejoicing in the 
blessings of prospective peace. Soon after arrival, he was 
successful in obtaining what at that time was considered a 
fashionable log house, very similar in size, style and finish to 
that heretofore described which he left in Pisgah. 

On the 12th of February, 1849, he was cited to put in an 
appearance at a meeting of the Twelve, then in session. Why 
or wherefore he could not imagine; but,' with his character- 
istic promptitude, he went' forthwith, ruminating in his mind 
whether he was called to answer some unsuspected charge or 
other; but a cdnsciousness of faithful integrity to the duties 
assigned him predominated over every apprehension. To his 
great surprise, on arrival he was informed of his appointment 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 1)5 

to the Quorum of the Twelve, and was then ordained a mem- 
ber of that quorum. Elders C. C. Rich, Erastus Snow and 
F. D. Richards were also ordained into that quorum at the 
same time, under the hands of Brigham Young, Heber C. 
Kimball, Willard Richards, Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor. 
In the spring and summer, with the assistance of Porter 
and John Squires, he built a log house on his lot in Salt Lake 
City, which, although a little more ample in dimensions and 
a little improved in appearance, bore a striking resemblance 
to those he occupied in Pisgah, and in Salt Lake City on his 
first entrance. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

The first celebration. — Lorenzo chairman of committee. — Description of 
Escort— Moves from Bowery to President Young's. — Receives the 
Presidency. — Returns to Bowery. — Singing by the way. — Cheers. — 
Hymn.— Prayer. — Declaration of Independence read.— Speech by Silver 
Greys. — Ode sung by Silver Greys. — Shout of hosanna. — March to the 
dinner tables. — A rich feast. — Thousands of the Saints partake. — Gentiles 
en route to California, partake.— Scores of Indians partake. — Grandeur in 
Simplicity. — Gratitude to God. 

HE first celebration in the valleys of the mountains was 
held on the twenty-fourth of July, 1849 — the second 
anniversary of the entrance of the pioneers. In this, 
Lorenzo had much to do. In fact, the originating and com- 
piling the programme for the exercises of the day, was the 
product of his fertile brain. The occasion was' one which 
called into requisition his inventive abilities, and exhibited 
his taste and skill as an organizer; also the wonderful power 
of co-operative effort in carrying concerted plans into execu- 
tion. Truly, it was not creating out of nothing; but when we 
take into consideration the circumstances of the people at that 



96 BIOGKAPHY AND 

time — driven from their homes — robbed and plundered, and 
so recently located in a sterile waste, one thousand miles 
from all supplies, except what they extracted from a long- 
barren soil; it will be at once realized that it required no 
small stretch of thought and ingenuity to organize, and with 
appropriate honors, celebrate a day of so much historical 
importance as the one in question. But they had "the right 
man in the right "place;" for in this instance, as in everything 
he undertook, Lorenzo verified the adage, "What is worth 
doing, is worth doing well." And, to make a success of what- 
ever he undertook, he neither spared labor nor application. 

Although, since that early day of our mountain home, 
as circumstances have changed — means been multiplied, 
and foreign resources brought within the reach of this once 
isolated people, insomuch that in more recent celebrations of 
that ever memorable day, the twenty-fourth of July, mam- 
moth displays have been crowned with wealth and magnifi- 
cence, this first, the opening one — this display of civilization 
in a desolate wilderness has never been eclipsed. 

As it may be interesting to many of the coming genera- 
tion, we will here give a brief description of the celebration, 
as follows: The inhabitants were awakened by the firing of 
cannon, accompanied by music. The brass band, playing 
martial airs, paraded the principal streets of the city, in a 
gaily decorated ' omnibus, with prancing steeds, and with 
banners flying, returning to - the Bowery, from whence they 
started. 

The Bowery was one hundred feet long, by sixty wide; it 
was built on one hundred and four posts, and covered with 
boards; but for the services of this day, a canopy or awning 
was extended about one hundred feet from each side of the 
Bowery, to accommodate the vast multitude at dinner. 

At half-past seven, the large national flag, measuring 
sixty-five feet in length, was unfurled at the top of the liberty 
pole, which was one hundred and four feet high, and was 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 97 

saluted by the firing of six guns, the ringing of the "Nauvoo 
bell/' and soul-stirring airs from "the band. 

At eight o'clock, the multitude was called together by- 
music and the firing of guns — the Bishops of the several 
wards arranging themselves in the sides of the aisles, with 
the banners of their wards -unfurled, each bearing an appro- 
priate inscription. 

At a quarter past eight a grand and imposing escort was 
formed, under the direction of Lorenzo Snow, Jedediah M. 
Grant and Franklin D. Richards, in the following order, to 
wit: (1) Horace S. Eldredge, marshal, on horseback, in mili- 
tary uniform; (2) brass band; (3) twelve Bishops, bearing the 
banners of their wards; (4) twenty -four young men dressed in 
white pants, black coats, white scarfs on the right shoulder, 
and coronets on their heads, each carrying in his right hand 
a, copy of the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, and each wearing a sheathed sword 
by his side — one of them carrying a beautiful banner, on 
which was inscribed, "The Lion of the Lord;" (5) twenty -four 
young ladies dressed in white, with blue scarfs on the right 
shoulder, and wreaths of white roses on their heads- each 
carrying a Bible and a Book of Mormon, and one carrying a 
neat banner, inscribed with "Hail to our Captain;" (G) P. P. 
Pratt, John Taylor, Charles C. Rich, Daniel Spencer, David 
Fullmer, Willard Snow, Erastus Snow; (7) twenty-four Silver 
Greys, led by Isaac Morley, Patriarch — each carrying, a staff, 
painted red on the upper part, with a bunch of white ribbon 
floating at the top — one 'of them carrying the "Stars and 
Stripes," bearing the inscription, "Liberty or Death." 

The escort marched from the Bowery .to the residence 
of Governor Brigham Young, and, at nine o'clock, when 
Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball had taken their 
position in the procession, in front of the Twelve Apostles, it 
moved forward, led by the committee, while the cannon 
roared, the musketry rolled, the "Nauvoo bell" pealed forth 

8 



98 BIOGRAPHY AND 

its silvery notes, and the air was filled with the soul-stirring 
strains of the brass band; and, as a soft, sweet and soothing 
refrain, intermingling harmoniously as they marched, the 
twenty-four young ladies and twenty-four young gentlemen 
sang the following, composed by Apostle P. P. Pratt: 

THE MOUNTAIN STANDARD. 

Lo! the Gentile chain is broken — 

Freedom's banner waves on high. 
'List, ye nations: by this token, 

Know that your redemption's nigh. 

i See, on yonder distant mountain, 

Zion's standard wide unfurled; 
Far above Missouri's fountain, 
Lo! it waves for all the world. 

i 

Freedom, peace and full salvation 

/ Are the blessings guaranteed; 

Liberty to every nation, 
Every tongue and every creed. 

Come, ye Christian sects and pagan, 

Pope and Protestant and priest — 
Worshipers of God and Dagan, 

Come, come, to Freedom's feast. 

Come, ye sons of doubt and wonder, 

Indian, Moslem, Greek or Jew; 
All your shackles burst asunder — 

Freedom's banner waves for you. 

Cease to butcher one another — 

Join the covenant of peace; 
Be to all, a friend — a brother, 

This will bring the world's release. 

Lo! our Kins:, the great Messiah, 
Prince of Peace, shall come to reign; 

£ound again, ye heavenly choir, 
Peace on earth, good will to men. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 99 

On arriving at the Bowery, the escort was received with 
shouts of "Hosanna to God and the Lamb!" While the 
Governor and suite, Patriarch and Presiding Bishops were pass- 
ing down the aisle, the people cheered and shouted, "Hail to 
the Governor of Deseret." These being seated on the 
stand by the committee, the escort marched around the Bow- 
ery, singing an appropriate hymn — then down the aisle, and 
were seated in double rows on each side. 

The assembly was called to order, and prayer offered by 
Apostle Erastus Snow. 

Richard Ballantyne, chairman of the twenty-four young 
men, came to the stand, and, in a neat speech, presented the 
Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the 
United States to Governor Young, which was received with 
three shouts, "May they live forever!" led by Governor 
Young. 

The Declaration of Independence was then read, the brass 
band following with lively airs, after which the following 
Song of Liberty, by E. R. S. Smith, was sung by the twenty- 
four young ladies: 

SONG OP LIBERTY. 

Long, long ago, when Earth and Time 

Were in the morn of life, 
All joyous in their lovely prime, 

With fragrant beauty rife. 
All nature then in order crowned 

With perfect harmony; 
Luxuriant products clothed the ground, 

0, there was liberty. 

No vail obscured the worlds on high 

From those that dwelt on earth; 
But in the pathway of the sky, 

They journeyed back and forth. 



100 • BIOG11APHY AND 

i 

Then God and angels talked with men, 

And woman, too, was free, 
For both were pure and sinless then, 
In perfect liberty. 

The curse pursued transgression's track, 

And man from God was driven, 
Until the Priesthood brought him back, 

To do the will of heaven. 
We'll shout hosanna to the Lord, 

For what is yet to be, 
When earth and man will be restored 

To God and liberty. 

We see the lighthouse brightly blaze 

Far o'er the boisterous wave; 
With cheering prospects thus we gaze 

On hopes bej r ond the grave; 
For woman, if submissive here 

To God's divine decree, 
Restored, will fill a noble sphere 

In glorious liberty. 

The Lord has set His gracious hand, 

And by His mighty power, 
He led His people to this land — 

Preparing for the hour; 
For Earth and Time are growing old, 

And soon Eternity 
Will to the Saints of God unfold 

Celestial liberty. 

The singing by the young ladies performed, Elder 
Phineas Richards came forward in behalf of the twenty-four 
aged sires, and read their loyal and patriotic address, as fol- 
lows: 

1o our honorable President and this respectable Audience: 

Respected Fellow Citizens: — Permit us, the aged Fathers 
in Israel, to mingle our voices with yours on this interesting 
occasion — an occasion which is calculated to call into exercise 
the most acute feelings of the human heart. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 101 

The circumstance which we this day commemorate, will- 
form a very important item in the history of succeeding ages. 
Two years ago this day, when President Brigham Young first 
entered this valley, he completed the most extraordinary 
expedition ever recorded in the annals of history. 

There are sometimes -small and seemingly trivial events 
in the life of man, with which every other period most natu- 
rally associates. There are circumstances in the history of 
nations, which seem as fulcrums, around which everything 
else revolves. But the period, the circumstance, the event 
which we now commemorate, is one with which is associated 
the interests of the world — the salvation of the whole human 
family. 

What must be the feelings, this day, of President Young, 
the leader of that, noble band of Pioneers, while he contem- 
plates the results of the last two years? Realizing the respon- 
sibility of his position as the head of a numerous people, per- 
secuted and driven from their cherished homes, where their 
first leader and Prophet had sealed his mission with his 
blood; we say, what must have been his feelings when, with a 
little band, with barely necessaries sufficient to sustain life for 
a few months, and leaving their families nearly destitute, on 
lands claimed by faithless savages, he started forth into the 
wilderness in search of a home for his people, like Abraham 
of old, "not knowing whither he went?" But he knew that 
God had called him — he trusted in the arm of Omnipotence, 
and by the unseen hand of the Almighty Jehovah, their feet 
were directed across a trackless desert to this place. And 
who, fellow citizens, with the recollections of the past and the 
anticipations of the future, would attempt to describe the 
feelings that on this occasion fill the breasts of your aged 
fathers? • *. 

Soon, like the Patriarchs of old, we expect to be gathered 
to our fathers. Our bosoms swell with gratitude to /the Most 
High, that after years of tossing to and fro, our feet are onc« 



102 BIOGRAPHY AND 

more established upon a land of peace; although exiled by 
the bloody hand of persecution from the much loved lands of 
our nativity — our once beautiful homes and quiet firesides, 
where we inherited the sweets of domestic life from those who 
fought the battles of the American Revolution, to establish 
the principles of equity, and a government of peace. From 
them, too, as a natural inheritance, have we imbibed, and 
with ardor cherished, the holy fire of patriotism; which, hav- 
ing been constitutionally implanted in our natures, can never 
become extinct. As easily might the earth be removed from 
its orbit — as well might yonder sun be made to emanate dark- 
ness instead of light, as the glorious priciples of liberty be 
eradicated from our bosoms. 

Little did our fathers think, while rehearsing to their 
children the sufferings of the pilgrims who fled from the 
religious oppression of the Old World, and while recounting 
the scenes of hardship, privation and death, while passing 
through the struggle that "tried men's souls," to plant the tree 
of liberty, to establish freedom and equal rights, and to 
bequeath the laws of protection and republicanism to their 
posterity — we say, little did they think that we, their sons, 
would have to cower beneath the hand of oppression — be 
chased like the roe upon the mountains, and forced to flee before 
the reeking sword of an unhallowed monocracy, and hunt a 
refuge, a hiding place, beyond the track of civilization! 
Little did they think that so soon the proud-crested Eagle 
would seek an asylum behind the western hills, and that the 
blood of the noblest martyrs that ever graced this lower world 
would remoisten the soil which had so lately been purchased 
by the blood of heroes! 

But, brethren and friends, we who have lived to three- 
score years, have beheld the government of the United States 
in its glory, and know that the outrageous cruelties we have 
suffered proceeded from a corrupted and degenerate adminis- 
tration, while the pure principles of our boasted Constitution 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 10<> 

remain unchanged. President Joseph Smith experienced and 
well comprehended this corruption; and, inspired by the 
Spirit of the Almighty, foretold the sequel, and, with the pen- 
cil of heaven, portrayed the impending desolation 'and ruin; 
and, prompted by an unction from the upper world, essayed 
to put forth his hand to preserve the tottering fabric from 
destruction. "But they have clone unto him as they listed" — 
they have driven the Saints from their midst — they have 
demolished the bulwarks of liberty and protection, and now 
the vengeance of insulted heaven awaits them! 

In our humble opinion, having been taught by bitter 
experience, that under a defective administration of political 
government, religious toleration can exist only in name, it 
devolves upon us, as a people instructed by the revelations of 
God, with hearts glowing with love for our fallen country, to 
revive, support, and carry into effect the original, uncorrupted 
principles of the Revolution, and the constitutional govern- 
ment of our patriotic forefathers. 

To you, President Young, as the successor of President 
Smith, do we now look, as to a second Washington, so far as 
political freedom is concerned, to replant the standard of 
American liberty, to unfurl the banner of protection, to 
re-establish equal rights, to nourish the broad-plumed eagle 
that has fled to the recesses of the mountains crowned with 
eternal snows, to unsheath the sword of justice, to do honor to 
the memories of the heroes of the Revolution, and to his- 
memory whose'blood now cries from the ground in behalf of 
a loyal, innocent, persecuted and exiled people. 

From a long personal acquaintance, and a knowledge of 
the inflexible, godlike integrity which has characterized your 
adherence to, and your support of, our murdered Prophet; 
with the utmost confidence we pledge ourselves to uphold, 
and, as much as lies in our power, to assist you in resuscitat- 
ing and re-establishing those glorious principles, while we 
live; and when we die, we bequeath this pledge as a sacred leg- 



104 BIOGRAPHY \AND 

acy to our children. As we have inherited the spirit of lib- 
erty and the fire of patriotism from our fathers, so let them 
descend unadulterated to our posterity. 

Should not we, who have suffered atrocious cruelties, rise 
up and redeem our once sacred Constitution from the foul 
disgrace with which it has been stamped, and the eternal 
infamy to which it is destined, unless a spirit of philanthropy 
and independence shall somewhere be aroused for its rescue? 
Shall not we, fellow citizens, rise up in the spirit of freemen 
and do honor to the shades of the departed heroes of '76? 
Let us show ourselves to be worthy sons of our noble, patriotic 
ancestors. ■ Let us prove to the United States, that when they 
drove the Saints from them, they not only drove from their 
midst soldiers who were bravest in protecting their western 
frontier, but also the firmest supporters of American Inde- 
pendence. Let us be true to our trust. Profiting by scenes of 
suffering in the recent school of our experience, let us watch 
with jealous eye the first encroachment of civil power. 
Should the infernal monster despotism dare lift its hydra 
head upon this western Territory, Mr. President, although 
burthened by the weight of years, and worn down with hard- 
ship, privation and fatigue, we, the gray-headed, with you for 
our leader, are ready .at any moment to step forth and 
unsheath the sword in defense of that which our fathers have 
taught us to hold dearer than life. 

Yes, we are ready; and, as we follow. you, we call upon 
these young men, our sons, to follow us; and sooner lay their 
lives upon the holy altar of liberty than submit to be crushed 
by the inquisitorial Juggernaut of oppression. Let the sacred 
motto "Liberty or Death" be inscribed on every scabbard, 
helmet, buckler and shield. ; 

Yes, here, with this Territorial government, letti standard 
of liberty be erected that shall reach to heaven, and be a 
rallying point for all the nations of the earth. Here let the 
insigniaed banner begin to be unfurled that shall yet extend 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 105 

its benign protecting wand to every kingdom upon the face of 
the earth; that while revolution treads on the heel of revolu- 
tion — while commotion, anarchy and devastation push for- 
ward the reckless besom of destruction, and with continuous 
sweep are annihilating the last hopes of comfort in human 
life; while in the prophetic- language of Scripture, "all faces 
shall gather blackness," here let the ensign of peace, like a 
heavenly beacon, invite to a haven of rest, an oasis of civil, 
political and religious. liberty. 

From here let peans of theo-democracy or republicanism 
reverberate from valley to valley, from mountain to moun- 
tain, from Territory to Territory, from State to State, from, 
nation to nation, from empire to empire, from continent to 
continent, till the thrilling echo shall be responded from 
Behring's Straits and the straits of Magellan, from Great 
Britain and the states of Europe, from Africa, from Hindostan 
and even from China, the proud, self-styled "celestial empire" 
of the east. 

At the conclusion of the address, the assembly arose and 
shouted three times, "Hosanna! hosanna! hosanna to God and 
the Lamb, for ever and ever, amen and amen!" while the ban- 
ners were waved by the Bishops. Then, after the band had 
played a lively air, the clerk read the Ode to Liberty, written 
for the occasion by. E. R. S. Smith. v 

The ode was then sung by the Silver Greys, to the tune 
"Bruce's Address." 

ODE TO LIBERTY. 

i 
Fairest spirit of the»skies, 
Fairest child of Paradise, 
Once Columbia's lawful prize — v 
Glorious Liberty. 

Thee our noble fathers, sought— r , 
For thyself our. heroes fought, 



106 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Thus our bleeding patriots bought 
Precious Liberty. 

When thy banner waves abroad,' 
All may freely worship God, 
Fearless of the tyrant's rod — 
Sacred Liberty. 

Never, never cease to wave 
O'er the ashes of the brave; 
Shield, shield the patriot's grave — 
Flag of Liberty. 

Should oppression boldly dare 
From thy brow the wreath to tear, 
Righteous vengeance shall not spare 
The foes of Liberty. 

Sooner than to bondage yield, 
Bravely in the battle field, 
Let the sons of freemen wield 
The sword for Liberty. 

God, who moved our worthy sires, 
When they kindled Freedom's fires, 
Zion's noble sons inspires 
To cherish Liberty. 

Here, with godlike grasp and bold, 
We the Constitution hold, 
Pure as when it's sacred fold 
Sheltered Liberty. 

Freedom, Justice, Truth and Peace, 
Shall throughout these vales increase; 
Shout, shout, till time shall cease, 
Truth and Liberty! 

Here, amid the mountain sky, 
Freedom's banner waves on high; 
Let the heaven-born echo fly — 
God and Liberty ! 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 107 

The hour of intermission having arrived, the escort was 
re-formed; the Bishops collected the residents of their respec- 
tive wards, and marched with them to the dinner- tables, 
where thousands of Saints dined sumptuously on the pro- 
ducts of the valley, judiciously and delicately prepared, and 
rendered delicious in connection with what foreign luxuries 
were obtained in exchange for staple articles, as flour, butter, 
potatoes, etc., from travelers to California. Several hundreds 
of those Gentile emigrants, who, en route to California, had 
stopped to recruit, partook of the social repast, as did also 
threescore of Indians. In proportion to the numbers, no 
celebration ever passed off with more eclat — no one has been 
conducted with more order, and no feast partaken of with 
better zest, with more mutual love and friendship, nor with 
hearts more filled to overflowing with gratitude to God for the 
outpouring of His blessings and for the manifestations of His 
overruling hand. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

The Brethren covenant (o help the poor out from Nauvoo.— Lorenzo called 
to obtain means.— The poverty and liberality of the Saints.— One offers 
his only cow. — Anecdote of Captain Brown. — Called on a mission to 
Italy. — Increase of family. — Weight of responsibility..— No time for 
preparation.— Company organized. — Letter to his Sister. — The Journey. — 
Wonderful manifestations of the hand of God. — Nauvoo. — Carthage. — 
Arrival in Liverpool. — Meets the brethren. 

BEFORE the first companies of the Saints who were 
driven from Illinois left Nauvoo, the leading brethren 
entered into a solemn covenant they would not cease 
their exertions until all the Saints who had not the means, 
but were desirious of moving to the location of the Church, 
should be assisted to do so. In connection with this, in his 




108 BIOGRAPHY AND 

journal, my brother-says: Early in the autumn of 1849, I was 
called to assist in gathering m'eans for emigrating the poor 
Saints. This movement culminated in what is now known as 
the "Perpetual Emigrating Company," the organization of 
which was commenced at the October Conference, for the 
gathering of Saints from all parts of the world. 

In performing the mission of soliciting means from the 
Saints who, after having been robbed and plundered, had 
performed a journey of more than one thousand miles," and 
just located in an un watered, desolate recess of the great 
"American Desert," I found myself inducted into an uphill 
business. With very few exceptions, the people had very 
little, or nothing they could possibly spare. But the efforts 
and willingness, everywhere manifested, to eke out a portion 
of the little — the feeling of liberality and greatness of soul, 
which everywhere I met in the- midst of poverty, the warm- 
hearted greetings I received even where comparative indigence 
held court, filled my heart with exceeding great joy. One 
man insisted that I should take his only cow, saying that 
the Lord had delivered him, and blessed him in leaving the old 
country and coming to a land of peace; and in giving his only 
cow, he felt that he would only do what duty demanded, and 
what he would expect from others, were the situation reversed. 

After visiting the Saints in Great Salt Lake. City, I traveled 
north, calling on all the inhabitants, who at this early date 
were much scattered, and went as far as Ogden, then the 
northern limit of our settlements, and there found about one 
dozen families. I was hospitably entertained by Captain 
Brown, who occupied a log house with earth floor, and roof of 
the same material, with the addition of willow boughs. I 
called a meeting, which was held in the captain's house — 
everybody attended, and we had a glorious season. The 
hearts of the Saints were open, and, considering their circum- 
stances, they donated liberally and amply, and I need not say 
cheerfully.- Elder (Captain) Brown exhibited the nobility and 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 109 

generosity of soul characteristic of the man. There is an 
amusing anecdote told of Captain Brown, as follows: He 
owned a ferry on the Weber River at the time when the "Gold 
Diggers" were rushing through the country, some of whom 
were bitterly hostile to the "Mormons," and availed themselves 
of every occasion to vent their spite in the presence and hear- 
ing of the captain, in the following style: "Whoa haw, old 
Brigham," "Gee up there, old Heber," at the same time 
nourishing and cracking their long ox whips. This vulgar 
language applied in demeaning the leaders of the Church, 
made Captain Brown very angry, so much so that he could 
hardly' restrain himself from retaliating; but finally, when, 
with increasing impudence, they added the name of Captain 
Brown, his temper at once arose to fever hea , and became 
uncontrollable, and to use his own words,"I pitched into them." 
In public meetings, occasionally, I have referred to this anec- 
dote in illustrating a principle, i. e., when the Priesthood is 
assailed, we should be more valiant in its defense than when 
the offense is merely personal. Without doubt this was the 
captain's sentiment, and had he received the first insult, he 
could have borne it, but after having the brethren insulted, 
which was all he could endure and contain himself, the addi- 
tion of his name was "the straw that broke the camel's back." 

At the October Conference many, of the leading v Elders 
were called on missions to different nations. of the earth. 
Lorenzo was appointed to establish a mission in Italy, with' 
discretionary power to labor in any other country or nation, 
whenever the Spirit should direct. He arranged as best he 
could under the circumstances, for the comfort of his family 
during his absence — his family having increased by the .birth 
of a son, Oliver Goddard, and a daughter, Roxcy Charlotte, 
born in Salt Lake City. 

In less than two weeks from the time of his appointment, 
he was to leave. With little means — in a wild, uncultivated 
country, one thousand miles from supplies, what could ho 



110 - BIOGRAPHY AND 

do towards providing for the coming wants of an increasing 
family, which in a few days he was to leave for an indefinite 
period? Although he felt the weight of the responsibilities of 
a husband and father, he did not hesitate. He knew that God, 
througli His servants, had called him to the mission — the 
mission was before him, and its accomplishment paramount 
to every consideration. The two young men, John and Porter 
kindly proposed to remain with his family during his absence 
and render all the assistance in their power. 

This was the first company of missionaries sent from the 
Rocky Mountains; it was organized on the nineteenth of 
October, by President Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball, 
and' the brethren started the same day on their various 
missions — some to Nauvoo to assist in gathering the Saints 
remaining there — some to the Eastern States, 'and others to the 
nations abroad. Shadrach Roundy was appointed captain of 
the company across the plains. 

AVe will now glean a portion of my bi other's history 
from his letters, in which we meet him in Southampton, 
England: 

Southampton, England, June 14, 1850. 
My Dear Sister: 

Although nearly half the world lies between us, I hope 
this brief record of ray travels will reach you in safety. 
Wherever I may be destined to wander, I shall ever remem- 
ber those claims of relationship, which may be interrupted 
on earth, but are happily consecrated in your bosom and mine 
for eternity; they seem like a golden chain, passing over earth 
and ocean, and linking this foreign shore with your dwelling 
in the far distant West. 

Recalling the scenes of the past, my mind reverts to the 
nineteenth of October, 1849, when, in solemn silence, I left 
what, next to God, was dearest to my heart — my friends, my 
loving wives and my dear little children. As I pursued my 
journey, in company with' my brethren, many conflicting 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. Ill 

feelings occupied my bosom. The gardens and fields in and 
around our new-born city, just emerging from nature's bar- 
renness, through the faith, energy and the necessities of the 
exiled Saints, now struggling for subsistence, in a wild recess 
in the Rocky Mountains, were exchanged for the vast 
unbroken wilderness which lay spread out before us for a 
thousand miles. 

If my mind* still glanced onward, there was the stormy 
main, and, in the far distant perspective, a land of strangers — 
the field of my mission. We were hastening farther and 
still farther from the mighty magnet — home. But we knew 
that the work in which we were engaged was to carry light to 
those who sat in darkness and in the Valley of the Shadow of 
Death, and our bosoms glowed with love and compassion 
toward them. 

Some persons feared our horses were too enfeebled to 
bear us over the mighty plain; but when the snows began to 
fall, winds swept our pathway, and enabled us to pass without 
difficulty, while on our right and left the country was deeply 
covered for hundreds of miles. 

One day, as we were taking our noontide meal, and our 
horses were quietly grazing on the prairie; the following thrill- 
ing scene occurred. A startling call resounded through our 
little camp, "7b arms! to arms! the Indians are upon us!" All 
eyes were turned in the direction, and we beheld a spectacle, 
grand, imposing aiid frightful. Two hundred warriors, upon, 
their furious steeds, painted, armed and clothed with all the 
horrors of war, rushing towards us like a mighty torrent. In 
a moment we placed ourselves in attitude of defence. But 
could Ave expect, with thirty men, to withstand this powerful 
host? Onward rushed the savage band with accelerated speed 
as a huge rock, loosened from the mountain's brow, dashes 
impetuously downward,. sweeping, overturning, and burying 
everything in its course! 

"We saw* it was their intention to crush us beneath the 



112 BIOGRAPHY AND 

feet of their foaming chargers. . They approached within a 
few paces, and in another moment we should be overwhelmed, 
when lo! an. alarm like an electric shock struck through their 
ranks and stayed their career, as an avalanche, sweeping down 
the mountain side, stops in the midst of its course by the 
power of a hand unseen." The Lord had said, "Touch not mine 
anointed, and do my 'prophets no harm." 

Many incidents occurred which called forth the remark 
that in our past experience the hand of the Lord had never 
been more visibly manifested. When we arrived on the 
banks of the great Missouri, her waters immediately congealed 
for the first time during the season, thus forming a bridge over 
which we' passed to the other side; this was no sooner accom- 
plished than the torrent ran as before. 

On arriving at Kanesville, we were saluted with shout- 
ings, firing of cannon, songs of rejoicing, and other demonstra- 
tions of welcome. During the few days of our stay, w r e experi- 
enced universal kindness from the Saints. I shall never for- 
get the parting with President Hyde, and the deep interest he 
manifested for myself and mission as he gave an affectionate 
farewell, and in the fulness of his soul implored the powers 
of heaven to protect me from evil in that stronghold of super- 
stition, dark and benighted Italy. 

I passed through Mount Pisgah and Garden Grovel At 
both places I much enjoyed the society of my old acquaint- 
ances. I proceeded to Nauvoo — I gazed upon its ruins — the 
direful work of rnobocracy. My heart sickened as I contem- 
plated that once beautiful city, filled with . the songs of 
rejoicing, and all that was good and virtuous; where the voice 
of the Prophet had sounded forth upon the ears of thousands 
the deep and heavenly mysteries that had .been concealed for 
ages. There we had met together, oft relating the sad tale of 
our past woes, the bitter cup of- persecution of which we had 
taken such abundant draughts; there the old and the young 
had. rejoiced together in the New and Everlasting Covenant. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 113 

But now, how sad the change! v The moss was growing 
upon the buildings, which were fast crumbling down; the 
windows were broken in, the doors were shaking to and fro 
by the wind, as they played upon their rusty, creaking hinges. 
The lovely Temple of our God — once the admiration and 
astonishment of the world and the hope of the Saints, was 
burned, and its blackened Avails were falling upon each other! 
Ever and anon a human head would be thrust through win- 
dows to gaze upon the traveler; but these people were not 
Saints — they who were dwelling in those houses, who walked 
those streets, believed not in Jesus, the Son of God — they were 
professed infidels. 

Shortly after leaving Nauvoo, I visited another place of 
painful interest in the history of the Saints. If, on ordinary 
occasions, words are too weak to convey the feelings of the 
soul, where shall I find language to portray the thoughts that 
agitated my mind as I entered Carthage? There, but a few 
years before, was a scene over which my breast alternately 
glows and chills with horror and indignation. There an 
infamous mob were imbruing their hands in the blood of our 
beloved Prophet and Patriarch, Joseph and Hyrum. 
Earth! Then flowed on thy cold bosom the blood of thy 
noblest and best. Who were those Martyred Ones? Ask 
the ministering angels from on high! Ask the demons of the 
dark abyss! Ask the mighty throng whom they have guided 
to peace, knowledge, wisdom and power! And who are they? 
My friends — the friends of millions, the friends, of Univer- 
sal Man. 

Over that guilty place there seemed to hang the gloom of 
death, the emblem of the deed committed/ and the fore- 
shadowing of righteous retribution! Although fatigued and 
hungry, nothing could induce me to eat or drink among that 
cursed and polluted people. 

1 n St. Louis, we found a large branch of the Church of 
nearlv four hundred members. We were kindly received; 

9 



114 BIOGRAPHY AND 

and it was delightful to see them assembled in their spacious 
and beautiful hall. The completeness of their organization 
reflects the highest credit upon their officers. 

On the twenty-fifth of March, I left New York on board 
the Shannon. I had a pleasant voyage over the great waters, 
and on the nineteenth of April, came in sight of Albion's 
shores. I never beheld a more lovely morning. Everything 
wore an enchanting appearance. A calm serenity rested upon 
the broad bosom of the waters. Old England lay before me, 
besprinkled with forms and multitudes of human dwellings, 
with beautiful hawthorn hedges and newly t plowed grounds. 
Around, about on the water, in full view, were ships of all 
nations — some passing in one direction and some in another. 

In the midst of this enchanting scene, my feelings sud- 
denly changed from the high thrilling tone of animation and 
fell into pensive melancholy, as the thoughts of my loved 
home crowded upon my mind. Six long months I had been 
augmenting the distance between me and those I love, and 
still I must continue to do so. Things certainly appeared 
strange to me when I thought of the unknown future of my 
mission. But the Lord of the whole earth had sent me, and 
in His name I was resolved ever to go forward. 

On my arrival in Liverpool, I was favored with the com- 
pany of Elders Erastus Snow, Franklin D. Richards and 
President Pratt's family. After leaving that city, I visited 
the following conferences: Manchester, Macclesfield, Birming- 
ham, Cheltenham, South Conference, London, and Southamp- 
ton. Presidents, officers and members received me with kind- 
ness, and contributed liberally towards my mission; and 
though I have not had the opportunity of visiting "Cambria's 
hills," the Welsh brethren have sent donations with all the 
nobility of soul which gives unsolicited. 

How changed are my feelings to what they were- some' 
eight years ago. Then, I might say, I entered Britain a 
lonely foreigner, unacquainted with the laws, manners, cus- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 115 

toms and institutions of the country. At this time I felt 
comparatively at home. Many who were my children fh the 
Gospel, surrounded me as I passed through those conferences 
where I had formerly labored. I also had the pleasure of 
seeing men whom I baptized when on my former mission, 
now preaching the Gospel and presiding over conferences. 

The traveler in the desert sometimes finds a green spot 
which stands in deep contrast to the barrenness of surround- 
ing nature. England appears thus now, as I am about to 
leave its shores for the lands of darkness. The voice of a 
thousand friends are dying away in the distance, while before 
me is a land of strangers, whose tongues will sound in my 
ears like the jargon of Babel. I have been refreshed with 
the company of so many kind friends, that I go forth on my 
mission with renewed energy of body and mind. 

To-morrow I leave this place for Italy. Farewell, my 
dear sister, and may Heaven's choicest blessings be your con- 
tinued portion, is the prayer of 

Your affectionate brother, 

Lorenzo Snow. 
To Miss Eliza R. Snow, 

Great Salt Lake City, 

California. 

"Even the address of this fascinating letter is historically 
valuable, for it reminds us that Utah was once a part of the 
province of Upper California; but it is its beautiful enthu- 
siasm — tenderness of the spirit and tone, and the graphic 
eloquence of the description, which constitutes the charm of 
this gem of epistolary literature." — Tullidge's Magazine. 



116 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Editor's reflections. — The responsibility of Lorenzo's Mission. — His 
trust in God. — His knowledge that God had called him. — Commendable 
characteristics. — How they are strengthened. — He writes to F. D. Rich- 
ards. — Describes Genoa. — Armed men. — Priests. — Meets an acquaint- 
ance. — Curious interview. — Reflections. — Sympathy for the people. — 
Door opening for the Gospel in Piedmont. — Encouraging prospects. 

LITTLE reflection will impress the readers of the 
following letter of the peculiarly trying position 
Lorenzo occupied at the time indicated. Holding the 
Priesthood of God, and by Him sent forth clothed with 
authority,. with power to impart life unto life, or death unto 
death — invested with the responsibility of • the souls of his 
fellow men, to the land where the "Mother of harlots" claimed 
the right "above all that was called God," and ruled with a 
rod of iron, where, under her scathing hand, not long since, 
the "bloody inquisition" sent terror into the springs and 
fountains of life! How formidable the mission! How 
character-proving the situation! 

Without integrity of heart — without unswerving purpose 
— without confiding trust in God, and reliance on His 
promises — without unshaken confidence in His assisting 
power and grace, no mortal man could abide the ordeal. But 
Lorenzo knew in whom he trusted — he knew that the work in 
which he was engaged was the work of God, and for him to 
shrink from his duty, or to doubt the success of the mission 
unto which he was called, and suffer his energies to slacken, 
would be ignoring the example of the Great Redeemer, and 
prove himself unworthy of the high and holy calling unto 
which God, the Father of our Lord Jesus, had called him. 
Those noble characteristics which distinguished him even in 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 117 

his childhood, at this period having not only ripened in 
manhood, but, being quickened and mightily strengthened by 
the Spirit of the Most High, constituted an invigorating and 
propelling force which greatly assisted in enabling him to 
brook every hardship, every opposition, and to overcome 
every obstacle. t - 

Genoa j July 20, 1850. 
Msj Dear Franklin: 

Having safely reached the land of my mission, I take the 
earliest opportunity to inform you of my location and pros- 
pects. 

This ancient city, where I now reside, contains about one 
hundred and forty thousand inhabitants. It is chiefly built 
upon undulating ground, extending back as far as the base of 
the mountains, and, in some places, reaching partly up their 
summits. Before me I have a most lovely and ' interesting 
view of the port of Genoa, and then of the Mediterranean, 
bearing upon its broad bosom multitudes of fishing boats, 
schooners, war frigates, steamers, and ships of many nations. 

The edifices of this city lie open on my right and left. 
Its palaces, cathedrals, churches, high-built promenades and 
antique buildings, form, altogether, a very singular and mag- 
nificent appearance. At a short distance from the city, I have 
the fascinating scenery of Italy's picturesque mountains, and 
over my head is a sky of clearest blue. My eyes are filled 
with tears while attempting to picture the glorious view. It 
recalls to my mind the more than lovely — the sacred scenery 
of the far-off West — the valley of the Great Salt Lake, where 
is poured forth the streams of revelation through our beloved 
Prophet Brigham, to a people gathered out from the nations; 
and where, nine months ago, in mournful silence, we pressed 
the parting hands of our ,weeping wives and tender offspring. 

This city is filled with armed men; so, in fact, is almost 
every seaport and city through which we have passed sin<je 
leaving England. Little money is circulating, and commerce 



118 -. BIOGRAPHY AND 

languishes on every side. The country is not yet sufficiently 
settled to induce the enterprise of the capitalist. Since the 
revolution, the working classes have suffered severely from 
the depression of business. Wages are, of course, very low; 
upon an average; not more than twenty cents for a day's 
work, for a laborer, which is commonly made to consist of 
about sixteen hours. 

Many of the .customs, laws* and institutions are very 
singular. Priests are seen in great numbers on every side. 
I meet them on every street. From the peculiarity of their 
dress, there is no mistaking their profossion. Those of the 
superior order are clothed in black, and their heads display 
the accompaniment of a three-cornered hat. Those of 
another class present a shorn crown to the evening breeze and 
the noonday sun; and the meanness of their garments are 
intended to represent their vows of austere indigence. A 
coarse woollen dress is attached to the body by a rope loosely 
tied around the waist, from which hang their rosary beads 
and a small crucifix. Their feet are shod with a species of 
sandals. They are generally seen two together, and are very 
unlike the wealthy ecclesiastics, who mingle freely with the 
best society. 

The other day, as I was returning from a walk, I fell into 
the following reflections: I am alone and a stranger in this 
great city — eight thousand miles from my beloved family, 
surrounded by a people with whose manners and peculiari- 
ties I am unacquainted. I have come to enlighten their 
minds and instruct them in principles of righteousness; but 
I see no possible means of accomplishing this object. All is 
darkness in the prospect. 

While I thus walked gloomily along the thronged streets, 
I was suddenly awakened from my reverie by a glance of 
recognition from a gentleman passing, and was not a little 
pleased to find him an Englishman, with whom I had pre- 
viously formed a slight acquaintance. He accosted me in a 



AUTOBIOGKAPHY. 119 

friendly manner — said he had called at my lodging, but was 
disappointed in not finding me at home. He wished me to 
write down the heads of subjects on which I sought informa- 
tion, which, he assured me, he would spare no pains to pro- 
cure. He thought the society of many English visitors in 
Genoa was not suitable to men religiously inclined, as I 
appeared, and could not recommend them to my acquaint- 
ance. He accompanied me to my lodging, and desired to 
know in what way I thought this country could be spiritually 
benefitted. He evidently believed that I was a missionary, 
and was about to open a campaign against Catholicism; and 
he seemed exceedingly anxious to engage in the laudable 
undertaking. Comprehending the state of his feelings, I 
looked him steadfastly in the face, and said: "Do you think, 
Mr. A., that the Lord had any hand in your coming to this 
place?" "I do," said he, "for when letters were sent inform- 
ing me I could, have a situation whereby I could support my 
family, I opened them and spread them before the Lord, and 
knelt upon my knees, asking Him what I should do, and the 
Spirit manifested to me it was wisdom to come." I then said: 
"Mr. A., I have entered this country to establish the kingdom 
of God. The Lord God of Heaven has sent me. The Holy 
Ghost has sent me. The President of the Church of Jesus 
Christ has sent me, and the prayers of a hundred thousand 
people (Saints of God) are daily oftered up for my prosperity. 
Now I have a message for you from the Lord. It is your 
duty to be ordained unto the holy Priesthood, and assist me 
in establishing the Gospel among this people." 

He listened with deep interest, and his countenance was 
lighted up with animation at the thought of being associated 
with me in such a glorious mission. He then made the 
inquiry, "Are you sent by the Wesleyans?" I replied, "I am 
a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints." All his desires to do good seemed to go down in 
proportion as the last idea arose in his mind. 



120 BIOGRAPHY AND 

He said he had heard one of our -Elders preach, and he 
made baptism essential to salvation. "And," said, he, "what 
are your ideas on this point?" "It is now," I replied, 
"because God has commanded it — until He did command and 
authorized men to administer, it was not essential." I then 
loaned him several books, asking him to read them prayer- 
fully. He promised to do so, but with great reluctance, "and 
he went away sorrowful." 

I am now in a Roman Catholic country. Its inhabitants 
are before my eyes continually. My heart is pained to see 
their follies and wickedness — their gross darkness and super- 
stition. I weep that the day of the Son of Man has come 
upon them unawares, so little are they prepared to receive 
the voice from on high: "Behold! the Bridegroom cometh; go 
ye out to meet Him!" 

They are clothed with darkness as with a garment, and, 
figuratively speaking, they know not their right hand from 
their left. I ask my Heavenly Father to look upon this peo- 
ple in mercy. Lord, let them become the objects of Thy 
compassion, that they may not all perish. Forgive their sins, 
and let me be known among them, that they may know T 
Thee, and know that Thou hast sent me to establish Thy 
kingdom. They do wickedly all the day long, and are 
guilty of many abominations. They have turned their 
backs upon Thee, though they kneel before the image 
of Thy Son, and decorate temples to Thy worship. 
The priests, the rulers and the people have all gone 
astray,' and have forgotten Thee, the Lord their God. But 
wilt Thou not have mercy upon them? Thou knowest that I 
bade a heart-trying farewell to the loved and tried partners of 
my bosom, to obey Thy call; and hast Thou not some chosen 
ones among this people to whom I have been sent? Lead 
me unto such, and Thy name shall have the glory, through 
Jesus, Thy Son. 

After I wrote the foregoing, I received a letter from 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 121 

Elders Stenhouse and Toronto. I have felt an intense desire 
i;o know the state of that province to which I had given them 
an appointment, as I felt assured it would be the field of my 
mission.- Now, with a heart full of gratitude, I find an open- 
ing is presented in the valleys of Piedmont, when all 
•other parts of Italy are closed against our efforts. I believe 
that the Lord has there hidden up a people amid the Alpine 
mountains, and it is the voice of the Spirit that I shall com- 
mence something of importance in that part of this dark 
-nation. 

Please remember me to Brothers Coward and Collins, 
whose names will never be forgotten for their kindness to 
Brother Erastus and myself. 

Prudence and caution prompt me to request that you will 
not, at present, give" publicity to my communications. 

Your brother in the Gospel, affectionately, 

Lorenzo. Sxow. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Writes to President Young.— The Waldenses. — Incidents.— Calls Elder Sten- 
house. — Cathedral of St. Lorenzo. — Sends two _E1 tiers to Piedmont. — 
~ Describes the Country.— Published "The Voice of Joseph." — Miraculous 
healing.— Sends for Elder Woodard. — Organization of the Cburch. — 
Prayer. — Officers chosen.— Mount Brigham.— Rock of Prophecy.— Testi- 
mony of an Englishman. — Invited by a Priest. — First Baptism. — Difficul- 
ties to meet. — LaTour. — The presence of the Elders only tolerated. — Can 
lift up his head and rejoice in spite of difficulties. 

N the following letter to President Young, Lorenzo gives 

a detailed account of the introduction of the Gospel 

into the valleys of Piedmont; and an eloquent and 

inspiring description of the time, place and circumstances of 
10 



122 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the organization of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day- 
Saints in that land of religious superstition and bigotry: 

LaTour, Valley de Luzerne, 

Piedmont, Italy, Nov. 1, 1850. 
Dear President Young: 

When I arrived in Liverpool, I sent you a letter, in con- 
nection with Brothers Erastus and Franklin, which I hope 
you duly received. Soon afterwards, as I contemplated the 
condition of Italy, with deep tolicitude to know the mind of 
the Spirit as to where I should commence my labors, I found 
that all was dark in Sicily, and hostile laws would exclude 
our efforts. No opening appeared in the cities of Italy; but 
the history of the Waldenses attracted my attention. 

Amid the ages of darkness and crueljty, they had stood 
immovable almost as the wave beaten rock in the stormy 
ocean. When the anathemas of Rome shook the world and 
princes fell from their thrones, thej^ dared to brave the man- 
date of the Pope and the armies of the mighty. To my mind 
they appeared like the rose in the wilderness, or the bow in 
the cloud. The night of time has overspread their origin; 
but these dissenters from Rome existed ages before Luther 
was born. During the fierce persecutions to which they have 
been subjected, their limits have greatly decreased. 

A few narrow valleys, which in gome places are only a 
bow's shot in breadth, are all that now remain in their posses- 
sion except the mountains by which they are engirdled. But 
a period of deep calm has at length arrived, and, since the 
storm of persecution swept over Europe, they have received 
many privileges from the Sardinian government. Thus the 
way was opened only a short period before the appointment 
of this mission, and no other portion of Italy is governed by 
such favorable laws. 

A flood of light seemed to burst upon my mind when I 
thought upon the subject, and 1 endeavored to procure some 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 123 

information in relation to this people. The librarian to whom 
I applied informed me he had a work of the description I 
required; but it had just been taken. He had scarcely finished 
the sentence, when a lady entered with the book. "0," said 
he, "this is a remarkable circumstance, this gentleman has 
just called for that book. 'I I was soon convinced that this 
people were worthy to receive the first proclamation of the 
Gospel in Italy. 

I made a short sojourn in England, and visited several 
conferences. Going to London, after so many years' absence, 
was a circumstance of uncommon interest. The happiness I 
experienced during two weeks' stay was no small compensa- 
tion for the anxieties and difficulties I had endured in carry- 
ing on the work of the Lord there for two years immediately 
after its foundation had been laid by yourself, Elders Kim- 
ball, Woodruff and G. A. Smith. 

When I received an appointment to that city, I found 
thirty or forty members; now I find three thousand, although 
many have emigrated. 

• Here I became acquainted with Elder Stenhouse, Presi- 
dent of the Southampton Conference. After consultation 
with Brother Franklin, I felt that it was the mind of the 
Spirit that he should accompany me on this mission. I there- 
fore returned with him to Southampton. During his prepara- 
tion for departure, we went to Portsmouth, and, among "the 
forces of the Gentiles," we visited the Victory, the vessel in 
which Lord Nelson met his death. We were very politely 
shown the varied departments of this mammoth of the deep, 
the spot where Nelson fell, and the cabin where he expired. 

The hour at length arrived for leaving the last home of 
the Saints. In the parting of Elder Stenhouse with his wife 
and friends, I was forcibly reminded of my own experience. 
As we withdrew from this parting scene, I observed, "Did the 
people of Italy but know the heart-rending sacrifices we have 
made for their sakes, they could have no heart to persecute.'* 



124 • BIOGRAPHY AND 

On the fifteenth of June we left Southampton by the 
steamboat Wonder, for Havre de Grace, and then proceeded 
immediately io Paris. After having our passports counter- 
signed, we continued our journey through • the beautiful 
country of southern France. We passed through Lyons, and 
arrived in Marseilles in about four days from Paris. We 
then embarked on the clear blue waters of the Mediterranean 
for Antibes, the last French port. By disembarking there we 
escaped being detained six days in quarantine, under the 
burning sun of Genoa. We then traveled to Nice, the first 
town in Italy. Here Catholicism began to show itself more 
prominently — priests were very numerous. Images of the 
Holy Virgin, with the infant Jesus in her arms, were to be 
seen on the corner-house of every street and on the front of 
many others. 

We left Nice by diligence, and traveled by the shores of 
the Mediterranean. It was the feast-day of John the Baptist; 
labor was entirely suspended, and all seemed to enjoy them- 
selves in honor of that great man. We certainly saw some 
hundreds of priests — rather a gloomy introduction. 

On the twenty-fifth of June we arrived at Genoa. Here 
we called upon the Lord, and offered the praise and gratitude 
of our souls for His providence. We had accomplished this 
journey of nearly twelve hundred miles much quicker than 
we had anticipated. From the time we left England we had 
only spent three nights in bed. 

June 27th. This is the feast-day to St. Peter. Again all 
work is suspended, and the people enjoying themselves. Jesus 
said, the fathers killed the Prophets, and their children build 
their tombs and garnish their sepulchres. The fathers 
beheaded John and crucified Peter; this week we have wit- 
nessed feastings and rejoicings in honor of their names. 
Pleasing reflections — starvation! — bond*! — imprisonment! — mar- 
tyrdom! — and subsequent generations paying us divine honors. 

I visited the Cathedral of St. Lorenzo, and beheld the 



ATTOBIOGRAPHY. 125 

most superb and richly decorated interior of any building 1 
had ever seen. As we entered, our attention was immediately 
attracted by the grand altar. It was a display of richly cut 
candlesticks and vases, glittering with gold and silver gilding. 
In the former were candles four or five feet long, and in the 
latter a most delightful association of flowers. On each side 
of this building were six recesses, where were placed small 
altars, upon which stood a cross, with an emblem of Jesus, 
surrounded with candles and flowers on a small scale. Before 
them were seats for the accommodation of the devout. The 
side wall of each recess had a painting, representing, in full 
size, some particular personage in the act of devotion. These 
worshipers were portrayed, in some instances, as holding a 
levee with "Holy Mary, Mother of God," who was well sur- 
rounded with young warbling angels, which had been assisted 
in their descent with eagle's wings! Others were represented 
with volumes of smoke around them, thickly studded v with 
young cherubs, which were blowing profusely upon the wor- 
shiper, while they were loaded with garlands to encircle his 
brow. Two beautifully cut and spiraled pillars of choice 
stone, stood at the extent of each recess, supporting an arched' 
roof, which was also richly painted. Between every two pil- 
lars was placed the statue of one of the ancient Apostles. 
The design and execution of these monuments of departed 
worth elicited our admiration. 

The roof of the building was completely covered with 
paintings, representing the prominent circumstances recorded 
in the New Testament. ' Each picture was surrounded with 
massive gilt mouldings. On the dome over the grand altar 
was a representation of the day of Pentecost. The Holy Ghost, 
in its plenitude of power, was portrayed in the descent of the 
dove, while tongues of fire, in glowing colors, rested upon the 
disciples. 

Two rows of large massive pillars, from one end of the 
church to the other, stood erect from floor to roof; each side 



126 BIOGRAPHY AND 

of which was filled with seats for the congregation, while the 
center was left for visitors and those approaching the altar. 
Here we sat, and while the unmeaning sounds of the preacher 
fell upon our ears, our minds were absorbed in contemplation 
of the beauty and richness of art — the power of unity, and. 
the darkness of -human understanding, as the monuments of 
v each were around, before and above us. 

On the first of July, Elders Stenhouse and Toronto left 
Genoa, according to my appointment, to visit the Protestant 
valleys of Piedmont. On the twenty- third of the same 
month I left Genoa, passing through the city of Turin, the 
capital of the Sardinian States, and arrived at LaTour, in the 
valley of Luzerne. 

This country bears a striking resemblance to the valley 
of the Great Salt Lake. Piedmont is situated at the foot of 
the Alps, the highest mountains in Europe. The scenes of 
this land embrace ail the varieties of a region where the 
heavens and the earth seem to meet. The clouds often 
. enwrap these mighty eminences, and hide their frowning 
grandeurs from our view. At other times they are covered 
'with snow, while at their feet the vine and fig tree are ripen- 
ing their fruit. A poet has said of this identical locality in 
which we are placed : 

"There is a scene would well repay 
The toil of many a weary day, 
And every form of nature there — 
Wood, rock and stream, and sunset rare — 
All seem to bid the traveler rest; 
For ne'er from tower or mountain crest, 
In emerald vale or sunny plain, 
Shall he behold such scenes again." ■ 

The Proteslant inhabitants are called Vaudois or Wa'- 
denses. They number about twenty-one thousand; there are 
also about five thousand Catholics. The fertile portions of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 127 

"these valleys are rich in their productions; but two-thirds or 
more present nothing but precipices, ravines and rocky dis- 
tricts, or such as have a northern "aspect. The inhabitants 
are far too numerous for the nature and products of the soil- 
They are often compelled to carry mould on their backs to 
form gardens amid the barren rocks. 

The French language is generally understood, but in 
many parts it is spoken very imperfectly, and with a mixture 
of provincialism and Italian. The latter is understood by a 
considerable number, but it is not extensively used. In fact, 
this is where, at least, five distinct dialects are spoken by dif- 
ferent classes. 

'During our protracted journey, the health of Brother 
"Toronto had been considerably impaired, but the invigorat- 
ing effect of this salubrious clime so restored him, that he 
became very anxious to visit his relatives in Sicily. As I felt 
it proper for him to do so, he took his departure at the begin- 
ning of August. 

Soon after my arrival here, I considered it necessary to 
issue a publication in French; accordingly I wrote and com- 
piled a work, entitled, "The Voice of Joseph," containing 
Visions of Joseph Smith; discovery of the gold plates filled 
with Egyptian characters and hieroglyphics; their translation 
into the English language by the aid of the Urim and Thum- 
mim; the sacred history of ancient America, now clearly 
revealed from the earliest ages after the flood to the beginning 
of the fifth century of the Christian era; organization of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; their persecu- 
tions; expulsion from the 'States of Missouri and Illinois; 
martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum Smith; banishment of 
many thousand Saints; their travels in the western wilder- 
ness; their present location in Upper California; their organi- 
zation of the "State of Deseret;" the missionary labors of their 
Elders; sketch of "their faith and doctrine. 

After fruitless endeavors to find a proper person to trans- 



128 BIOGRAPHY ANJ> 

late this work, I found it necessary to send to England, where,, 
through the kindness of Elder Orson Pratt, it was translated, 
by a professor from the University of Paris. 

I felt assured that the Lord had directed us to a branch, 
of the house of Israel, and I was rejoiced to behold many cir- 
cumstances that reminded me of those with whom I had been 
associated in the valleys of the west. We endeavored to lay 
a foundation for future usefulness in silently preparing the 
minds of the people for the reception of the Gospel, by culti- 
vating friendly feelings in the bosoms of those by whom we 
were surrounded. Yet it seemed very singular, and it was no- 
small tax on my patience, to be weeks and even months in 
the midst of an interesting people withput being actively and 
publicly engaged in communicating the great principles which 
I had been sent to promulgate. But, as I felt it was the mind 
of the Spirit that we should proceed at first with slow and 
cautious steps, I submitted to the will of heaven. 

September 6th. — This morning, my attention was directed 
to Joseph Grey, a boy of three years of age — the youngest 
child of our host. Many friends had been to see the child, 
as to all human appearances his end was near. I wentto see 
him in the afternoon; death was preying upon his body — his 
former healthy frame was now reduced to a skeleton, and it 
was only by close observation we could discern that he was 
alive. As I reflected upon the peculiarity of our situation, 
my mind was fully awakened to a sense of our position. For 
some hours before I retired to rest, I called upon the Lord to 
assist us at this time. My feelings on this occasion will not 
easily be erased from my memoBy. 

September 7th. — This morning I proposed to Elder Sten- 
house we should fast and retire to the mountains arid pray. 
As we departed, we called and saw the child — his eyeballs 
turned upwards — his eyelids fell and closed — his face and 
ears were thin, and wore the pale marble hue, indicative of' 
approaching dissolution. The cold perspiration of death. 






AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 129 

covered his body as the principle of life was nearly- 
exhausted. Madam Grey and other females were sobbing, 
while Monsieur Grey hung his head and whispered to us, "11 
meuri! ilmeurt!" (He dies! he dies!) 

After a little rest upon the mountain, aside from any 
likelihood of interruption, we called upon the Lord in solemn, 
earnest prayer, to spare the life of the child. As I reflected 
on the course we wished to pursue, the claims that we should 
soon advance to the world, I regarded this circumstance as 
•one of vast importance. I know not of any sacrifice which I 
can possibly make, that I am not willing to offer, that the 
Lord might grant our requests. 

We returned about three o'clock in the afternoon, and 
having consecrated some oil, I anointed my hand and laid it 
upon the head of the child, while we silently offered up the 
desires of our hearts for his restoration. A few hours after- 
ward we called, and his father, with a smile of thankfulness, 
said, "Mieux beaueoup! beaueoup!" (Better, much, much!) 

September 8th. The child had been so well during the 
past night the parents had been enabled to take their rest, 
which they had not done for some time before; and to-day 
they could leave him and attend to the b isiness of the house. 
As I called to see him, Madam Grey expressed her joy in his 
restoration. I, in turn, remarked, "11 Dio dl cielo ha fatto 
questa per voi" (The God of heaven has done this for you.) 

Finding circumstances favorable as could be expected, I 
considered it wisdom to send for Elder Jabez Woodard, of 
London, with whom I had formed an acquaintance while in 
that city. By exertions of Elder Margetts, President of the 
London Conference, and the liberality of the Saints, he was 
enabled to join us on the eighteenth of September. The fol- 
lowing day, being eleven months from the time the foreign 
mission left the city of the Great Salt Lake, I proposed we 
should commence our public duties. 

It was well known that we had come to establish a 



130 JBIOGRAPHY AND 

church. This was looked upon by many as an impossibility. 
But we now found we had the materials marvclously assem- 
bled from four different nations, viz: England, Scotland, 
Italy, and America. With one member from each of these 
countries, we proceeded to organize the Church. We 
ascended a very high mountain, a little distance from LaTour, 
and having taken our position on a bold projecting rock, we 
sang praises to the God of heaven, and offered up the follow- 
ing prayer: 

We, Thy servants, Holy Father, come before Thee upon 
this mountain, and ask Thee to look upon us in an especial 
manner, and regard our petitions as one friend regards the 
peculiar requests of another. Forgive all our sins and trans- 
gressions, and let them no more be remembered. 

Look, Lord, upon our many' sacrifices in leaving our 
wives, our children, and country, to obey Thy voice in offer- 
ing salvation to this, people. Receive our gratitude in having 
preserved us from destruction amid the cold wintry blasts, 
and from the hostile savages of the deserts of America — in 
having led us by the Holy Ghost to these valleys of Piedmont.. 
Thou hast shown us that here Thou hast hid up a portion of 
the house of Israel. 

In Thy name, we this day lift into view before this 
people and this nation the ensign of Thy martyred Prophet 
and Patriarch, * Joseph and Hyrum Smith, the ensign of the 
fulness of the Gospel — the ensign of Thy kingdom once more 
to be established among men. Lord, God of our fathers, 
protect Thou this banner. Lend us. Thine almighty aid in 
maintaining it before the view of these dark and benighted 
nations. May it wave triumphantly from this time forth, till 
all Israel shall have heard and received. the fulness of Thy 
Gospel, and have been delivered from their bondage. May 
their bands be broken and the scales of darkness fall from 
their eyes. 

From the lifting up of this ensign may a voice go forth 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 131 

among the people of these mountains and valleys, and 
throughout the length and breadth of this land, and may it 
go forth and be unto thine elect, as the voice of the Lord, that 
the Holy Spirit may fall upon them, imparting knowledge in 
dreams and visions concerning this hour of their redemp- 
tion. As the report of us, Thy servants, shall spread abroad, 
may it awaken feelings of anxiety with the honest to learn of 
Thy doings, and to seek speedily the path of knowledge. 

Whomsoever among this people shall employ his influ- 
ence, riches or learning to promote the establishment of Thy 
Gospel in these nations, may he be crowned with honors in 
this world, and in the world to come crowned with eternal 
life. Whomsoever shall use his influence or power to hinder 
the establishment of Thy Gospel in this country, may he 
become, in a surprising manner, before the eyes of all these 
nations, a monument of weakness, 'folly, shame and disgrace. 

Suffer us not to be overcome by our enemies in the accom- 
plishment of this mission, upon which we have been sent. 
Let messengers be prepared and sent forth from heaven to 
help us in our weakness, and to take the oversight of this 
work, and lead it to a glorious consummation. 

Eemember our families. Preserve our lives and hearts 
from all evil, that when we shall have finished our missions 
we may return safely to the bosom of our families. Bless 
Elder Toronto in Sicily, and give him influence and power to 
lead to salvation many of his father's house and kindred. 
Bless President Young and his council, the Quorum of the 
Twelve Apostles, and Thy Saints universally: And to the 
Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, shall be the 
praise, honor, and glory, now and forever, amen. 

Other proceedings of the day I extract from the journal 
of the mission: 

Moved by Elder Snow, that tho Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints be organized in Italy; seconded and 
carried. 



132 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Moved by Elder Stenhouse, that Elder Lorenzo Snow, of 
the Quorum, of the Twelve Apostles, be sustained President 
of the Church in Italy; seconded and carried. 

Moved by Elder Snow, that Elder Stenhouse be Secretary 
of the Church in Italy; seconded and carried. 

The Church in this country, this day, is composed of the 
following: Lorenzo Snow, of the Quorum of the Twelve 
Apostles; Joseph Toronto, of the Quorum of Seventies; T. B. 
H. Stenhouse, Elder, and 'Jabez Woodard, Elder. 

We then sang, "Praise to the man who communed with 
Jehovah;" after which, Elder Stenhouse engaged in prayer, 
calling upon the Lord to bless and preserve our wives and 
families, and all who administer to their wants during our 
absence. 

Elder Woodard then implored the outpouring of .the 
Spirit of God upon the honest in heart among the ministers 
and people of these lands. 

Elder Snow followed, calling upon the God of our fathers, 
in mighty prayer, to bless and sanction the proceedings of this 
day, and crown our future efforts with success. 

As the Spirit of God rested upon us, we "felt it was good 
to be here." After singing a song of Zion, Elder .Snow 
prophesied and. said, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints, now organized, will increase and multiply, and 
continue its existence in Italy, till that portion of Israel, dwel- 
ling in these countries, shall have heard and received the 
fulness of the Gospel. 

Elder Stenhouse prophesie.d and said, From this time the 
work will commence, and nothing will hinder its progress; 
and before we are called to return, many will rejoice and bear 
testimony to the principles of Truth. 

Elder Woodard prophesied and said, The opposition 
which may be brought against this Church will, in a visible 
and peculiar manner, advance its interests; and the work of God 
will at length go from this land, to other nations of the earth. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 1 33 

After we had sung, prayed and prophesied, Elder Snow 
laid his hands upon the head of Elder Stenhouse, and, through 
the operations of the Spirit, was led to comfort and cheer his 
soul with the things of the Kingdom. He then laid his 
hands upon the head of Elder Woodard, and prayed that he 
might have the power to act as Aaron, and speak unto the 
people by the power of God. 

Having now finished the business for which we assembled, 
we felt reluctant to leave the spot, where we had rejoiced so 
much in the goodness of the Lord. From the nature of our 
proceedings, the fruitfulness of the mountains, the rich 
variety around, and the impregnable fortress of the, mountains 
behind, Elder Snow proposed that this mountain be known 
among the people of God/ henceforth and forever, as Mount 
Brigham, and the rock upon which we stood the Rock of 
Prophecy. 

We descended the mount and reached LaTour about six 
o'clock in the evening. As a sign to all who might visit us, 
we nailed to the wall of my chamber the likeness of Joseph 
and Hyrum Smith. From that day opportunities began to 
occur for proclaiming our message. 

There is an English gentleman, a retired English colonel, 
residing here, whose name has an almost magical effect upon 
the Protestants. He has materially assisted the schools and 
other benevolent institutions. Your recommend as Governor 
of Utah procured me a ready and cheerful introduction which 
resulted in several interesting interviews. On one of those 
occasions he said, as he retired, "You shall receive no opposi- 
tion on my part; and if you preach the Gospel as faithfully 
to all in these valleys as to me, you need fear no reproach in 
the day of judgment." 

The Protestant chapels here are called temples. The first 
that was ever erected was that of St. Lorenzo. It has long 
since crumbled into ruins; but a Catholic, chapel has been 
erected, which now bears the name. One day we were invited 



134 BIOGRAPHY AND 

to the residence of the officiating priest. We received every 
attention from our host, and were furnished a dinner which 
exceeded anything we had enjoyed in Italy. When view- 
ing his chapel, we took the opportunity of presenting the 
truth of the Gospel. He listened with great attention and 
proposed many interesting questions in relation to modern 
revelation. Although we had intended to return to our resi- 
dence, he insisted so urgently that we consented to stay over 
night. He presented me an Italian grammar, in which he 
inscribed his name. In the morning, after an early break- 
fast, he accompanied us some miles on our way. 

It is customary among Protestants to hold small meetings 
for religious worship in private houses. These are called 
"re-unions." We attend them, and sometimes are permitted 
to speak upon our principles. This has produced some little 
stir among the officials; and a short time since we received an 
invitation to attend a public meeting and answer some ques- 
tions relative to our miss'ion. We did so, and found some of 
the most talented ministers present, with an evident desire to 
crush our efforts. But after we had preached and discussed 
for three hours, one man, at least, retired with the conviction 
that we were the servants of the Lord. On the 27th of 
October, this person presented himself as a candidate for 
baptism. 

The introduction of the principles of truth in all coun- 
tries has more or less been attended with anxiety and diffi- 
culty; of these we had our share. It was with no small 
degree of satisfaction I went down to the riyer side to attend 
to this ordinance. Peculiar, indeed, were my feelings when I 
thought on the past, the present, and endeavored to penetrate 
the dark labyrinth of unborn time. I rejoiced that the Lord 
had thus far blessed our efforts and enabled us to open the 
door of the Kingdom in dark and benighted Italy. My 
brethren stood on the river bank — the only human witnesses 
of this interesting scene. Having long desired this eventful 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 135 

time, sweet to us all were the soft sounds of the Italian as I 
administered and opened a door which no man can shut. 

Tales of slander against the Saints have been circulated 
around us already. The list of lies which we have seen in 
print here, might bleach the memory of many a vile traducer 
in other lands. From the rise of the Church to the death of 
Joseph, all the principal facts have been changed for the 
foulest misrepresentations. But this is a small part of our 
difficulties. We have to preach on the one hand, to a people 
nominally Protestants, but who have been, from time 
immemorial, in a church where organized dissent has been 
unknown. The people regard any innovation as an attempt 
to drag them from the banner of their martyred ancestry. On 
the other hand, we have the Catholics, with their proud pre- 
tensions to a priesthood of apostolic origin. 

Our presence in this land is only just tolerated and not 
recognized as any right, founded upon established laws. 
Liberty is only as yet in the bud; and the poet says, "The bud 
may have a bitter taste'." But while surrounded with diffi- 
culties that seem loftier than the snow-crowned Alps, I can 
lift up my head as a servant of God, and rejoice in the 
anticipation of final triumph. Our course is often dark and 
difficult; but I believe that, however slow it may be for a 
while, it will ultimately brighten with complete success. 
Popery, ignorance, and superstition form a three-fold barrier 
to our efforts. Strange customs, laws and languages surround 
us on every side. In a word, we feel that we are in Italy — 
the polluted fountain which has overspread the earth with her 
defiling waters. 

LaTour is the principal town in the Protestant valleys. 
Here is a large Catholic chapel with a number of officiating 
priests. There is a Protestant college, with several professors, 
and about seventy students. They have also a large chapel 
in course of erection, principally by English liberality. 

Having thus given you a sketch of my travels and pro- 



136 BIOGRAPHY AND 

ceedings, I close with my kind love to yourself and family,. 
Elders Kimball and Richards, and all the Saints. 

I am, dear President Young, yours very affectionately, 

Lorenzo Snow. 
President Brigham Young, 

Great Salt Lake City, California. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Joseph Smith. — His anxiety on the subject of religion. — Secret vocal prayer- 
— A brilliant light envelops him. — Two personages appear. — The Lord 
speaks to Joseph. — Instructs him. — He has another vision. — Is shown 
where records are deposited. — Obtains and translates them. — Testimonies 
of the Witnesses. — Baptisms. — Church organized. — Temple bnilt. — 
Gifts manifested. — Saints leave Kirtland. — Scenes in Jackson County. — 
Extreme Suffering. — Expulsion. — Memorial to Congress. 

S an appropriate historical gem, rich with multum in 
'parvo (much in a small compass), I copy into this 
autobiography, a tract entitled, "The Voice of Joseph," 

which my brother wrote and published for the benefit of his. 

Southern Europe and East India Missions. 

THE VOICE OF JOSEPH. 

Joseph Smith, junior, whom it pleased the Lord to select- 
and appoint to restore the primitive Gospel and apostolic 
Priesthood, was born in 1805, in Vermont, United States. 
When about fifteen years of age, being seriously impressed 
with the necessity of seeking the Lord and preparing for a 
future state, his mind became much perplexed through diffi- 
culties thrown in the path of his researches by the multitude- 
of religious sects and parties with which he was surrounded. 






AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 137 

Each system required belief, and gave hope; but none could 
communicate a knowledge of its divine authority. In com- 
paring them one with another there seemed too much con- 
fusion; the same also appeared in looking at each separately. 
Turning, therefore, from these clashing systems, and being 
encouraged and inspired with the following passage in St. 
James, "If any of you lack wisdom let him ask of God," he 
retired to a grove a little distance from his father's house, and 
in fervent prayer besought the Lord to communicate with him, 
and reveal the way of salvation. While thus engaged, a light 
. brilliant and glorious appeared in the heavens, gradually 
descending towards him till he was enveloped in it, and 
wrapped in celestial vision; when he beheld two glorious 
beings similar in dress ana" appearance, who informed him 
that the religious sects had all departed from the ancient 
doctrine of the Apostles, and that the Gospel, with its gifts 
and blessings, should be made known to him at a future 
period. Many itnportant things were manifested in this 
vision, which the brevity of this work will not permit us to 
notice. 

On the evening of the twenty-first of September, 1823, 
having retired to rest, his mind became filled with anxious 
desires to receive the information which he had been previ- 
ously promised. While engaged in prayer, and striving to 
exercise faith, the room became filled with light far surpass- 
ing that of noonday, but in the midst thereof appeared an 
additional glory surrounding a person whose countenance was 
as lightning, yet so full of goodness, and innocence, and of 
such a glorious appearance as to banish all apprehension. He 
announced himself as an angel of God, commissioned to 
inform him that the covenant with ancient Israel touching 
their posterity should soon be accomplished — that the great 
work preparatory to the second coming of Messiah should 
speedily commence, and the plenitude of the Gospel be made 
known to all nations. He also informed him that the abori- 



138 BIOGRAPHY AND 

gines of America were a reinnant of Israel, who, when they 
first inhabited that land, enjoj^ed the ministry of inspired 
men; that records of the most important events in their his- 
tory had been preserved from their first settlement down to 
the period of their national degeneracy; that these records 
had been concealed in the earth by one of their last Prophets, 
and a promise of the Lord given that they should be revealed 
in the last days. 

The day following the angel returned and instructed Mr- 
Smith to go to the place where those sacred registers were 
deposited. On reaching the spot he found a stone projecting, 
a little above the surface of the ground, and covering a kind 
of box made of the same material. On removing this cover, 
he beheld the plates on which the records were engraved, but 
the angel of the Lord again appeared and said: 

You cannot at .this time obtain this record, for the commandment of 
God is strict, and if ever these sacred things are obtained, they must be by 
prayer and faithfulness in obeying the Lord. They are not depo-itcd here 
for the sake of accumulating gain and wealth for the glory of this world; 
they were sealed by the prayer of faith, and because of the knowledge 
which they contain; they are of no worth among the children of men only 
for their knowledge. On them is contained the fulness of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ as it was given to His people on this land; and when it shall be 
brought forth by the power of God, it shall be carried to the Gentiles , of 
whom many will receive it, and after will the seed of Israel be brought into 
the fold of their Redeemer by obeying it also. Those who kept the com- 
mandments of the Lord on this land desired this at His hand, and through 
the prayer of faith obtained the promise, that if their descendants should 
transgress and fall away, a record should be kept, and in the last clays come 
to their children. These things are sacred, and must be kept so, for the 
promise of the Lord concerning them must be fulfilled. No man can 
obtain them if his heart is impare, bscausa they. contain that which is 
sacred. * * * By them will the Lord work a great 

and marvelous work; the wisdom of the wise shall become as nought, and 
the understanding of the prudent shall be hid, and because the power of 
God shall be displayed, those who profess to know the truth but walk in 
deceit shall tremble with anger; but with signs and with wonders, with gifts 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 139 

and with healings, with the manifestations of the power of God, and with 
the Holy Ghost, shall the hearts of the faithful be comforted. You have 
now beheld-the power of God manifested, and the power of Satan; you see 
that there is nothing desirable in the works of darkness; that they cannot 
bring happiness: that those who are overcome therewith are miserable; 
while, on the other hand, the righteous are blessed with a place in the 
kingdom of God, where joy unspeakable surrounds them. There they rest 
beyond the power of the enemy of truth, where no evil can disturb them. 
The glory of God crowns them, and they continually feast upon His good- 
ness and enjoy His smiles. Behold, notwithstanding you have seen this 
great display of power by which you may ever be able to detect the evil 
one, yet I give unto you another sign, and when it comes to pass, then 
know the Lord is God, and that He will fulfil His purposes, and that the 
knowledge which this record contains will go to every nation, and kindred, 
and tongue, and people under the whole heaven. This is the sign: and 
when these things begin to be known, that is, when it is known that the 
Lord has shown you these things, the workers of iniquity will seek your 
overthrow. They will circulate falsehoods to destroy your reputation, and 
also will seek to take your life; but remember this, if you are faithful, 
and shall hereafter continue to keep commandments of the Lord, you shall 
be preserved to bring these things forth; for in due time He will give you a 
commandment to come and take them. When they are interpreted, the 
Lord will give the Holy Priesthood to some, and they shall begin to proclaim 
this Gospel and baptize by water, and after that they shall have power to 
give the Holy Ghost by the laying on of their hands. Then will persecu- 
tion rage more and more; for the iniquities of men shall be revealed, and 
those who are not built upon the Rock will seek to overthrow the Church; 
but it will increase the more opposed, and spread farther and farther, 
increasing in knowledge until they shall all be sanctified, and receive an 
inheritance where the glory of God will rest upon thein; and when this 
takes place, and all things are prepared, the ten tribes of Israel will be 
revealed in the north country, whither they have been for a long season; and 
when this is fulfilled will be brought to pass that saying of the Prophet, 
"And the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from 
transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord." But notwithstanding the workers 
of iniquity shall seek your destruction, the arm of the Lord will be extended, 
and you will be borne off conqueror if you keep all His commandments. 
Your name shall be known among the nations, for the work which the Lord 
will perform by your hands shall cause the righteous to rejoice and the 
wicked to rage; with the one it shall be had in honor, and with the other 
in reproach; yet with these it shall be a terror, because of the great and 



140 BIOGRAPHY AND 

marvelous work which shall follow the coming forth of this fulness of the 
Gospel. Now, go thy way, remembering what the Lord hath done for thee, 
and be diligent in keeping His commandments, and He will deliver thee 
from temptations and all the arts and devices of the wicked one. Forget 
not to pray, that thy mind may become "strong, that when He shall manifest 
unto thee thou maye3t have power to escape the evil and obtain these 
precious things. 

During the following four years he frequently received 
instruction from the mouth of this heavenly messenger, and 
on the 22d of September, 1827, the records were placed in his 
hands. 

They were engraved in Egyptian characters on plates 
having the appearance of gold, and measuring about seven 
or eight inches in length and breadth; not quite so thick as 
ordinary tin. All were" held together by three rings, and 
formed a volume of about six inches in thickness; one por- 
tion of which was sealed; the characters or letters on the 
unsealed part were very diminutive, but perfectly engraved. 

By the gift and power of God, Mr. Smith translated them 
into the English language, but as he could not write well, he 
received the aid of a person who wrote down the translation 
which he gave by word of mouth. This important work is 
called the Book of Mormon, from the name of an ancient 
Prophet who by divine commandment had been engaged in 
its compilation. We there find an account of two distinct 
races who inhabited the American continent. 

The first came from the Tower of Babel; but after fifteen 
or sixteen centuries their iniquity became so great that they 
were entirely destroyed, even as the Lord had threatened 
them by the mouth of holy Prophets, the last of whom left 
their history engraved on plates of gold. These were found 
by the second race, who were a remnant of Joseph, led forth 
in a miraculous manner from Jerusalem during the first year 
of the reign of Zedekiah, king of Judah. Their history is 
brought down to the year four hundred and twenty of the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 141 

Christian era, when by commandment of God, it was hid in 
the earth till revealed as before stated. After the Book of 
Mormon was translated, the Lord called witnesses, who have 
left the following testimony to the world: 

THE TESTIMONY OF THREE WITNESSES. 

Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues and people unto whom 
this work shall come, that we, through the grace of God the Father, and 
our Lord Jesus Christ, have seen the plates which contain this record, which 
is a record of the people of Nephi, and also of the Lamanites, their brethren, 
and also of the people of Jared, who came from the tower of which hath 
been spoken; and we also know that they have been translated by the gift 
and power of God, for His voice hath declared it unto us; wherefore we 
know of a surety that the work is true. And we also testify that we have 
seen the engravings which are upon the plates; and they have been shewn 
unto us by the power of God, and not of man. And we declare with words 
of soberness, that an angel of God came down from heaven, and he brought 
and laid before our eyes, that we beheld and saw the plates, and the engrav- 
ings thereon; and we know that it is by the grace of God the Father, and 
our Lord Jesus Christ, that we beheld and bear record that these things are 
true; and it is marvelous in our eyes; nevertheless, the voice of the Lord 
commanded us that we should bear record of it; wherefore, to be obedient 
unto the commandments of God, we bear testimony of these things. And 
we know that if we are faithful in Christ, we shall rid our garments of the 
blood of all men, and be found spotless before the judgment-seat of Christ, 
and shall dwell with him eternally in the heavens. And the honor be to 
the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, which is one God. 

Amen. 

Oliver Cowdery, 

David Whitmer, 

Martin Harris. 

and also the testimony of eight witnesses. 

Be it known unto all nations, kindreds, tongues, and people unto whom 
this work shall come, that Joseph Smith, Jun., the translator of this work, 
has shewn unto us the plates of which hath been spoken, which have the 
appearance of gold; and as many of the leaves as the said Smith has trans- 
lated, we did handle with our hands; and we also saw the engravings thereon , 
all of which has the appearance of ancient work and of curious workman- 






142 • BIOGRAPHY AND 

ship. And this we bear record with words of soberness, that the said Smith 
has shewn unto us, for we have seen and hei'ted, and know of a surety that 
the said Smith has got the plates of which we have spoken. And we give 
our names unto the world, to witness unto the world that which we have 
seen; and we lie not, Gal bearing witness of it. 

, Christian Whitmer, Hiram Page, 

Jacob Whitmer, Joseph Smith, Sen., 

Peter Whitmer, Jun., Hyrum Smith, 

John Whitmer, Samuel H. Smith. 

In the year 1829, Mr. Smith and Mr. Cowdeiy, having 
learned the proper mode of baptism from the instructions 
contained in the Book' of Mormon, they desired to receive that 
ordinance; but knowing that no one among the different 
denominations had authority to administer, they sought for a 
revelation upon the subject, and an angel appeared unto them 
while they were in prayer, laid his hands upon their heads, 
and ordained them to the Priesthood, and commanded them 
to baptize one another. 

In the year 1830, a large edition of the Book of Mormon 
was printed; and as some began to read its sacred pages, 
the Spirit of the Lord bore witness to its truth, and they 
obeyed its requirements; repenting in humility before the 
Lord, they were immersed in water for the remission of sins, 
and received the laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy 
Ghost. 

On the 6th of April, 1830, the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints was organized in the town of Fayette, 
Seneca County, State of New York. Several persons were 
called, and ordained by the spirit of revelation and prophecy, 
and began to preach and bear testimony; and although they 
were the feeble things of the earth, they became' mighty by 
the Holy Spirit. 

As they traveled forth, bearing their testimony, the 
attention of all classes was aroused. Many honest hearted 
persons came forward, were baptized, received the gift of the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY ' ' 143 

Holy Ghost, and knowledge of the truth of, the principles. 
Others mocked, derided, slandered and raised the weapons of 
persecution. Not stopping a moment to examine whether the 
restoration of ancient Gospel privileges was or was not scriptural 
doctrine, they foolishly reasoned themselves into the conclusion 
that it was justifiable to use. any means, however wrong and 
cruel, to hinder the progress of those principles. I am sorry 
to say, yet duty requires the statement, that, in many instances, 
ministers of religious denominations would indulge in the 
same reasoning, and b}*- false reports, misrepresentations and 
slanders, stir up the evil minded to persecute the servants of 
God. It is to instances of this kind that we have often traced 
the original cause of many scenes of spoliation and murder, 
which we have experienced during the past twenty years of 
our pilgrimage. 

In the year 1831, the Saints established a settlement in 
Lake County, State of Ohio. One thousand miles from this 
place, in Jackson County, State of Missouri, they also made 
another settlement about the same time. The history of the 
Saints who settled in Ohio will first be noticed, afterwards 
that of those at the last mentioned location. 

In Lake County, having increased in numbers to several 
hundreds, and having no convenient place for public worship, 
a Temple was commenced for this purpose. Its dimensions, 
form and order were shown of the Lord in vision; and it was 
built according to the pattern shown. In accomplishing this 
work they experienced severe opposition from their enemies, 
who were determined no such building should be erected, and 
sought every means in their power to harass, perplex and 
annoy them; employing the most wicked and disgraceful 
measures to hinder their operations. At this infantile stage 
of the Church's progress, mobs had not become so emboldened 
in that part oh' the country as to appear and come against the 
Saints in daylight, but in the night time, in parties of fifty or 
sixty, clothed in disguise, they would steal in upon them for 



144 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the purpose generally of destroying their property. Guards 
- were obliged to be kept up by the Saints, to preserve them- 
selves against these depredations. Notwithstanding their 
utmost vigilance, however, in many instances property was 
plundered and destroyed. Lawsuits would frequently be 
instituted, without the least cause whatever, except to weary, 
harass and torment an unoffending and innocent people. Not- 
withstanding these oppositions and perplexities, a magnificent 
Temple was completed and dedicated to the Lord in the pres- 
ence of thousands. The day of blessings, and of rejoicings in 
the history of the Saints, had now arrived. While assembling 
themselves together, from time to time, in the House of the 
Lord, to fast and pray, speaking to each other of the goodness 
of God, offering up their spiritual and enlivening songs of 
gratitude and thanksgiving to Him who had again spoken 
from heaven, and spoken of good things near at hand for His 
people of all nations, they often experienced remarkable visi- 
tations of the goodness and power of God, showing His 
approval of their conduct and acceptance of His House. The 
aged fathers, leaning upon their staffs, would rise in the 
midst of their brethren, being filled with the Holy Ghost, 
and express their gratitude in flowing tears for the mercies of 
God towards them in giving them knowledge, before going 
down to the grave, of the restoration of the Priesthood and 
fulness of the Gospel; exhorting the young Elders to be vir- 
tuous, upright and holy; to go forth manfully, without fear, 
depending upon the God of heaven, bearing a faithful testi- 
mony of the knowledge given them; for, though deficient in 
worldly wisdom, the power of the Lord would be with them, 
and they should not be confounded. The youth, the middle 
aged, both men and women, clothed with the spirit of inspi- 
" ration, would speak, as with the tongue of angels, of the mar- 
velous blessings which they had experienced, and the knowl- 
edge God had imparted unto them, concerning this great work 
preparatory to the coming of the Son of God. One would 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 145 

exercise the gift of tongues, another that of interpretation, 
and some would have the gift of prophecy. One would speak 
of the blessings of faith, another would testify of knowledge, 
and some would have the spirit of exhortation. Thus were 
their gifts exercised, and all edilied together, proving they 
lived in the time of the fulfilment of Joel's prophecy, which 
saith: "I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh; and your 
sons and your daughters shall prophesy; your old men shall 
dream dreams, your young men shall see visions; and also 
upon the servants, and upon the handmaids, in those days, 
will I pour out my Spirit " * (ii: 28, 29.) Those indeed were 
happy days. The sick were healed by the laying on of hands 
and anointing with oil; and, in some instances the dumb 
spake; the deaf had their hearing restored; and the blind 
received their sight. Hard indeed must be that heart that 
envies the Saints the possession of such blessings, when it is 
known what was the expense of the purchase which they 
afterwards paid. Indeed, we little suspected the fiery trials. 
that were in store, and scenes of devastation and bloodshed 
which followed. 

As the testimony of these things was proclaimed from 
time to time, and the faith of the Saints became known among 
the people in the surrounding country, opposition and perse- 
cution increased. The wicked and more disorderly portion 
of the community became more bold in their attacks upon 
the Saints and their property. Not unfrequently they were 
secretly influenced and supported by those who professed 
piety and religion and to be ministers of Jesus Christ. At 
last, wearied of this endless scene of molestation and such 
insufferable vexations, they concluded, like Abraham of old, 
to contend no longer for their rights; but, leaving the fruits of 
their labor with their enemies, flee to some more peaceful 
clime. Accordingly, they commenced leaving the country, 
and in the course of one year nearly all had left, numbering 
about two thousand, having left at a sacrifice of at least two- 

12 



f 



1 



146 BIOGRAPHY AND 

thirds of all their property. They journeyed westward, some 
locating themselves in one place and some in another, accord- 
ing to their means and circumstances. The major part went 
into the State of Missouri, many of whom located in Caldwell 
County. This. occurred in the year 1838. 

The attention of the reader will now be directed to that 
branch of the Church which located in Jackson County. Here 
we shall be under the necessity of relating troubles of a more 
serious character. The land being only one dollar and a 
quarter per acre, the- Saints, though generally poor, were 
enabled, many of them, to make very extensive purchases. By 
industry and perseverance large farms were soon opened, 
orchards planted, mills and public buildings erected, institu- 
tions for education formed, a printing press established, the 
foundation for a Temple laid, and beautiful private dwellings 
began to appear in all directions upon those broad and beauti- 
ful prairies. To the settler having but little capital, it is pre- 
sumed no country was ever discovered possessing so many 
advantages as that which the Saints here occupied. It is 
described in the following language by one of the members of 
the colony: "Unlike the timbered States in the east, except 
upon the rivers and water courses, which were verdantly 
dotted with trees; from one to three miles wide, as far as the 
eye can glance, the beautiful rolling prairies lay spread around 
like a sea of meadows. The timber is a mixture of oak, hick- 
ory, box, elder, and bass wood, together with the addition of 
cotton wood, bullon wood, pecon, soft and hard maple, upon 
the bottoms. The shrubbery Avas beautiful, and consisted in 
part of plums, grapes, crab apples and persimmons. The 
prairies were decorated with a growth of flowers that seemed 
as gorgeous and grand as the brilliancy of stars in the heavens, 
and exceed description. The soil is rich and fertile, from 
three to ten feet deep, and generally composed of a rich black 
mould, intermingled with clay and sand. It produces in 
abundance wheat, corn and many other commodities, together 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 147 

with sweet potatoes and cotton." Here, then, was the place 
appointed of the Lord for His people to locate and build Him 
a house in which they might worship Him in purity and holi- 
ness, and His servants receive wisdom, knowledge and power, 
and be prepared to go forth among all nations, kindreds, 
people and languages, carrying the everlasting Gospel, in 
fulfilment of John's prophecy, that all people might under- 
stand the near approach of the coming of the Son of Man, 
and the wise virgins trim their'lamps and be prepared. While 
they were peaceably and industriously pursuing this object, 
Satan began to stir up the people around to jealousy, envy and 
hatred. Mob meetings were held in different parts of the 
country; resolutions passed, and measures entered into to 
drive the Saints from their possessions. In the month of 
November, 1833, a ruthless and murderous mob, composed of 
many hundreds, armed with weapons of destruction, came 
suddenly upon the Saints, who were unprepared for defense, 
and drove men, women and children from their lovely 
habitations. Their deep distress, and the severity of their 
sufferings, it is no pleasing duty to relate. Women were 
shamefully abused in the presence of their husbands, daughters 
in the presence of their parents; defenceless men were shot 
down like wild beasts of the forest; some, while fleeing for 
their lives, were pursued, caught, tied to trees and whipped 
till their bowels gushed out and death ended their sufferings. 
Over two hundred of their houses were burned, the remainder 
were plundered, and their horses and cattle driven away. So 
suddenly were they compelled to flee, that only in a few 
instances sufficient apparel could be taken to preserve them 
from the cold, wintry blasts. The extreme sufferings of 
women and children may easily be imagined. In consequence 
of these severities, many perished by the way, before any kind 
hand of hospitality offered its relief. While the Saints lay 
upon the cold, bleak prairies, without a home and without a 
friend except'the God of heaven, a very singular phenomenon 



148 BIOGRAPHY AND 

appeared in the heavens, which created quite a panic, among 
the mob, viz.: the meteoric shower, or shooting stars, which 
was seen in various parts of the world by many millions. 

After this expulsion from Jackson County, they located in 
the upper portion of the same State, till the year 1838, when 
again they were assailed by a murderous mob, and having 
suffered the loss of many lives and nearly all their propert}', 
were compelled to leave the State. To give the reader more 
particular information respecting the persecutions of the 
Saints; and their expulsion from the State of Missouri, we 
present entire a memorial which was laid before the Congress 
of the United States: 

AMERICAN EXILES' MEMORIAL TO CONGRESS. 

To the Honorable Senators and Representatives of the United States of 
America, in Congress assembled* 

We, the undersigned, members of the City Council of the city of 
Nauvoo, citizens of Hancock County, Illinois, and exiles from the State of 
Missouri, being in council assembled, unanimously and respectfully, for 
ourselves, and in behalf of many thousands of other exiles, memorial- 
ize the honorable Senators and Eepresentatives of our nation, upon the 
subject of the unparalleled persecutions and cruelties inflicted upon us, and 
upon our constituents, by the constituted authorities of the State of 
Missouri; and likewise upon the subject of the present unfortunate circum- 
stances in which we are placed in the land of our exile. As a history of 
the Missouri outrages has been extensively published, both in this country 
and in Europe, it is deemed unnecessary to particularize all of the wrongs 
and grievances inflicted upon us, in this memorial, as there is an abundance 
of well attested documents to which your honorable body can at any time 
refer; hence we only embody the following important items for your consid- 
eration: 

First. Your memorialists, as free born citizens of this great republic, 
relying with the utmost confidence upon the sacred "Articles of the Con- 
stitution," by which the several States are bound together, and considering 
ourselves entitled to all the privileges and immunities of free citizens in 
what State soever we desired to locate ourselves, commenced a settlement 
in Jackson County, on the western frontiers of the State of Missouri, in the 
summer of 1831. There we purchased lands from government; erected 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 149 

several hundred houses; made extensive improvements; and shortly the 
wild and lonely prairies and stately forests were converted into well culti- 
vated and fruitful fields. There we expected to spend our days in the enjoy- 
ment of all the rights and liberties bequeathed to us by the sufferings and 
blood of our noble ancestors. But, alas! our expectations were vain. Two 
years had scarcely elapsed before we were unlawfully and unconstitutionally 
assailed by an organized mob, consisting of the highest officers in the 
county, both civil and military, who boldly and openly avowed their deter- 
mination, in a written circular, to drive us from said county. As a speci- 
men of their treasonable and cruel designs, your honorable body are referred 
to said circular, of which the following is but a short extract, namely: "We, 
the undersigned,, citizens of Jackson County, believing that an important 
crisis is at hand as regards our civil society, in consequence of a pretended 
religious sect of people that have settled and are still settling m our 
county, styling themselves Mormons; and intending, as we do, <o rid 
our society, 'peaceably,' if we can — 'forcibly,' if we must; and believing, 
as we do, that the arm of the civil law does not afford us a guarantee, or at 
least a sufficient 'one, against the evils which are now inflicted upon us, and 
seem to be increasing by the said religious sect, deem it expedient and of 
the highest importance, to form ourselves into a company fur the better si nd 
easier accomplishment of our purpose." This document was closed in the 
following words: "We therefore agree, after timely warning, and receiving 
an adequate compensation for what little property they cannot take with 
them, they refuse to leave us in peace, as they found us, we agree to use 
such means as may be sufficient to remove them, and to that end we each 
pledge to each other our bodily powers, our lives, fortunes, and sacred 
honors." 

To this unconstitutional document were attached the names of nearly 
every officer in the county, together with the names of hundreds of others. 
It was by this band of murderers, that your memorialists, in the year 1833, 
were plundered of their property, and robbed of their peaceable homes. It 
was by them their fields were laid waste, their houses burned, and their 
men, women and children, to the number of about twelve hundred per- 
sons, banished as exiles from the county, while others were cruelly mur- 
dered by their hands. 

Second. After our expulsion from Jackson County, we settled in Clay 
County, on the opposite side of the Missouri River, where we purchased 
lands both from the old settlers and from the Land Office; but soon we 
were again violently threatened by mobs, and obliged to leave our homes 
and seek out a new location. 

Third. Our next settlement was in Caldwell County, where we pur- 



150 BIOGRAPHY. AND 

chased the moat of the lands in said county, besides a part of the lands in 
Daviess and Carroll counties. These counties were almost entirely in a wild 
and uncultivated state; but by the persevering industry of our citizens, 
large and extensive farms were opened in every direction, well stocked 
with numerous flocks and herds. We also commenced settlements in sev- 
eral other counties of the State, and once more confidently hoped to enjoy 
the hard earned fruits of our labor unmolested; but our hopes were soon 
blasted. The cruel and murderous spirit which first began to manifest 
itself in the constituted authorities and inhabitants of Jackson County, and 
afterwards in Clay and the surrounding counties, receiving no check either 
from the civil or military power of the State, had, in the meantime, taken 
courage, and boldly and fearlessly spread its contaminating and treasonable 
influence in every department of the government of said State. Lieuten- 
ant-Governor Boggs, a resident of Jackson County, who acted a conspicu- 
ous part in our expulsion from said county, instead of being tried for 
treason and rebellion against the Constitution, and suffering the just pen- 
alty of his crimes, was actually elected Governor, and placed in the execu- 
tive chair. Thus the inhabitants of the State were greatly encouraged to 
renew with redoubled fiiry their unlawful attack upon our defenceless, 
settlements. Men, women and children "were driven in every direction 
before their merciless persecutors. Robbed of their possessions, their 
property, the'r provisions and their all; cast forth upon the bleak snowy 
prairies, houseless and unprotected, many sunk down and expired under 
their accumulated sufferings, while others, after enduring hunger and the 
severities of the season, suffering all but death, arrived in Caldwell County, 
to which place they were driven from all the surrounding counties only 
to witness a still more heart rending scene; in vain had we appealed to 
the constituted authorities of Missouri for protection and redress of our 
former grievances; in vain we now stretched out our hands and appealed as 
the citizens of this great republic to the sympathies — to the justice and 
magnanimity of those in power; in vain we implored, again and again, at 
the feet of Governor Boggs, our former persecutor, aid and protection 
against the .ravages and murders now inflicted upon our defenceless and 
unoffending citizens. The cry of American citizens, already twice driven 
and deprived of liberty, could not penetrate their adamantine hearts. The 
Governor, instead of sending us aid, issued a proclamation for our exter- 
mination and banishment; ordered out the forces of the State, placed 
them under the command of General Clarke, who, to execute these exter- 
minating orders, marched several thousand troops into our settlements in 
Caldwell County, where, unrestrained by fear of law or justice, and urged 
on by the highest authority of the State, they laid .waste our fields of corn, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 151 

shot down our cattle and hogs for sport, burned our dwellings, inhumanly 
butchered some eighteen or twenty defenceless'citizens, dragged from their 
hiding places little children, and placing the muzzles of their guns to their 
heads, shot them, with the most horrid oaths and imprecations. An aged 
hero and patriot of the revolution, who served under General Washington, 
while in the act of pleading for quarters, was cruelly murdered and hewed 
in pieces with an old corn-cutterf'and in addition t§ all these savage acts 
of barbarity, they forcibly dragged virtuous and inoffensive females from 
their dwellings, bound them upon benches used for public worship, where 
they, in great numbers, ravished them in a most brutal manner. Some 
fifty or sixty of the citizens were thrust into prisons and dungeons, where, 
bound in chains, they were fed on human flesh, while their families, and 
some fifteen thousand others, were, at the point of the bayonet, forcibly 
expelled from the State. In the meantime, to pay the expenses of these 
horrid outrages, they confiscated our property, and robbed us of all our 
possessions. Before our final expulsion, with a faint and lingering hope, 
we petitioned the State Legislature, t then in session, unwilling to believe 
that American citizens could appeal in vain for a restoration of liberty, 
cruelly wrested from them by cruel tyrants. But in the language of our 
noble ancestors, "our repeated petitions were only answered by repeated 
injuries." The Legislature, instead of hearing the cries of fifteen thousand 
suffering, bleeding, unoffending citizens, sanctioned and sealed the uncon- 
stitutional acts of the Governor and his troops, by appropriating two hun- 
dred thousand dollars to defray the expenses of exterminating us from the 
State. 

No friendly arm was stretched out to protect us. The last ray of 
hope for redress in that State was now entirely extinguished. We saw no 
other alternative but to bow down our necks and wear the cruel yoke of 
oppression, and quietly and submissively suffer ourselves to be banished aa 
exiles from our possessions, our property, and our sacred homes; or other- 
wise see our wives and children coldly murdered and butchered by tyrants 
in power. 

Fourth. Our next permanent settlement was in the land of our exile, 
the State of Illinois, in the spring of 1839. But even here we are not 
secure from our relentless persecutor, the State of Missouri. Not satisfied 
in having drenched her soil in the blood of innocence, and expelling us from 
her borders, she pursues her unfortunate victims into banishment, seizing 
upon and kidnapping them in their defenceless moments, dragging them 
across the Mississippi River, upon their inhospitable shores, where they are 
tortured, whipped, immured in dungeons, and hung by the neck without 
any legal process whatever. We have memorialized the former executive 



152 BIOGRAPHY AND 

of this State, Governor Carlin, upon these lawless outrages committed upon 
our citizens, but he rendered us no protection. Missouri, receiving no 
check in her murderous career, continues her depredations, again and 
again kidnapping our citizens, and robbing us of our property; while 
others', who fortunately survived the execution of her bloody edicts, are 
agairf and again demanded by the executive of that State, on pretence of 
some crime, said to h^ave been committed by them during the extermi- 
nating expedition against our people. As an instance, General Joseph 
Smith, one of your memorialists, has been three times demanded, tried, 
and acquitted by the courts of this State, upon investigation under writs of 
habeas corpus, once by the United States court for the district of Illinois; 
again by the Circuit court of the State of Illinois; and lastly, by the Munici- 
pal court of the city of Nauvoo, when at the same time a nolle prosequi 
had been entered by the courts of Missouri, upon all the cases of that State 
against Joseph Smith and others. Thus the said Joseph Smith has been 
several times tried for the same alleged offence, put in jeopardy of life and 
limb, contrary to the fifth article of the amendments to the Constitution of 
these United States; and thus we have been continually harassed and 
robbed of our money to defray the expenses of those vexatious prosecu- 
tions. And what at the present time seems to be still more alarming, is 
the hostility manifested by some of the authorities and citizens of this State. 
Conventions have been called, inflammatory speeches made, and many 
unlawful and unconstitutional resolutions adopted, to deprive us of our 
rights, our liberties, and the peaceable enjoyment of our possessions. From 
the present hostile aspect, and from bitter experience in the State of 
Missouri, it is greatly feared that the barbarous scenes acted in that State 
will be re-acted in this. If Missouri goes unpunished, others will be greatly 
encouraged to follow her murderous examples. The afflictions of your 
memorialists have already been overwhelming, too much for humanity, too 
much "for American citizens to endure without complaint. We have 
groaned under the iron hand of tyranny and oppression these many years. 
We have been robbed of our property to the amount of two millions of dollars. 
We have been hunted as the wild beasts of the forest. We have seen our 
aged fathers who fought in the Revolution, and our innocent children, alike 
slaughtered by our persecutors. We have seen the fair daughters of Ameri- 
can citizens insulted and abused in the most inhuman manner, and finally, 
we have seen fifteen thousand souls, men, women, and children, driven by 
force of arms, during the severities of winter, from their sacred homes and 
firesides, to a land of strangers, penniless and unprotected. * Under all 
these afflicting circumstances, we imploringly stretch forth our hands 
towards the highest councils of our nation, and humbly appeal to the illus- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 153 

trious Senators and Representatives of a great and free people for redress 
and protection. 

Hear! hear the petitioning voice of many thousands of American 
citizens who now groan in exile on Columbia's free soil! Hear! hear the 
weeping and bitter lamentations of widows and orphans, whose husbands 
and fathers have been cruelly martyred in the land where the proud eagle 
exultingly floats! Let it not be recorded in the archives of the nations, 
that Columbia's exiles sought protection and redress at your hands, but 
sought it in vain. It is in your power to save us, our wives,' and our chil- 
dren, from a repetition of the bloodthirsty scenes of Missouri, and thus 
greatly relieve the fears of a persecuted and injured people, and your 
petitioners will ever pray. 

The names of the petitioners are omitted for want of 
room. 

The foregoing memorial was presented in the spring of 
1844, making the third time those horrid scenes of murder 
had been laid before the Congress of the United States. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Why the Saints are persecuted. — Persecutions in different ages of the World 
— How Jethro came to Moses. — The Saints locate in Illinois. — A short 
season of peace. — Hostilities resumed. — Perfidy of the Governor of the 
State. — Assassination. — The Prophet's testimony that his work was 
finished. — The Saints are driven. — Their journey. — War with the remain- 
der. — Extracts from Epistle. — Peace — Perpetual Fund. — Labors of the 
Elders. — Publications. — The work of twenty years. — The power of truth. 

OES the reader request to know the cause of those horrid 
persecutions? I would ask, what caused the persecu- 
tions against the Saints anciently? The answer of the 
one answers the other. It is acknowledged, however, a singu- 
lar phenomenon in human nature that a class of people, 
moral, virtuous and innocent, should become an object of 
envy, hatred, malice, spoliation and murder by their sur- 



154 BIOGRAPHY AND 

rounding neighbors. Without entering into an explanation 
of the secret cause of this phenomenon of mind, we purpose 
only to present a few facts showing such is the nature of man- 
.kind, not only religiously, but morally considered. The most 
important moral, physical and philosophical discoveries have 
commonly been attended with persecution, imprisonment 
.confiscation of property, banishment or martyrdom. The 
names of Seneca, Socrates, Columbus, Galileo and Harvey, 
which now adorn the pages of history, were each in their turn 
the butt of scorn, ridicule and contempt; and so it generally 
has been with every man who has ever benefited the human 
family. In religious discoveries the same effects have fol- 
lowed. Every religious reformation has been attended with 
more or less persecution and martyrdom, from righteous Abel 
down to the latest murder committed upon the Latter-day 
Saints. Abel, through some appointed means, obtained very 
important blessings from heaven; as soon as this was known, 
he became an object of hatred, and was slain! And so on to 
the coming of Christ like scenes followed in every age. Paul, 
speaking of persecution, says: "Others had trial of cruel 
mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover, of bonds and 
imprisonment; they were stoned, they were sawn asunder, 
were tempted, were slain with the sword; they wandered 
about in sheep skins and goat skins; being destitute, afflicted, 
tormented; of whom the world was not worthy; they wan- 
dered in deserts, and in mountains/and dens and caves of the 
earth." The occasion of those persecutions arose not from 
their immorality, but from their having received peculiar 
heavenly gifts and blessings. Jesus, the Son of God, when in 
the world, had no other object but the good of mankind, but 
when he began to affirm that God was His Father, and He 
was one with His Father, and was doing His will, jealousy 
was stirred up, envy arose, He was called seditious, an enemy 
to mankind, and His life was sought and finally taken. His 
Twelve Apostles, without influence or learning, bore testi- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY 155 

mony of knowledge actually received, and of having author- 
ity to baptize both priests and people, rich and poor, bond 
and free, with a promise of the gift of the Holy, Ghost. But 
what was the result? How were they received? Were they 
accounted good, peaceable men, and well spoken of? No! far 
from it; most all people spoke against them, and no doubt 
considered them wicked, designing men, for they immediately 
set about whipping, stoning, imprisoning and killing them. 
Their own brethren, the Jews, who were best acquainted with 
them, were the most industriously engaged in this business. 
Ministers of the Jewish laws, those educated for the purpose 
and who made it their daily employment to expound and 
teach the people the word of God delivered by the holy 
Prophets, were generally the foremost and most bitter in these 
crusades against Jesus Christ, the Apostles and the Saints. 
Had those persons who professed to understand the Scriptures 
"and to whom the people looked for proper explanations, been 
honest and virtuous men, and used a righteous influence with 
the people, thousands, in room of rejecting Jesus Christ and 
His Apostles, would have received their testimony. So, in 
reference to ourselves, had the ministers and clergy come to 
us like the. good Jethro to Israel, with kind sympathy in their 
bosoms, and shown us that friendship which one religious 
class of people ought always to manifest for another, or had 
they used even a moral influence in our favor, the evils and 
cruelties heaped upon us by our enemies would have been 
much lessened, and those persons, like Jethro, would have 
been spoken of with praise and honor to the latest ages of 
posterity. But, alas! few instances of this kind can be 
recorded. It is with pleasure, however, that we here mention 
that in times of deep distress, brought upon the Saints by 
these persecutions, when large public meetings were called in 
various parts of the United States by virtuous and honorable 
citizens of the country, to express their abhorrence and 
detestation of those crimes and cruelties, those professing 



156 BIOGRAPHY AND 

themselves ministers of the Gospel, in some instances, came 
forward at those meetings and discountenanced the persecu- 
tions of the -Saints. Such acts of nobleness, independence of 
mind and human sympathy will not be forgotten. 

The relation of these scenes of persecution is not offered 
as direct evidence of the truth of our religion; but it is a 
plain evidence of the corruption of any people who persecute 
or look silently on without raising their voice or influence in 
behalf of the persecuted. The evidence of the authenticity 
of our religion is to be found in the fact of our possessing the 
fruits of the ancient Gospel, the gifts and blessings promised 
the true believers; and if found in possession of these bless- 
ings, that is' a sufficient explanation of the cause of those 
horrid persecutions. 

Having been driven from Missouri, they then located in 
Illinois, in the spring of 1839, as mentioned in the memorial. 
Here they built up a beautiful city, called Nauvoo; obtained* 
from the Legislature of the State a city charter; organized 
several literary institutions; established a printing press; 
commenced another Temple; built a number of magnificent 
pnblic edifices; opened hundreds and thousands of large and 
extensive plantations in the surrounding country; and sent 
forth hundreds of Elders as missionaries into different parts 
of the world. Many began to indulge the fond hope of having 
here found an asylum of peace; and being no more troubled 
with their enemies, would be enabled to sit peaceably under 
the shade of their vine and fig tree, and enjoy the fruit of 
their labors. . It was not long, however, before things trans- 
pired of a nature to convince them this anxiously looked for 
period had not yet arrived. Their enemies in Missouri, not 
satisfied with the cruelties and murders they had committed 
in driving them from the State, continued their molestations. 
Not receiving any check from the .authorities of the country, 
they became emboldened in their aggressions.' They soon 
found plenty of corrupt and abandoned characters in the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 157 

State of Illinois willing to co-operate with them in stirring 
up jealousy and raising excitement among the people, in order 
more effectually to execute their murderous designs. Believ- 
ing that the continuance and prosperity of the Saints were 
dependent on the existence of their Prophet, Joseph Smith, 
they set about concocting schemes for his destruction. By 
resorting to false accusations and perjury, they procured a 
State warrant for his apprehension, and also that of his 
brothei' Hyrum. Aware that their diabolical schemes would 
be frustrated if the prisoners had a legal trial, they succeeded 
in lodging them in Carthage jail; a place where the Governor 
of the State pledged himself they should be protected, and 
secure from mobs and violence; but in every respect it was 
only suitable for the accomplishment of their bloody deeds. 
On the 27th of June, 1844, while Joseph and Hyrum were in 
this situation, awaiting their trial on the following day, their 
enemies determined to execute their designs. About 5 o'clock 
p.m., of that day, an armed mob, painted black, of from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred persons, rushed from the 
surrounding woods, drove away the sentinels guarding the 
prison, and poured through the door and windows a torrent 
of lead that laid the. brothers low in the arms of death! Then 
fell two icorthy men! Everlasting honor and immortality is 
their portion, and their names henceforth are classified with 
martyrs for truth ! When this sad event occurred, two of the 
Twelve Apostles, John Taylor and Willard Richards, were 
with them in prison, as visitors. The former received four 
balls in his body, the other escaped, unharmed. These men 
live to tell the bloody tragedy which has sealed disgrace upon 
their country. 

A few months previous to this murder, Joseph, in giving 
instructions to the Twelve in relation to the building up of 
Zion, preparatory to the coming of the Son of God, informed 
them that his work teas finished on the earth, and from that 
time the responsibility of carrying the Gospel to every nation 



158 BIOGRAPHY AND 

devolved upon them; and, as he bid farewell to some friends, 
on leaving for Carthage, he said: "I am going like a lamb to 
the slaughter.; but I am calm as a summer's morning; I have 
a conscience void of offence towards God, and towards all 
men; I shall die innocent, and it shall yet be said of me — he 
was murdered in cold blood." An intimate acquaintance with 
those men from the early rise of the Church to their martyr- 
dom, justifies the writer in bearing this testimony that he 
knows they were virtuous, honorable and righteous men — men 
whom God lpved, and whom all good men would have 
respected, loved and honored had they known their true 
character. 

Contrary to the hopes and expectations of their enemies, 
the Saints continued to build their Temple, and attend to 
their ordinary labors. Petition after petition was presented 
to government for redress of their grievances; but a deaf ear 
was turned to their supplications. Their enemies, finding 
that no persecution nor even the martyrdom of their Prophet 
could destroy their union, then determined to drive them 
from their city; at last, persecution became so grievous and 
insufferable that the Saints were forced to leave their houses 
in the depth of winter, and wander in the western wilder- 
ness. 

In the beginning of February, 184G, President Brigham 
Young, the Twelve Apostles, with their wives and families, 
and thousands of others, left the city of Nauvoo, traveling 
in a westerly direction, as they were guided by the Spirit of 
God. By reason of being exposed to the inclemency of the 
weather, and having only the thin covering of tents and 
wagons to protect them from its fury, many who had pre- 
viously suffered from persecution could endure no longer, and 
fell asleep in death. ' 

Having journeyed two hundred miles, they encamped and 
made a temporary settlement, called Garden Grove; forty 
miles in advance of this they made another, called Mount 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 159 

Pisgah; one hundred and fifty miles beyond this, they made 
a third settlement at Council Bluffs. While here resting from 
the fatigue of journeying, many were overtaken with sickness, 
which was the result of former severe privations. In the 
midst of their troubles, at a time when every man was 
required more than ever to watch over and protect his help- 
less wife and family from the hordes of savage Indians and 
wild beasts of the forest, with which they were surrounded, a 
message was received from the President of the United States, 
requesting five hundred men to enter the army and march 
against the Mexicans. This demand, though strange and 
heartrending, was complied with; five hundred men were 
thus taken from the camps of the Saints, leaving behind them 
fathers, mothers, wives and children in the midst of afflictions, 
many of whom were dwelling in miserable log huts, tents, 
andwagons, with scarcely the common necessaries of life. 

A few months after their departure, their enemies still 
burning with rage, and finding the body of the Saints beyond 
their reach, made an attack on those remaining in Nauvoo, an 
account of which we extract from a general epistle of the 
Twelve, December 23, 1847: 

In September, 1846, an infuriated mob, clad in all the horrors of war, 
fell on the Saints who had still remained in Nauvoo for want of means to 
remove; murdered some, and drove the remainder across the Mississippi 
into Iowa, where, destitute of houses, tents, food, clothing or money, they 
received temporary assistance from some benevolent souls in Quincy, St. 
Louis, and other places, whose names will ever be remembered with grati- 
tude. But at that period the Saints were obliged to scatter to the north, 
south, east and west, wherever they could find shelter and procure employ- 
ment. And, hard as it is to write it, it must ever remain a truth on the 
page of history, that while the flower of Israel's camp was sustaining the 
wings of the American eagle, by their influence and arms, in a foreign 
country, their brothers, sisters, fathers, mothers and children were driven 
by mob violence from a free and independent State, of the same national 
republic, and were compelled to flee from the fire, the sword, the musket 
and the cannon's mouth as from the demon of death. 



160 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Their property in Hancock County, Illinois, was little or no better than 
confiscated; many of their houses were burned by the mob, and they were 
obliged to leave most of those that remained without sale; and those who 
bargained sold almost for a song; for the influence of their enemies was to 
cause such a diminution in the value of property, that from a handsome 
estate was seldom realized enough to remove the family comfortably away; 
and thousands have since been wandering to and fro, destitute, afflicted 
and distressed for the common necessaries of life, or unable to endure have 
sickened and died by hundreds; while the Temple of the Lord is left solitary 
in the midst of our enemies; an enduring monument of the diligence and 
integrity of the Saints. 

While the faints were passing through those scenes of 
persecutions, sufferings and deep affliction, many glorious 
manifestations of divine approbation were given them, which 
we should have been happy here to record, did our limits and 
the nature of the work admit. 

The Saints in the wilderness continued their journeying 
as circumstances would allow; having to cut their" way 
through woods and valleys, over rivers and mountains, a dis- 
tance of fourteen hundred miles. At length, on the 21st of 
July, 1847, the pioneers discovered a beautiful valley beyond 
the "Pass" of the great Rocky Mountains, being a portion of 
the Great Basin of Upper California, near the southern shore 
of the Great Salt Lake. On the 24th the President and first 
company entered this their present home; other companies, 
year after year, continue their emigration to this point. Here 
Israel* will remain till the indignation of an offended God is 
poured out upon the nations. Here will peace and happiness 
dwell, while nation is .at war with nation, and kingdom 
against kingdom; and here the people of "many nations shall 
come and say, come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of 
the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach 
us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths; for the law 
shall go forth of Zion, and the word of' the Lord from Jeru- 
salem. " Micah iv: 2. 

Though persecution, poverty, sickness and trials of "every 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 161 

description have come upon this people, they have stood the 
fiery trial, and given evidence to all men, to angels and to 
God, of their faith, virtue and fidelity. Now the Church of 
the living God, far beyond the reach of mobs and strife, in 
her hiding place, shall grow like a tree planted by rivers of 
waters, till "she looketh forth as the morning, fair as the 
moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with ban- 
ners." Cant, vi: 10. 

As we have had to describe scenes of sorrow and suffer- 
ing, harrowing to the feelings of the virtuous, we feel happy, 
indeed, that we can now direct the reader to the present 
favorable situation of the Saints. The following extract we 
take from the same general epistle : 

We are at peace with all nations, with all kingdoms, with all powers, 
with all governments, with all authorities under the whole heavens, except 
the kingdom and power of darkness, which are from beneath, and are 
ready to stretch forth our arms to the four quarters of the globe, extending 
salvation to every honest soul; for our mission in the Gospel of Jesus Christ is 
from sea to sea, and from the rivers to the ends of the earth; and the blessing 
of the Lord is upon us; and when every other arm shall fail, the power of 
the Almighty will be manifest in our behalf; for we ask nothing but what 
is right, we want nothing but what is right, and God has said that our 
strength shall be equal to our day; and we invite all presidents, and 
emperors, and kings, and princes, and nobles, and governors, and rulers, 
and judges, and all nations, kindreds, tongues and people under the whole 
heaven, to come and help us to build a house to the name of the God of 
Jacob, a place of peace, a city of rest, a habitation for the oppressed of 
every clime, even for those that love their neighbor as they do themselves, 
and who are willing to do as they would be done unto; and this we are 
determined to do, and we will do, God being our helper; and we will help 
every one that will help to sustain good and wholesome laws for the protec- 
tion of virtue, and the punishment of vice. 

The kingdom which we are establishing, is not of this world; but it is 
the kingdom of the great God. It is the fruit of righteousness, of peace, of 
salvation to every soul that will receive it, from Adam down to his latest 
posterity. Our good will is towards all men, and we desire their salvation 
in time and in eternity; and we will do them good so far as God will give us 
the power and men will permit us the privilege, and we will harm no man; 

13 



162 BIOGRAPHY AND 

but if men will rise up against the power of the Almighty to overthrow His 
cause, let them know assuredly that they are running on the bosses of 
Jehovah's buckler, and as God lives they will be overthrown. 

Come, then, ye Saints; come, then, ye honorable men of the earth; 
come, then, ye wise, ye learned, ye rich, ye noble,-according to the riches, 
and wisdom, and knowledge of the great Jehovah, from all nations, and 
kindreds, and kingdoms, and tongues, and people, and dialects, on the face 
of the whole earth, and join the standard of Emanuel, and help us to build 
up the Kingdom of God, and establish the principles of truth, life and sal- 
vation, and you shall receive your reward among the sanctified, when the 
Lord Jesus Christ cometh to make up His jewels; and no power on earth 
or in hell can prevail against you. * * * • 

Come, then, ye Saints of Latter-day, and all ye great and small, wise 
and foolish, rich and poor, noble and ignoble, exalted and persecuted, rulers 
and ruled of the earth, who love virtue and hate vice, and help us to do this 
work, which the Lord hath required at our hands, and inasmuch as the 
glory of the latter house shall exceed that of the former, your reward shall 
be an hundredfold, and your rest shall be glorious. Our universal motto is, 
"Peace with God, and good ivill to all men." 

The following we extract from a private letter written in 
the Valley respecting their peace and prosperity: 

All is stillness. No elections, no police reports, no murders, no wars 
in our little world. How quiet, how still, how peaceful, how happy, how 
free from excitement we live. Our old firelocks have not been rubbed up, 
or our swords unsheathed because of any alarm. No policeman, or watch- 
men of any kind have been on duty to guard us from external or internal 
danger. The drum has beat, to be sure, but it was mingled with merry- 
making, or its martial sound was rather to remind us that war had once 
been known among the nations, than to arouse us to tread the martial and 
measured step of those who muster for the war, or march to the battle field. 
Oh, what a life we live! It is the dream of the poets actually fulfilled in 
real life. Here we can cultivate the mind, renew the spirits, invigorate 
the body, cheer the heart, and ennoble the soul of man. Here we can 
cultivate every science and every art calculated to enlarge the mind, accom- 
modate the body, or polish or adorn our race. And here we can receive 
and extend that pure intelligence which is unmingled with the jargon of 
mystic Babylon, and which will fit a man, after a long life of health and 
usefulness, to enjoy the mansions of bliss, and the society of those who are 
purified in the blood of the Lamb. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 163 

Here no prisoners groan in solitary cells; no chains or fetters bind the 
limbs of man; no slave exists to tremble, toil and sweat for nought, or fear 
and crouch full low to- please his fellow man. Here all are free to do right, 
and are warned, and chastened and corrected if caught in doing wrong. 

Here, too, we are all rich — there is no real poverty; all men have 
access to the soil, the pasture, the timber, the water power, and all the 
elements of wealth, without money or price. 

In this peaceful country many thousand Saints have 
already assembled. They have laid o;it a city called "Great 
Salt Lake City." -In addition to their private dwellings, they 
have raised several elegant and magnificent public buildings. 
Many mills are in operation, and factories are also in course 
of erection. Public institutions for education have been 
established; one of these the State Legislature has endowed 
with an annual sum of five thousand dollars for the term of 
twenty years. Having come "up through great tribulation," 
they are not forgetful in their prosperity of their brethren 
who are still in adversity, scattered among the nations. 
Accordingly they have established a "Perpetual Emigrating 
Fund," for the emigration of the poor. Many thousand 
dollars have already been donated for this purpose. As the 
gathering of Israel from every nation has been decreed by the 
Lord, this fund has been so arranged as to be increased to 
millions, by which the poor and virtuous among men can be 
assisted, and with perfect assurance lift up their heads and 
rejoice, for the hour of their deliverance is nigh! 

In the same valley, and others adjacent, they are estab- 
lishing other cities; while the country around is appropriated 
to farming purposes. And thus "the wilderness, and the 
solitary place shall be glad for them; and the desert shall 
rejoice and blossom as the rose." Every thing necessary to 
their comfort and refinement will continue to flow with the 
tide of emigration. The wisdom and ingenuity of the indus- 
trious will soon enable the sons and daughters of God to be 
arrayed with the workmanship of their own hands. 



164 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Four hundred miles south of the Great Salt Lake City an 
extensive settlement is being made. Likewise one on the 
borders of the Pacific Ocean, near to the port of San Diego. 
They have also organized a State government, called the 
"State of Deseret," and have now their claims for admission 
into the Federal union before the Congress of the United 
States. 

That the reader may understand how this people are 
viewed by the public at large, we subjoin the following extract 
from an American newspaper: 

We wish to call the reader's attention to the new and most extraordi- 
nary condition of the Saints. Several thousand of them have found a resting 
place in the most remarkable spot on the North American continent. Since 
the children of Israel wandered through the wilderness, or the Crusaders 
rushed on Palestine, there has been nothing so historically singular as the 
emigration and recent settlement of the Saints. Thousands of them came 
from' the Manchesters and Sheffields of England to join other thousands 
congregated from western New York and New England — boasted descend- 
ants of the Pilgrim Fathers — together, to establish a colony in the west. 
Having a Temple amid the churches and schools of Lake County , Ohio; 
and driven from it by popular opinion, they build the Nauvoo of Illinois. 
nt becomes a great town; twenty thousand people flock to it. They are 
-again assaulted by popular persecution; their Prophet murdered; their town 
•depopulated; and, finally, their Temple burned. Does all this persecution 
>to which they have been subjected destroy them? Not at all. Seven 
thousand are now settled in flourishing circumstances on the plateau sum- 
mit of the North American continent. Thousands more are about to join 
them from Iowa, and thousands more are coming from Wales. The 
Bpectacle is most singular, and this is one of the singular episodes of the 
great drama of this age. The spot on which the Saints are now settled is 
geographically one of the most interesting in the western world. — Cincin- 
nati Atlas. 

In concluding this brief history of the temporal situation 
of the Saints, we feel peculiar pleasure in being able to leave 
them in such prosperous circumstances. The wisdom, cun- 
ning and powers of men have been exerted to stay the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 165 

progress of truth and destroy the union of the Saints, but 
their efforts have only been a melancholy exhibition of their 
own folly and wickedness, and produced the opposite of their 
intention. By this practical lesson may all people learn that 
the purposes of God cannot be overthrown. 

Now "the Lord shall comfort Zion, He will comfort her 
waste places, and He will make her wilderness like Eden and 
her desert like the garden of the Lord; joy and gladness shall 
be found therein, thanksgiving and the voice of melody." 
Isaiah li: 3. For He hath said: "Arise, shine, for thy light is 
come, and the glory of the* Lord is risen upon thee; for, 
behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness 
the people; but the Lord shall rise upon thee, and His glory 
shall be seen upon thee, and the Gentiles shall come to thy 
light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising." lx* 1 — 3. 

1 As we have traced the history of the body of the Church, 
we will now very briefly glance at the labors of the Elders 
during the same period. 

We have already observed that those whom God called 
to publish His Gospel, were not the mighty of the earth — 
according to the wisdom and learning of the world; but they 
were honest and pure in heart. Men who "counted all things 
but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ;" and 
to spread abroad this knowledge they made every possible 
sacrifice. They willingly set aside every worldly interest, the 
comforts of home and friends, and went forth preaching 
every where they had opportunity. Whithersoever they 
went, the Lord confirmed their testimony by His Spirit; 
thereby thousands were led to forsake their false and discord- 
ant religions and become obedient unto the Gospel. By 
repenting of their sins at the command of God, and being 
baptized by His servants, who had received a delegation of 
authority from heaven, they received the remission of their 
sins and the gift of the Holy Ghost, which enabled them to 
know for themselves it was the work of God. 



166 BIOGRAPHY AND 

As the Lord does not hire but commands men to do His 
work, He required them to go forth without purse and scrip, 
and try the world. In accomplishing this work, great indeed 
were the privations they had to endure. Though many 
.received their message with joy, and gladly obeyed its require- 
ments, many -opposed and persecuted. Those "whose craft 
was in danger/' were most bitter in their opposition; but all 
their efforts to stop the progress of truth only accelerated its 
speed. "So mightily grew the word of God, and prevailed," 
that in a few years churches were established in the principal 
towns and cities of the United "States and in the Canadas. 

In the year 1837, a few of the Twelve Apostles, and other 
Elders, in obedience to the command of God, left their native 
land to introduce the Gospel in Great Britain. At first a few 
meeting houses were opened for their use; but shortly after- 
wards, all were shut against them; nevertheless they per- 
severed, and the Lord crowned their labors with success. As 
it was in America, so in England, some rejoiced in the restora- 
tion of the ancient Gospel, while others mocked, derided and 
persecuted. Since its introduction, it has spread into every 
county in England and Wales; and through Scotland, Ireland 
and the islands of the British Channel. Churches are estab- 
lished in the principal towns and cities, and in many of the 
surrounding villages of those countries, so that at present 
there are between forty and fifty thousand Saints in Her 
Britannic Majesty's dominions. Favorable accounts have 
also been received of the spread of truth in France, Denmark, 
Australia and the East Indies. In the islands of the Pacific 
Ocean, three thousand -souls have been turned from their 
idolatrous and superstitious worship, and become obedient to 
the light of the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

While this unparalleled work has been performed, the 
Twelve have ever been foremost in introducing the Gospel in 
foreign lands; bearing the burden and heat of the day; and 
while the Saints are comfortably situated in the Valley, in 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 167 

the enjoyment of the blessings of heaven and earth, they are 
far from their families, traveling on both continents. Wherever 
they have gone the word has been established in power, and 
in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance; and through faith 
and supplication the sick and afflicted have been restored, 
the lame have been made to walk, the deaf to hear, the dumb 
to speak and the blind to see. The knowledge of these things 
is possessed by the Saints, as they are of frequent occurrence. 
For bearing testimony of them they have suffered the perse- 
cution we have related; and while it ever remains a witness 
against the wicked, it is an imperishable monument of the 
worthiness of God's people to inherit that crown of life which 
fadeth not away, eternal in the heavens. 

While the word has been so extensively preached, it has 
also been widely published by the press. Many thousand 
copies of the Book of Mormon and Book of Doctrine and 
Covenants have been published in America and Great Britain. 
Besides those standard works, many other lesser works of 
great -importance have also been published, and many 
thousand copies of pamphlets and replies to objectors in both 
countries. During the residence of the Saints in Ohio and 

4 

Missouri, they issued two periodicals, called the Messenger s 
and Advocate, and Evening and Morning Star. In Illinois they 
had other two periodicals, called the Times and Seasons, and 
Nauvoo Neighbor. In the cities of New York and Philadel- 
phia, where large and influential churches were established, 
they 'published two others, called The Prophet, and Gos}oel 
Reflector. Those papers and periodicals obtained extensive 
circulation, through which the word of God was strenuously 
advocated. ' In 1840, a periodical entitled The Latter-day 
Saints' Millennial Star, was commenced in England, and is 
now published at Liverpool, having obtained a weekly circu- 
lation of upwards of twenty-three thousand copies. In Wales 
they have established a publication called Zion's Trumpet. 
On the western frontier of the United States, there is a large ' 



168 BIOGRAPHY AND 

newspaper published, called the Frontier Guardian. Those 
papers are conducted by the Elders with great ability, and 
much good has been effected through their instrumentality. 

Thus, in the short space of twenty years, a work has been 
accomplished without a parallel in the world's history. A 
work which has been tested on every side; it has been the 
object of misrepresentation in every part of the world; it has 
been opposed by the most talented theologians; it has over- 
come difficulties the most appalling; it has passed through 
trials the most fiery, and, like gold issuing from the furnace, 
has shone brighter and brighter; and while it has' surmounted 
every obstacle, it has not only shown that "truth is mighty 
and will prevail," but has also shown that it has been sus- 
tained by One whose arm is omnipotent, and whose word shall 
be fulfilled and work accomplished though earth and hell 
oppose. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Explanatory note. — Lorenzo writes to Elder Hyde. — Brightness of natural 
scenery. — Spiritual darkness. — A courageous minister. — Inscription 
attached to his portrait. — Hymn. — Drudgery. — Expression of gratitude. — 
A dream. — First Native ordained to preach. — Ordains Elders Woodard 
and Stenhouse to the High Priesthood. — The former to preside 'in Italy, 
the latter in Switzerland. — A Magnificent view. — Reflections. 

T will be understood by the following letter that Brother 
Lorenzo was on his way to England. He had left 
Elder Woodard in charge of the mission in Italy. 
This he was under the necessity of doing, in order to superin- 
tend the translation and publication of the Book of Mormon 
in the Italian language. During the progress of this very 
important work, whenever opportunities presented in which 
he could, with propriety, absent himself from the translating 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 169 

room and the press, he traveled among the churches, attend- 
ing Conferences and visiting the Saints in England, Scotland, 
Ireland and Wales. This explains the reason why communi- 
cations were subsequently addressed to him from Italy and 
Switzerland. 

Turin, Italy, 25th January, 1851. 
Dear President Hyde: 

After a residence of seven months in Italy, I am about to 
bid it farewell for a season. If the attractions of physical 
nature could command all of my attention, I might long 
linger to gaze upon these realms of loveliness. One might 
travel far over the earth before he finds a fairer clime. Here 
man dwells beneath an almost cloudless sky. The sun rarely 
hides his face in summer or winter; and when, at eventide, 
his golden glories fade behind the western hills, the silver stars 
shed a serene lustre over the blue vault of immensity. But 
the remembrance of the moral scenery amid which I have 
been moving will be more imperishably engraven on my 
spirit than all the brightness of the firmament, or the verdure 
of prairies enameled with ten thousand flowers. Amid the 
loveliness of nature, I found the soul of man like a wilderness. 
From the palace of the king to the lone cottage on the moun- 
tains, all was shrouded in spiritual darkness. Protestant and 
Papist looked upon each other as outcasts from the hopes of 
eternity, but regarded themselves as the favorites of heaven. 
And thus they had done from time immemorial. 

The changing, ephemeral sectarianism of England and 
America, is in many respects unlike the sturdy superstition of 
this country. Here, Protestantism is not the offspring of 
boasted modern reformation; but may fairly dispute with 
Rome as to which is the oldest in apostasy. Every man holds 
a creed which has been transmitted from sire to son for a 
thousand years, whether he be Protestant or Catholic; and 
often he will lay his hand on his heart, and swear by the faith 



170 BIOGRAPHY AND 

of his forefathers, that he will live and die as they have lived 
and died. 

The Protestants form a very small minority. They have 
been harrassed for centuries by fierce attacks from powerful 
armies of Catholics. But after sanguinary persecutions, they 
have revived as the corn, and grown as the vine. Once, their 
last remnant was driven to Switzerland; but a courageous 
minister, assuming a military character, led them back 
victoriously to their native valleys. The portrait of this hero 
bears the following inscription: 

I preach and fight — I have a double commission, and these two con- 
tests occupy my soul. Zion is now to be rebuilt, and the sword is needed 
as well as the trowel. , 

The English government has several times interfered in 
their behalf, and large donations have been sent to them from 
various Protestant countries. Many a tribute of admiration 
has been paid them by men of ability from the leading sects 
of Protestantism, till their church has been flattered into 
immeasurable- self-importance. 

The following hymn expresses the feelings engendered by 
their romantic situation: 

For the strength of the hills we bless Thee, 

Our God, our fathers' God: 
Thou hast made Thy children mighty 

By the touch of the mountain sod. 
Thou hast fixed our ark of refuge, 

Where the spoiler's foot ne'er trod; 
For the strength of the hills we bless Thee, 

Our God, our fathers' God. 

We are watchers of a beacon, 

Whose light must never die: 
We are guardians of an altar, 

'Midst the silence of the sky. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 171 

The rocks yield founts of courage, 

Struck forth as by Thy rod; 
For the strength of the hills we bless Thee, 

Our God, our fathers' God. 

For the dark, resounding caverns, 

Where Thy still, small voice is heard — 
For the strong, tall pine of the forests, 

That by Thy breath is stirred; 
For the storm, on whose free pinions 

Thy Spirit walks abroad; 
For the strength of the hills we bless Thee, 

Our God, our fathers' God. 



For the shadow of Thy presence 

'Bound our camp of rock outspread; 
For the stern defiles of battle, . 

Bearing record of our dead: 
For the snows and for the torrents, 

For the free heart's burial sod: 
For the strength of the hills we bless Thee, 

Our God, our fathers' God. 

Their self-esteem, combined with deep ignorance, present 
a formidable barrier to the progress of the Gospel. They 
have had so little intercourse with other parts of the earth — 
so little knowledge of anything beyond their own scenes of 
pastoral life, that it is difficult for them to contemplate the 
great principles of temporal and eternal salvation. 

One long round of almost unremitting toil is the portion 
of both sexes. The woman who is venerable with gray hairs 
is seen laden with wood, or heavy baskets of manure, while 
traveling the rugged paths of the mountains. No drudgery 
here but must be shared by the delicate female frame. I have 
traveled far over the earth, from the confines of the torrid 
zone to the regions of eternal snow, but never before beheld 
a people with so many physical and mental derangements. 
But the hour of their deliverance draws nigh/ 



172 BIOGRAPHY AND 

The constitution of this kingdom affords no guarantee 
that we shall ever enjoy the same religious privileges as. our 
brethren in England and other countries. 

A merciful Providence has hitherto preserved us from 
being entangled in the meshes of the law. A bookseller told 
me, the other day, that he was not allowed to sell a Bible. No 
work is permitted to be published that attacks the principles 
of Catholicism. I look with wonder upon the road in which 
the Lord has led me since I came to this land. From the 
first day I trod the Italian soil, there has been a chain of cir- 
cumstances, which has not sprung by chance, but from the 
wise arrangements of Him who ruleth in the kingdoms of 
men. I thank my Heavenly Father that I was restrained 
from any attempt to hurry the great work with which I was 
entrusted. All the jealous policy of Italy has been hushed 
into repose by the comparative silence of our operations; and 
at the same time, no principle has been compromised — 
no concession has been made, but, from day to day, we have 
been constantly engaged, forming some new acquaintances, or 
breaking down some ancient barrier of prejudice. 

Such moderation was not agreeable to me as a man, but I 
look forward to the day when the stability and grandeur of 
our building will be an ample reward for those months of labor 
which may not have been attended with anything extraor- 
dinary in the eyes of those who judge merely by the external 
appearance of the moment. 

Here I may relate a dream, which, though simple in 
itself, presented a theme for meditation under our peculiar 
circumstances. I thought I was in company with some friends, 
descending a gentle slope of beautiful green, till we came to 
the bank of a large body of water. Here were two skiffs; and 
'as I embarked in one, my friends followed in the other. We 
moved slowly over this widespreading bay, without wind or 
any exertion on our part. As we were on a fishing excursion, 
we were delighted with seeing large and beautiful fish on the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 173 

surface of the water, all around, to a great distance. We saw- 
many persons spreading their nets and lines, but they all 
seemed to be stationary, whereas we were in continual motion. 
While passing one of them, I discovered that a fish had got 
upon my hook, and I thought that it might perhaps disturb 
this man's feelings to have it caught, as it were, out of his 
hands, nevertheless, we moved along, and came to the shore. 
I then drew in my line, and was not a little surprised and 
mortified at the smallness of my prize. I thought it very 
strange, that among such a multitude of noble, superior look- 
ing fish, I should have made so small a haul. But all my 
disappointment vanished when I discovered that its qualities 
were of a very extraordinary character. 

While encircled by many persons of noble bearing and 
considerable intelligence, a prospect seemed opening for the 
employment of some among them, in the work of the minis- 
try. But the Lord judgeth not as man judgeth. The first 
native in these valleys that I ordained to preach the Gospel, 
was one who swayed no extensive influence, and boasted no 
great natural abilities; but he sought the Lord with fasting 
and prayer; and the Spirit rested upon him mightily, showing 
him in the dreams of night, the glorious reality of the work 
with which he had become associated. 

Feeling it wisdom to send Elder Stenhouse to Switzerland, 
and to leave Elder Woodard in Italy, and knowing the for- 
midable character of the difficulties with which they must 
struggle, I resolved to bestow upon them such blessings as 
they required in the discharge of their important duties; and 
as there is power, knowledge and wisdom in the High Priest- 
hood of God, I felt it to be in accordance with the mind of 
the Spirit that they should be called to that office. 

We have here no Temple — no building made by human 
hands, but the mountains tower around us — far above all the 
edifices which Protestants and Papists use in this country. 

On Sunday, the twenty-fourth of November, we ascended 



174 , BIOGRAPHY AND 

one of these eminences which seem to occupy a position 
between earth and sky, and which, on a former occasion, we 
had named "Mount Brigham." During our tedious ascent, 
the sun shone forth in all its brightness; but in such parts as 
were shaded, we found snow on the ground, and many a craggy 
peak and rocky summit on every side, were white with the 
snowy fleeces of winter. 

Having reached the place we sought, we gazed with rap- 
ture on the enchanting scenes of surrounding nature. Before 
us was a plain so vast that it seemed as if immensity had 
become visible. All was level in this ocean of space, and yet 
no sameness appeared on its fertile bosom. Here towns and 
cities were environed by the resources from which their 
inhabitants had been fed for ages. Ancient and far-famed 
Italy, the scene of our mission, was spread out like a vision 
before our enchanted eyes. Light and shade produced their 
effect in that magnificent picture, in a surprising degree; for 
while the clouds flung their shadows on one part, another was 
illuminated with* the most brilliant sunlight as far as the eye 
could reach. 

But there was one hallowed reflection which threw all 
around a brighter lustre than the noontide firmament: it was 
in that place, two months before, that we organized the Church 
of Jesus Christ in Italy. If we had stood upon a pavement 
of gold and diamonds, it would not have produced an impres- 
sion like the imperishable remembrance of that sacred scene. 

Amid the sublime display of the Creator's works, we sung 
the praises of His eternal name, and implored those gifts 
which our circumstances required. 

I then ordained Elder Woodard a High Priest, and asked 
our Heavenly Father to give him wisdom and strength to 
watch over the Church in Italy, whatever might be the scenes 
through which it should 'have to pass; and that he might be 
enabled to extend the work which I had commenced. 

I also ordained Elder Stenhouse a High Priest, and 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 175 

prayed that his way might be opened in Switzerland for carry- 
ing forth the work of the Lord in that interesting country. 
In. a few days afterwards, Elder Stenhouse proceeded on his 
mission. 

Italy ! Thou birthplace and burial ground of the 
proud Cresars — thou that swayed the sceptre of this mundane 
creation — land of literature and arts, and once the centre of 
the world's civilization. Who shall tell all the greatness 
which breathes in the story of thy past? And who, who 
shall tell all the corruption which broods on .thy bosom now? 

Land of flowers and fruitfulness # of the vine — the olive 
and orange — all that blushes in beauty and charms with deli- 
cacy, is spread o'er thy green fields, or grows in thy empire 
garden; but thy children are deep in pollution, and spring 
like thorns and thistles amid thy floral scenes of endless 
enchantment. From the wave-swept shores of the Mediterra- 
nean to the base of the bleak Alpine region, thy sunny plains 
lie spread like a fairy realm. 

Here reposes the dust of millions that were mighty in 
ages gone by, and flooded the earth with the fame of their 
deeds. Here are the fields that have been crimsoned with the 
blood of royalty, and have become the grave of dynasties. 
Poets who sung the praise of nations, and princes that 
wielded the sceptre of power during many a crisis of the 
world's history, are laid low beneath the dust of thy fields 
and vineyards! 

But is there nought here save the tomb of the past? 0, 
Italy! Hath an eternal winter followed the summer of thy 
fame, and frosted the flowers of thy genius, and clouded the 
sunbeams of thy glory? No: the future of thy story shall 
outshine the past, and thy children shall yet be more 
renowned than in the ages of old. Though the triple crown 
of earth's proudest apostate shed a tinsel splendor over thy 
boundless superstition, Truth shall yet be victorious amid thy 
Babylonish regions. Where triumphant warriors were stained 



176 BIOGRAPHY AND 

with gore, and princes reigned in the pomp of tyranny, the 
sure, though tardy working of the Gospel, now weaves a fairer 
wreath, and will wear a brighter crown. 

I see around me many an eye which will one day glisten 
with delight at the tidings of eternal Truth — many a counte- 
nance which will adorn the assemblies of the living God. 
There is yet the blood of heaven's nobility within the hearts 
of many amid thy sons and daughters; and sooner will that 
blood stain the scaffold of martyrdom than dishonor the 
manly spirits with which it is connected. 

Geneva, 6th of February. I have reserved the closing of 
my letter till my arrival in Geneva. As I took my departure 
from Piedmont, much kindly feeling was manifested towards 
me. I beheld, with no small degree of satisfaction, the work 
of the Lord extending, and the lively efforts in operation for 
the spread of the principles of truth. You may form some 
idea of the difficulties which have beset my efforts to publish, 
when I tell you that "The Voice of Joseph" is now circulat- 
ing in Italy with a woodcut of a Catholic nun, anchor, lamp 
and cross on the first page, and on the last Noah's ark, the 
dove and the olive. 

With this work, and "The Ancient Gospel Restored," in 
my trunk, pockets and hat, I crossed the Alps in the midst of 
a snow storm, scarcely knowing whether I was dead or alive. 
It is one thing to read of traveling over the backbone of 
Europe in the depth of winter, but doing it is quite different. 

Since my arrival in the far-famed city of Calvin, I have 
had several interviews with intelligent Swiss gentlemen, who 
have, through the efforts of Elder Stenhouse and the circula- 
tion of my works, become much interested, and promise fair 
to give a good investigation. 

In consequence of so much difficulty and vexation in 
getting out publications in Italy, I feel unwilling to draw 
many books from that quarter; therefore, I feel it my duty to 
make arrangements to get a second edition of both work 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 177 

published here. I am pleased with the prospect of establish- 
ing the Gospel in Geneva. I feel free and in a free atmos- 
phere, and to prophesy good of Switzerland. 
Yours affectionately, 

Lorenzo Snow. 
To President Orson Hyde, * 

Kanesville, Iowa Territory, North America. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Note by Editor. — Elder Woodard writes. — More Baptisms in Italy. — A 
singular scene. — A successful experiment. — Ten baptized. — Expressions 
from converts. — The Millennial Star speaks. — Encouraging reports. — 
Letter from Elder Woodard.— Extract from Elder Stenhouse's letter. — 
Opposition re-acts. — Good results. 

T will be recollected that, although Italy was the head- 
quarters and prominent point of Lorenzo's mission, it 
extended indefinitely to all countries and peoples wher- 
ever wisdom dictated and opportunity presented. While the 
work was going on in Italy, under the wise management of 
Elder Woodard, Elder Stenhouse was laboring under 
Lorenzo's direction in Switzerland. 

LaTour, Value de Luzerne, Piedmont, Italy, 

February 26, 1851; 
Dear President Snow: 

I am happy to inform you that the brethren and sisters 
in Italy are all well, and send their salutations to you, with 
the request that you will also salute the churches in England 
for them. 

On the twenty-fourth of February, two young men pre- 
sented themselves for baptism. It rained and snowed amain, 



178 ' BIOGRAPHY AND 

and the atmosphere was so dense that we could not see dis- 
tinctly a little way ahead. But as we descended towards the 
Angrogua river, a singular scene was presented: the clouds 
were suddenly rent asunder, as if they had been a sheet of 
paper, and the side of Mount Brigham was visible, in a 
moment, from the top to the bottom. , 

I exclaimed, "The veil over Italy has burst," and yet, at 
the instant, I knew not what I was saying. I stood paralyzed 
with the magnificent views which opened on every side; then 
• with a prayer to Israel's God, we entered the stream. 

In the evening a congregation assembled, and I com- 
menced preaching; but the devil entered into some who had 
been resisting the truth, and I saw that he had got a firm hold, 
and my words seemed to be wasted on the assembly, through 
the presence of such a deadening and defiling influence. I 
therefore stopped short, and sat down, after intimating that 
everybody might go where they liked. By this means I got 
rid of the chaff while the good grain remained. I then com- 
menced preaching, and the power, of God rested upon us. 
Many a tear rolled down those weather-beaten faces. The 
next day I baptized ten persons; they are not the rich and 
the noble, but you shall judge them by their own language, 
as they have each given me a line to send to their foreign 
brethren. As follows: 

1. May we meet when the earth is renovated. 

2. Pray for a young sister who wishes to grow in grace. 

3. Absent in body, but united in spirit. 

4. Hallelujah, for the, Lord has remembered His people. 

5. If we do not meet in these bodies, may we embrace 
each other in the resurrection. (This brother is sixty-two 
year's old.) 

6.' In the midst of weakness I hope for strength. 

7. Pray for a poor brother. 

8. May we be crowned with glory when the world is 
judged. 



* AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 179 

i 

The other brothers and sisters send" the following: We 
thank our Heavenly Father that we have begun to walk in 
the pathway of a new and endless life. 

One brother, who is a firm believer in the "Voice of 
Joseph," I have advanced as an Elder. Five months ago he 
was requested to take the Office of Elder in the Waldensian 
Church. This he refused. 

Please address my letters as usual, but add "Poste Bes- 
tante." I do not see an opening at present, but I believe the 
Lord will enable me to be independent of the hotel, and by 
that means I shall know more as to the true character of the 
inhabitants. 

Remember me to Sister Woodard, and all friends whom 
you see in your travels. 

All kinds of calumny and petty persecution are brought 
into use. The devil is not idle here, and sometimes he tells, 
the truth. 

Yours in the new and everlasting covenant, 

Jabez Woodaru. 

We now copy from the Millennial Star, under date of 
March 15, 1851, as follows: 

The French, Italian and Danish missions, we are happy 
to state, are each of them moving forward with a degree of 
prosperity which is truly cheering. Elders Taylor and L. 
Snow arrived in Liverpool from their fields of labor, last 
week, in good health and spirits. 

Elder Lorenzo Snow has published two pamphlets in 
Piedmont, Italy, which are being actively circulated by Elder 
Woodard in that vicinity, and by Elder Stenhouse in Switzer- 
land. 

A spirit of inquiry is abroad to considerable extent. This 
mission has been attended with much care and solicitude. 
Many have felt that labors bestowed in that country would 
prove futile and unavailing — that doctrines of present revela- 



180 BIOGRAPHY AND 

tion would not be able to obtain credence with that people. 
But Elder Snow is resolute in his purpose of establishing the 
Church of Jesus Christ in those countries, upon the most sub- 
stantial basis — the rock of revelation. He is about to com- 
mence the translation and publication of the Book of Mor- 
mon in the Italian language immediately, with a view to push 
it on vigorously until its completion. 

Just in time for the present number of the Star, we are 
favored, by Elder Lorenzo Snow, with the following soul-stir- 
ring account of the work of the Lord in Italy, which will 
cause the heart-strings of every Saint to vibrate with celestial 
tones of praise and thanksgiving to Zion's God for His bless- 
ings to His people in Piedmont. 

* "The veil over Italy has begun to burst — the Alpine 
hills have commenced to reverbate the tidings of salvation, 
the gift of the Holy Ghost, to those who* have wandered long 
in darkness, and the sound of their cheering congratulations, 
in the new covenant of life, have reached our ears. They 
:speak like Saints. Their bosoms already burn with love and 
•fellowship towards their brethren in other lands. The aged 
who has nearly numbered his threescore years and ten, 
:scarely expecting to meet his brethren generally, on earth, 
hopes to embrace them in the resurrection, not far off; indeed, 
the spirit of the Gospel seems to pervade their minds richly, 
as their salutations fully bespeak, which also witness the 
purity and faith of those who have sown this seed in their 
•hearts." 

letter from elder jabez woodard. 

Italy, May 9th, 1851. 
Dear President Snow: 

I am still alive and able to climb mountains, if I cannot 
move them. I have baptized one more since I wrote. This 
makes twenty-one members, exclusive of those who are non- 
resident, as Brother Toronto and yourself, and Brother Sten- 
house. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 181 

I have sent an Elder to baptize at Pignerol, and if he has 
done his duty, he has at least baptized one. I have ordained 
in all, two Elders, one Priest and one Teacher. I send these 
details in case you may require statistics for the Conference.' 

We have had some thunderstorms lately. One that made 
the mountains re-echo the other night — I shall not soon for- 
get. When the rain came through the roof and dashed in big 
drops upon my face as I lay in bed, I said to myself, "I am 
not so bad off now as the brethren who have slept under the 
hedge.'' 

I am indeed rejoiced to hear that Elder Kelsey has got 
such lads at work. I am looking forward to such days in 
Italy. ■ ' 

You would have laughed the other day, to hear a dispute 
as to who I was: One said that I claimed an origin in the 
other world. Elder Malan, who was unknown to the parties, 
said, perhaps I was an angel. A gentleman, however, assured 
his friends that I was Joseph Smith. I came up at the end of 
the discussion and endeavored to explain the* origin of my 
faith, and not the origin of myself, which I thought a little 
too difficult for the occasion. 

On Tuesday, the sixth of May, I descended with a 
Teacher from the mountains, above the chapel of St. Lorenzo. 
We rested for the night near the church of Angevagna. The 
next morning we pursued our journey till mid-day, when we 
arrived at the house of a brother. He had told his family 
and friends that we were coming, although I had not told any 
one that it was my intention to pass that way; but, said he, 
"The Lord made it known to me last night in my sleep." 

' After prayer, and giving some teachings, we resumed our 
journey, and for three long hours we scarcely saw anything 
but the winding torrent and the barren mountains. We took 
lodgings for the night in a cottage which actually hald glass in 
the windows. We accounted this a miracle, for it is nearly a 
month since I slept where there was a pane of glass. 



182 BIOGRAPHY AND 

• The next morning, May 8th, the snow fell abundantly in 
that elevated region, and I could not get warm till I got a 
small congregation and warmed myself with preaching. 

Two years ago, an avalanche fell here, and crushed a. 
house where there were eight persons. The youngest, an 
infant of fourteen months, was unhurt; but the others were 
all killed. Another avalanche killed eleven persons, as they 
were returning from market. 

One night a minister, with his whole family, was killed 
in the same place. The wind blew his house over the preci- 
pice, and the dog was the only living thing that escaped. 

In this land of storms, I have commenced sowing the 
good seed. May the Lord give an increase, and to His name 
shall be the glory. 

Yours affectionately, 

Jabez Woodard. 

The following extracts are from a letter published in the 
Millennial Star; addressed to Elder F. D. Richards (who was 
at this time presiding over the British mission), written by 
Elder Stenhouse when on a visit in England, dated May 17, 
1851: 

As the Italian mission, from the pen of my esteemed 
President, and the recent communications from Elder Wood- 
ard, is now before the public, I deem it superfluous to say one 
word more on that mission. My heart is filled with gratitude 
to my Heavenly Father for the great and manifold blessings 
which have followed the organization of His Kingdom in that 
country, through the wisdom of one of His chosen Twelve. 

During my sojourn in Switzerland, I have been princi- 
pally in" Geneva, or what is called in religious circles, "Prot- 
estant Rome." When it is remembered that in this city 
John Calvin and other celebrated sectarians spent the best of 
their lives, it will not be a matter of surprise if the doctrine 
of new revelation be counted a strange thing. Since Elder 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 183 

Snow visited, and left his blessing on the place, investigation 
has increased day by day. His writings are spreading among 
all classes. I may say, with confidence, there is not a min- 
ister, Protestant, Catholic or Methodist of any shade or color 
in Geneva, but is more or less acquainted with "Mormonism" 
and Lorenzo Snow. 

A few days before I left, I had the satisfaction of listen- 
ing to the expose' of "Mormonism," by the Rev. Mr. Guers, a 
Methodist. I felt so truly thankful for his kindness that I 
could not refrain" from testifying my gratitude by distributing 
among his congregation Elder, Snow's "Ancient Gospel 
Restored," with a polite invitation to read still further on the 
same subject. ^ 

At the close of this interesting meeting, another, more 
select, was held, when about thirty persons, including seven 
parsons, sat down to tea, that they might, over the social cup, 
discuss the best means to prevent the spread of "Mormonism." 

Through this expose' the eyes of my landlord were 
opened to behold the work of God. In a few days afterwards 
he sought baptism. The day I left Geneva, I ordained him 
to the holy office of an Elder. This brother speaks the French 
and German fluently. 

In the Swiss cantons, French, German and Italian are 
spoken. In the course of a little time, when Elders Taylor 
and Snow will, have ushered into the world the Book of Mor- 
mon in those languages, I believe a great work will be done 
in Switzerland to the honor and glory of Israel's God. A 
German gentleman, who has been captivated with Elder 
Snow's writings, has promised to put them in German as 
soon as possible. 

In concluding, I cannot but express the deep obligations 
that I feel to President Snow for the paternal care which he 
has shown to myself and fellow laborers. 



184 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Onward. — No bounds to Brother Snow's mission. — He looks towards India 
and shapes his plans. — Writes to F. D. Richards. — Expresses his views. — 
Brother Woodard writes from Italy. — Brother Stenhouse from Switzer- 
land. — Lorenzo visits Wales. — Untimely plaudit. — A Bedlamite night 
encounter. — Ultimate fate of the hotel and its Landlord. 

N and still onward! Although Brother Snow felt that 
thus far, through the blessings of God and the assist- 
ance of the Saints in Europe, he had succeeded in his 
efforts beyond his most sanguine anticipations, he knew there 
was more to do. He realized that the brotherhood of human 
origin circumscribes all the nations of the earth; that the 
glad tidings of salvation must be proclaimed to all people; 
that to his present mission the Priesthood of God had set no 
bound, and where should he stop? Not on the continent of 
Europe. He fixes his far-reaching gaze on the idolatrous 
nations of the east, and with no common daring contem- 
plates establishing a. mission in India. 

Prompt to the idea, his plan is soon shaped to introduce 
the unadulterated doctrines of Jesus Christ on the Asiatic 
continent. But this cannot be accomplished without means, 
and from whence the means? His confidence in the over- 
ruling hand of God, and in the liberality and zeal of the 
Saints, was more to him than a bank investment, and, with 
no disposition to confer with impediments, he moved for- 
ward. The following letter, which I transcribe from the Star 
of August 1, more fully explains the object he had in view: 

President F. D. Richards: 

I take the present opportunity to communicate through 
the Star a few items of information to the Saints generally in 
reference to the progress of the Italian and Swiss missions, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 185 

and other matters connected with the growing interests of 
Messiah's Kingdom. 

Elder Stenhouse, with his wife and little daughter, will 
leave here this week, to resume his labors in Switzerland. I 
have nearly completed the translation of "Divine Authority," 
and given Elder Stenhouse instructions to publish it immedi- 
ately, together with the second edition of the "Voice of 
Joseph. 55 We hope, ere long, to be able to issue a periodical from 
Geneva, adapted to our readers both in Switzerland and Italy. 

The mission in Italy still moves forward under the 
cautious, prudent, faithful and persevering labors and man-, 
agement of Elder Woodard. The two publications which I 
issued in Turin are now circulated quite extensively in the 
north of Italy. Elder' Toronto has returned from Sicily, and 
is now laboring very successfully with Elder Woodard. Sev- 
eral intelligent and influential Italians have lately been 
ordained to the Priesthood, and are now engaged- in propa- 
gating the principles of life and salvation. 

I am getting forward very well with the translation of the 
Book of Mormon. I shall commence with the printing 
shortly, and will soon be able to present it to the people of 
Italy in their own language. 

Lately my mind has been much impressed with the idea 
of introducing the Gospel to India. I have counseled with 
my brethren of the Twelve on the subject, and we all feel 
alike the importance of such a step, and the ultimate benefits 
to the Kingdom of God. Upon the Twelve devolves the 
responsibility of introducing the Gospel to the nations. As 
the time approaches when we anticipate the privilege of 
returning to the body of the Church, I feel reluctant indeed 
to suffer any favorable opportunity to pass for opening the 
door of the Gospel in India. , Although the duties for Italy 
and Switzerland, and long absence from my family, press with 
weight upon me, I am nevertheless ready in the name of the 
Lord to take upon me this work also. 



186 BIOGRAPHY AND 

I contemplate sending immediately around by sea to 
Calcutta one or two good and faithful Elders, and follow on 
myself as soon as I shall have completed the translation and 
publication of the Book of Mormon. I intend passing through 
by way of Switzerland and Italy, visiting the Saints in those 
countries, and promoting the interests of those missions in 
every way in my power. 

Circumstances seem to be working favorably. A short 
time since I met with a brother who had resided seven years 
in India, and is conversant with the native language, and will 
immediately enter upon the translation of some of my works, 
which I intend getting published there, together with the 
"Voice of Joseph," in English, soon after my arrival. 

Brethren who have plenty of means, and wish to employ 
them for the glory of God in the salvation of souls, I trust will 
not be backward in liberality; that while I willingly and freely 
sacrifice the pleasures and endearments of home and friends, 
they may be equally ready and willing to devote their means, 
and thus fulfil the Scriptures in making to themselves friends 
with the "mammon of unrighteousness." 

If any of the Saints have friends in that country, to 
whom the brethren may be introduced, let them send unsealed 
letters of recommendation, properly addressed, enclosed in an 
'envelope addressed to me, at 35 Jewin Street, London. 
Yours affectionately, 

Lorenzo Snow. 

In order to keep the connection of the progress of the work 
in Italy and Switzerland, I extract from a letter published in 
the Star from Elder "Woodard, dated Italy, August 1, 1851, 
and copy one from Elder Stenhouse: 

Dear Brother Snow: 

A' tract of forty-six pages has been issued against us in 
Switzerland, and a plentiful supply has arrived here. It con- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 187 

tains the "Spaulding story" and nothing else except the com- 
mon cant of sectarianism and some quotations from "The 
Voice of Joseph' 5 and "The Only Way to be Saved/' for which 
I am very thankful. I am happy to say that we now muster 
thirty-one members. I feel courage in the thought that you 
have taken the Presidency of, the Indian Empire, and that if 
there be royal blood within my veins it will roll with renewed 
vigor through every fibre of my frame, that with stimulated 
energies I may carry out your counsel; and if I know what 
honor, and friendship, and gratitude require at my hands, you 
shall be in Italy at the same time you are in India, or else- 
where. I confess that when I found you had laid upon me the 
solemn charge to gather Israel from among these nations, I 
felt the weight of the office, and at the same time new 
courage and new patience. My e^yes are not closed to the diffi- 
culties of the situation, but I know where my strength lies. I 
feel as if I must fast and pray for every one of these king- 
doms separately; and I see that I must pass through many 
strange scenes, but by the help of the Lord I hope to over- 
come. I strive to acquire a knowledge of languages and 
customs, laws and regulations. If it were possible, I would 
wish to disburthen your mind of all future anxieties concern- 
ing this mission. 

I know by my own experience, something of what you 
must have felt since the moment you were named for the 
President of such a'stupendous undertaking. What thoughts 
have oft crowded your mind from morning to midnight! 
What weariness by land and sea! And now a still loftier 
enterprise engages your attention, or at least, one 'which gives 
a wider sphere of action. But what can I say that will leave 
your mind at rest concerning Italy? 

Perhaps, now you are absent, it would ill become me to 
boast of my goodness, still I hope I advance a little. If ever 
a firm resolve has taken possession of my soul, it is now 
engraven there, and registered in heaven, that by the grace of 



188 BIOGRAPHY AND 

God, I am determined to tread all things beneath my feet 
that would militate against the accomplishment of the 
glorious work in which I am engaged. Yes, I would like to 
conquer, but not for myself alone. I would render unto you 
that which is due from myself, and make thousands more to 
feel that which they owe. 

* ^c ^c + ^s * 

Elder Toronto joins with me in love to you and all the 
Saints. 

Yours affectionately, 

Jabez Woodard. 

Chez Mons. Dupraz, a La Servette, 429 Geneve, 

August 26, 1851. 
Dear President Snow: * . 

Knowing your continued anxiety and interest over these 
nations, I take a few minutes before retiring to rest, to say 
how we have been and how we are. 

. Since I wrote you, I paid a visit to Signor Reta, the trans- 
lator — he was happy to see me — inquired after your health, 
and sent his compliments. I expect a visit from him in a day 
or two. I hope to make a more intimate acquaintance with 
him. I have had a violent cold, which confined me to bed 
two days." After being restored, Sister Stenhouse was taken 
badly, much the same as myself, but much worse. We are 
now, thank the Lord, better. In the midst of all, we have 
done our best. 

Elder Roulet brought an intelligent man to see us, who 
was connected with the Church where the lecture was deliv- 
ered against us. We had several interesting conversations 
with him; at length, on Friday night last, I baptized him. 
Yesterday we held our Sunday meeting, at which he was con- 
firmed. We prayed, read, talked and felt well. To-night he 
brought his daughter to have some conversation. She has 
gone home to reflect. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 189 

To-day I have received a very interesting letter from the 
brother I baptized at Lausanne. He says his wife wants to be 
baptized, and several others feel interested in the history of 
the Church, by reading our publications. I feel as if the 
Lord had commenced to work among the people. I get 
on with the language pretty well. I hope when you pass 
through, we will be thrilled with your own voice in this lan- 
guage. 

Accept our united love. 

As ever yours, very affectionately, 

T. B. H. Stenhouse. 

Now to Lorenzo's journal: In the autumn of 1851, I 
visited some of the Welsh conferences, having received a very 
kind invitation from Elder William Phillips, who then pre- 
sided over that section. The visit afforded me inexpressible 
satisfaction — the Saints in their national characteristic, warm- 
hearted friendship, kindness and hospitality, extended to me 
the warmest welcome; and also gave proof of the sincerity of 
their feelings of liberality by prompt, gratuitous assistance 
towards the interests of the great missionary work under my 
supervision. 

During my stay in Wales, I attended a number of very 
interesting meetings. On the evening of the fourth of Novem- 
ber, I addressed a very large assembly, convened in a hall in 
Tredegar, in Monmouthshire. In the course of the meeting, 
Elder J. S. Davies arose, unanticipated by me, and read a poem 
composed by him, in which he alluded to my visit in Wales 
as an Apostle, as a very remarkable and wonderful event. I 
gave him full credit for his good motive and generous feel- 
ings, but at the same time felt not a little annoyed that he 
should have chosen such an unseasonable occasion — in the 
presence of a large congregation, nine-tenths of which were 
Gentiles, to read an article of that character. 

At the close of the meeting, President Phillips and my- 



190 BIOGRAPHY AND 

self were conducted to a hotel, where, after supper, we were 
shown to lodgings in an upper room. As we passed into the 
bedchamber, while closing the door, I noticed that, owing to 
some defect in the lock, it could not be fastened. We soon 
retired to rest, then about 11 o'clock; thinking ourselves safe 
from harm, we slept soundly, until probably about 2 o'clock 
a.m., I was suddenly awakened by a savage looking fellow 
standing close to my bedside, ordering me and my companion 
to leave our bed forthwith or suffer the consequences; at the 
same time using the most blasphemous language, and uttering 
the most hideous oaths imaginable, while fiendishly striking 
his huge fists in close proximity to my face. Two of his com- 
rades, stout, fierce looking fellows, were standing by, evi- 
dently prepared for an encounter. Brother Phillips was 
soundly sleeping, and it was with some difficulty that I 
awakened him sufficiently to comprehend our situation. Of 
course, we could do but little towards defending ourselves 
against a trio of ruffians, desperately bent on mishief ; and as 
we afterwards learned, had been hired to mob us, and that the 
landlord was secretly conniving with the actors in the hellish/ 
raid. 

In the contest, the light which one of them held, was by 
some means, suddenly extinguished, which caused an alarm, 
resulting in their retreat forthwith from the room; upon 
which I suggested to Elder Phillips that we immediately do 
our best to secure ourselves by barricading the door, for I felt 
assured the insurgents would make another attack. We 
placed a chair at the door, with the top directly under the 
knob of the door lock, and there I assumed the responsibility 
of holding it, while Brother Phillips performed the duty of 
pressing his large and stately person against the door. 

No sooner,had these protective arrangements. been com- 
pleted, than the mobocrats, with considerable reinforcements, 
came rushing forward to renew the attack. They persistently 
endeavored to force the door open, but failing, they placed 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 191 

themselves against it, Sampson like, but, owing to the position 
of things inside, without avail; then, with a volley of oaths, 
they commenced pounding and kicking the door, and con- 
tinued until the noise and uproar was so great that the land- 
lord did not dare any longer to ignore the situation, and 
coming to our relief, he quelled the disturbance by requesting 
the ruffians to retire. 

Some years after the date of this occurrence, I was 
informed that the hotel in which the foregoing disgraceful 
scenes were enacted was being used as a common stable for 
the accommodation of horses; and that the landlord had been 
sjgnally reduced to beggary, and was a vagabond upon the 
earth. 



% CHAPTER XXVI. 

Address to the Saints. — Responsibility of those holding the Priesthood. — 
Eternal prospects. — The best policy in governing. — Priesthood to be 
honored. — By benefiting others we benefit ourselves. — Must pass 
through suffering. — Must be pure and humble. — Need patience. — Esti- 
mation of F. D. Richards. — His wise policy. — Progress of the mission. — 
Expression of gratitude. — The Editor speaks. — Lorenzo's courage and 
faithfulness. 

HE following is an address of my brother, to the Saints 
in Great Britain, as he was about to leave England to 
* return to his mission: 

Beloved Saints: 

A short sojourn in this land has served to bind more 
closely those feelings of interest which must ever be called 
into action during an intimate acquaintance with the Saints. 
As the period now approaches when, for other climes, I must 
bid adieu to the kindly smiling faces and warm hearts of the 



192 BIOGRAPHY AND 

brethren in the British Isles, I can but express my deep and 
heartfelt wishes for the prosperity and continued progress of 
the work in.this country, and the well-being and happiness of 
all those who have the privilege of co-operating in the great 
and glorious cause of spreading light and intelligence 
amongst the children of men. 

To my brethren in the Priesthood I beg to offer a few 
words of counsel, instruction and exhortation. Upon you 
rest high and sacred responsibilities, which relate not only to 
the salvation of this generation, but of many past generations, 
and many to come. The glorious ensign of Emanuel's King- 
dom, once again established in the world, must be unfurled in 
every nation, kingdom, and empire: the voice of warning — 
the voice of the Bridegroom, ''Prepare ye, prepare ye the way 
of the Lord," must be carried forth unto all people. You" are 
the ones whom the Lord has chosen for this purpose, even the 
horn of Joseph, to "push the people together." Surely you 
cannot be too anxiously, nor too industriously engaged, seek- 
ing the best, the manner most useful to yourselves and 
mankind, to magnify your holy and sacred offices. 

It is the Priesthood that will give you character, renown, 
wisdom, power, and authority, and build you up here below 
among the children of men; and above, exalt you to peace 
and happiness, to thrones and dominions, even through 
countless eternities. This world, in its kingdoms and empires, 
possesses, in some small degree, glory and greatness, faintly 
shadowing forth what exists in regions above: but here, with 
these, are associated little happiness and little durability. 

The world we seek offers to its inhabitants unfading 
glory, immortal renown, and dominions of continued increase, 
where families grow into nations, nations into generations, 
generations into worlds, worlds into universes: this is the pailt 
of the Priesthood — the path of the Holy Ones. Well did 
the Apostle say, "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither 
hath it entered into the heart of man to conceive the things 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 193 

that God hath prepared for them that love Him, but God 
hath revealed them unto us by His Spirit, for the Spirit 
searcheth all things, yea, even the deep things of God." 

Authoritative rule is not the proper code by which to 
govern Saints, but rather seek to rule in the spirit of humility, 
wisdom and goodness, teaching not so much by theory as by 
practice. Though one teach with the eloquence of an angel, 
one's good acts and good examples, constantly manifesting 
whole-heartedness for the interests of the people, teach much 
more effectively, if not more eloquently. Very few indeed 
have enough moral courage to be strictly honest, faithful, 
virtuous and honorable in all positions — those few will hold 
the Priesthood and receive its fulness, but no others. 

Purity, virtue, fidelity, and godliness must be sought 
ambitiously, or the crown cannot be worn. Those principles 
must be incorporated with ourselves — woven into our consti- 
tutions — becoming a part of us, making us a centre, a foun- 
tain of truth, of equity, justice, and mercy, of all that is good 
and great: that from us may proceed the light, the life, the 
power, and the law to direct, to govern and assist to save a 
wandering world — acting as the sons of God, for and in 
behalf" of our Father in heaven. We expect, in the resurrec- 
tion, to exercise the powers of our Priesthood — we can 
exercise them only in proportion as we secure its righteous- 
ness and perfection. These qualifications can be had only as 
they are sought and obtained; so that in the morning of the 
resurrection we will possess those acquisitions only which we 
secure in this world! Godliness cannot be conferred, but 
must be acquired — a fact of which the religious world seem 
strangely and lamentably unconscious. 

Seek to benefit others, and others will seek to benefit you 
— he that would be great, let him be good, studying the 
interests of the whole — becoming the servant of all, whereby 
he will secure to himself much of the wisdom and power of 
God, and the love, esteem and veneration of His people. 

15 



194 BIOGRAPHY AND 

The Elders must become persons of the highest responsi- 
bility. The happiness of people, nations, and of generations, 
will depend upon the right and faithful exercise of the 
powers of their offices. If, in a lower sphere of action, they 
fail to be trustworthy, who will depend upon them in the 
higher? In view of the vast responsibilities to be placed 
upon men in this high calling, they are in a measure left to 
themselves, to act upon their agencies. If they pass onward 
to the close of this probation, without being overthrown by 
evil powers, keeping their spirits pure, and, through the 
power of the Holy Ghost, educate themselves in those qualifi- 
cations essential to such exaltations, in due time God will 
elevate them to those positions. 

•In all your acts and conduct, ever have the consciousness 
that you are now preparing and making yourselves a life to be 
continued through eternities. Act upon no principle that you 
would.be ashamed or unwilling to act upon in heaven — 
employ no means in the attainment of an object that an 
enlightened conscience disapproves. When feelings and 
passions excite you to action, let principles pure, honorable 
and virtuous govern you. AVe are the children of God, 
begotten in His likeness; therefore, brethren, "Let the same 
mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus, who, being in 
the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with 
God." The children of God were introduced into this world, 
"not willingly subject to vanity," pains and sorrows, but to do 
the will of the Father, and obtain a glory, a heavenly inherit- 
ance, to become one with God. "And he that hath this hope 
in him, purineth himself even as God is pure." 

We are here that we may be educated in a school of suf- 
fering and trials, which school was necessary for Jesus, our 
elder Brother, who, the Scriptures tell us, "was made perfect 
through suffering." It is necessary that we suffer in all 
things, that we may be qualified and worthy to rule, and 
govern all things, even as our Father in heaven, and His 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 195 

eldest Sod, Jesus. God has revealed to us the mystery which 
all the world seek after, but fail of obtaining because of pride, 
wickedness and the power of Satan darkening their minds, 
viz: the path of salvation and the happiness of our being. . 

And now, where is the man among you, having once 
burst the vail and gazed upon the purity, the might, majesty 
and dominion of a perfected man, in celestial glory, will not 
cheerfully resign mortal life — suffer most excruciating tortures 
— let limb be torn from limb, sooner than resign or dishonor 
his Priesthood. In truth did the Savior utter this parable: 
"The Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a merchantman seek- 
ing goodly pearls, and having found one of great price, went 
and sold all he had to buy it." "And again, like unto a man 
finding a treasure in a field, sold all he had and purchased 
that field." The glory revealed to our view, and which we 
seek, is tangible — it can be felt, seen and heard; but its 
length, its breadth, its majesty, peace, joy and happiness, 
surpass all understanding: tongue cannot express it — language 
fails to portray the vastness of its extent. 

To the Saints I would affectionately add: Your prospects, 
in every respect, are the most encouraging. The Lord, who 
fails not in His promises, has undertaken your deliverance, 
spiritual and temporal, and you are witnesses of the accom- 
plishment of the first. Your fetters of superstition and 
priestcraft have burst asunder — the false and dark mantle of 
tradition has been rent — you have been shown the Mother of 
Harlots, and her daughters, in all their characteristic 
ignorance, folly and filthiness, and have hearkened to and 
obeyed the voice, "Come out of her my people, that ye be not 
partakers of her sins, that ye receive not of her plagues." 
Your hearts, your thoughts and feelings are no. longer asso- 
ciated with those Babylonish schemes which bind thought and 
reason, making it blasphemy for man to dare speak of the 
nobility of "his birth and the true being of his Father in 
heaven. You feel that you are delivered and restored to 



196 BIOGRAPHY AND 

reason, and to yourselves, under the government of but one 
law — that which makes you free, even the law of glorious 
Truth — the word and will of God, by whom we all are begotten 
children of one great Parent; yea, in' this that we are made 
free, will we lift up the voice and make melody with thanks- 
giving to our God, that He has listened to the cries of His 
people, and sent forth His messengers with the fulness of the 
Gospel, to redeem and save, and glorify His elect — make 
them kings and priests unto God, in heaven and over earth, 
that thereby He might bring to pass, in due time, His 
good will and purposes respecting all the families of man- 
kinds 

As the Lord has made you spiritually free, herein you 
have assurance, also, of your temporal deliverance. However 
great may be your poverty, how stupendous your difficulties, 
it matters little, the word has gone forth in your favor, and 
no opposing arm can stay its course. Zion must be established, 
her lands inhabited, her cities built, her Temples reared, and 
her sons become mighty; that she may rise "fair as the moon, 
clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners." 
And all nations shall fear and tremble, and stand afar off in 
the day of her majesty. 

"But you have need of patience, that after you have done 
the will of God, you may receive the promise," a caution 
which should not be forgotten. .Many of you may have 
severe trials, that your faith may become more perfect, your 
confidence be increased, and your knowledge of the powers of 
heaven be augmented; and this before your redemption takes 
place. If a stormy clcud sweep over the horizon of your 
course in this land, as in America — if the cup of bitter 
sorrow be presented and you be compelled to partake — if 
Satan is let loose among you, with all his seductive powers and 
cunning craftiness — if the strong arm of persecution is raised 
against you, then, in that hour lift up your heads and rejoice 
that you are accounted worthy to suffer with Jesus, the Saints 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 197 

and Prophets of old; and know that the period of your 
redemption approaches. 

I feel, my brethren and sisters, to exhort you with heart- 
felt expression. ' Be of good cheer — be not disheartened, for 
surely the day rapidly approaches when your tears shall be 
dried, your hearts comforted, and you shall reap the products 
of your labors — sit under your fig tree and in the shade of 
your vine unmolested, and no more feel the hand of tyranny. 
You shall possess the riches and fat of the land, gold and 
silver, fields and vineyards, flocks and herds, houses and pal- 
aces; your sons shall grow up as plants of renown, your 
daughters as polished stones, that you may boast yourselves 
in all the glory of the Gentiles. And unto you, verily, shall 
the Scripture be fulfilled, "Seek first the Kingdom of Heaven 
and its righteousness, and all these things shall be added." 

Be honest, be virtuous, be honorable, be meek and lowly, 
courageous and bold. Cultivate simplicity, be like the Lord: 
hold to the truth through fire and sword — torture and death. 
Act honorably towards all men, for they are our brethren — a 
part of the family of God, but are ignorant and blind, hav- 
ing forgotten their God and their covenants with Him in eter- 
nity. » 

I feel to express, in the highest terms, my sanction and 
approbation of F. D. Richards' presidency of the British 
Isles. The wise, prudent, and proper spirit and manner in 
which he has conducted the editorial department- merits the 
warmest meed of praise. The many interesting and useful 
publications he has issued, together with the enlarged and 
much improved edition of the hymns used by the Saints, in 
addition to his other labors, furnish a true testimony of his 
indefatigable zeal and enterprising spirit. The deep interest 
he has taken in forwarding our foreign missions, has secured 
to him not only the warmest thanks and feelings of gratitude 
from us on whom is laid the heavy burdens and responsibili- 
ties of those missions, but from thousands and tens of thous- 



198 BIOGRAPHY AND 

ands whose deliverance from sectarian bondage is now being 
effected in all those extended fields of our foreign labors. 

In the arrangement of conferences, much wisdom has 
been displayed in selecting good and faithful men to preside 
over them — men who will do well for the Saints generally, 
thereby lightening and relieving the anxieties and responsi- 
bilities of the Presidency as far as possible. My long 
acquaintance with President Richards, gives me the most 
unqualified confidence in his wisdom, excellence of heart and 
mind, a.nd entire devotion to the work and service of the 
Lord, and faithfulness in his honorable position. His coun- 
selors I know to be wise men, and men of God, and as such I 
recommend them to the confidence and esteem of the 
brethren. 

Respecting the progress of those missions I ha\e under- 
taken, the prospect in the future, and the field of labor I have 
assigned to the various Elders, it may be gratifying to the 
Saints to have the following particulars, that their faith and 
prayers in behalf of them may ever be kept in lively exer- 
cise. Elder Willis, whom I have appointed to take charge of 
the Calcutta mission, is supposed to have about reached his 
destination. Elder Findlay, late President of the Hull Con- 
ference, is now on his way to the Bombay mission. Elder 
Obray, late President of Sheerness, whom I have appointed to 
Malta, is now prepared, and will soon set sail for- that island. 
Elder Stenhouse presides in Switzerland, and Elder Woodard 
in Italy. The translation of the Book of Mormon into 
Italian is about completed, parts are in the hands of the 
printer, and will be ready for circulation in about two 
months. 

Having set in operation those missions, I turn my 
thoughts to the far distant fields of labor I contemplate 
shortly undertaking — a mission requiring ail my energies — 
extending over nations, continents, islands, seas, oceans and 
empires — encountering the freezing Alps, the burning sun of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 199 

the torrid zone, the dangers of the trackless- waters, the pesti- 
lential cholera, the miasma of various climes, together with 
all the casualties of sea and land which must be encountered. 

To aid and assist me in this enterprise, deeply do I feel 
to call upon Israel's God, and for the prayers of my brethren, 
for support and agency. To the service of the Lord I have 
devoted my life. My all has been placed upon the altar of 
sacrifice, that I may honor Him— do His will acceptably, and 
spread the principles of life among the children of men. 

When I reflect upon the past, and trace the hand of the 
Lord marvelously opening my way, and prospering me in 
everything relative to these missions, beyond my highest 
expectations, I feel doubly encouraged to press forward to the 
future; language indeed fails to express the deep gratitude of 
my heart for His blessings. Those brethren and sisters whose 
liberality of soul and interest for the work of God have been 
particularly manifested in these missions, to them I feel to 
say, May the blessing of the Most High be poured out to them 
with equal liberality, and when in after years they shall hear 
the sweet sound of thousands of those nations shouting the 
praises of the Almighty for the light of revelation, then will 
their hearts also rejoice in the glad consciousness that they 
had taken part in bringing to pass this glorious redemption. 

I take my departure from here to Switzerland, thence to 
Italy, to Malta, to Bombay, and from there to Calcutta; and 
shall probably, after completing these missions, accomplish 
the circumnavigation of the globe, by returning home by way 
of San Francisco, San Diego and our newly established settle- 
ments in the valleys of California. 

Need I say how deeply I feel in all matters respecting my 
own missions? Notwithstanding, this does not prevent me 
taking the most lively interest in the welfare of the numerous 
conferences of the Saints with whom I have formed an 
acquaintance during my labors in the British Isles. To those, 
and all in the bond of the Spirit, I would, with warmest feel- 



200 BIOGKAPHY AND 

ings, subscribe myself their brother in the New and Everlast- 
ing Covenant, Lorenzo Snow. 

Our missionary has now before him a very extensive 
field in which to operate. What a vast weight of responsibil- 
ities rest upon him — what a multitude linked together for 
him to shoulder! Never was there a more extensive mission 
projected, and few men, if any, have lived that were better 
calculated to carry it into effect. 

' 'i With a mind that comprehended the condition of the 
millions of human beings, members of the great brotherhood 
of mankind, and a sympathy which reaches out to their most 
important needs — a soul wholly devoted to the great work of 
salvation and exaltation of the generations past, present and 
to come; and, above all, knowing that the Almighty had 
called him to the work, his courage is commensurate to the ' 
situation, and he never falters. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

Editor's reflections.— Lorenzo writes to President Richards.— Completed 
Translation of the Book of Mormon. — Visits Paris. — Pleasure of meeting 
Saints. — Condition of the people. — Goes to Geneva. — Degradation of 
woman. — Meets Elder Stenhouse. — Interesting meetings. — At Lausanne 
—Professor Reta— Benefit of Elder Taylor's French publications.' 

€HERE are many passages in human life, wherein, by 
close and careful observation and reflection — silently 
watching the results of the course and doings of 
others, we may learn by their experience. There are many 
others which can only be learned by individual, personal 
acquaintance. When contemplating the life of my brother 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 201 

as a missionary abroad in stranger lands, unacquainted with 
the manners and customs of the people, and ignorant of their 
languages arid dialects, with the responsibility of the salva- 
tion of souls to whom he is sent resting upon him, in connec- 
tion with the fulness of the gospel of the' Son of Godicom- 
mitted unto him, it seems that he has to do with some of the 
realities of life, of which no one can form a just conception 
except in the school of experience. 

It would seem that the most indifferent reader must feel 
an interest in these gigantic movements of my brother — this 
broad platform for missionary work — a parallel of which is 
not to be found on record, either ancient or modern. An all- 
absorbing devotion to the cause he was seeking to promote 
must have possessed the soul and inspired the mind of 
Lorenzo in generating this broad missionary platform, and a 
corresponding self-abnegation must have reigned supremely 
over all selfish, personal considerations. Let it be remem- 
bered that at this time he had a home with all its endear- 
ments, in the midst of the Saints of God gathered in the 
Great American Desert, in the midst of the Rocky Mountains 
of the West; and in that home a loving family, where he 
knew that the little one ones were lisping his name, and daily 
missing their loving father's knee; but with him all was laid 
on the altar for the interests of the Kingdom of God and the 
salvation of the souls of men. 

, Paris, January 6, 1852. 
Dear President Richards: 

After a very boisterous and stormy passage over the 
Channel, with its usual unpleasant accompaniments, I am 
quietly and agreeably cloistered with Elder Bolton, together 
with a number of interesting and intelligent Saints, and begin 
to think that my homeward journey of some twenty-five or 
thirty thousand miles is now commenced. 

Before leaving London, I had completed the translation 



202 BIOGRAPHY AND 

of the Book of Mormon, and got the printing forward to the 
last hundred pages. Elder Joseph Richards, whom I 
appointed to a mission to Calcutta, to assist Elder Willis, left 
London a few days before my departure. I repose much con- 
fidence in this brother, as one who will magnify ' his calling 
and do much towards establishing the Gospel in that country. 

I find it much more pleasant now coming to Paris than 
formerly. When passing through a year and a half since, 
here were no Saints to bid me welcome; on arriving the other 
day, I found many, a circumstance you can well imagine 
causing no small degree of rejoicing. I found Brother Bolton 
quite an invalid; he is now much better. . When the* interests 
of his mission will admit of a short absence, I dare say that 
a visit to the cheerful, warm-hearted Saints of Old England 
would replenish his spirits, and not be in any way a disadvan- 
tage. The Church here does not boast of a multitude of sub- 
jects, but it may truthfully be said to embrace the good, the 
virtuous and intelligent. 

Elder Taylor may comfort his heart with the assurance 
of having laid a lasting foundation for the spread of the Gos- 
pel in the French dominions, though no sea room is left at 
present; in fact, I know of no place the Gospel has been car- 
ried, where the difficulties are more perplexing and discour- 
aging. However, the time will come when the Gospel will 
take permanent effect in France. 

I am much pleased with the acquaintance I have formed 
with the Saints here; I feel tliat they will accomplish great 
good. I think Elder Bolton intends making another applica- 
tion to the Government for the privilege of preaching the 
Gospel with equal liberty with other denominations— a course 
which I much approve. 

I need not speak of the political condition of the country, 
it is well known to all who read the English papers. In pass- 
ing over the country, and searching the mind of the Spirit in 
reference to its inhabitants, my heart is pained in contemplat- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY.' 203 

ing the dark, dreary and bloody fate and scourge that await 
this nation. The life's blood of many people is scarcely 
wiped from the streets, the groans of the dying hardly ceased, 
the flowing tears of the widow and orphans are still seen. As 
you look around and view the troubled mien — the dark and 
stormy brows of thousands — behold the significant signs, 
notice *the low whispering and stealthy conversations, and 
hear of the sudden and mysterious changes that are con- 
stantly taking place through the various channels of political 
power, you are forced to feel that again must be renewed 
scenes of alarm, of sorrow, of grief and of blood! Would 
"the powers that be" but permit the message of life to go 
forth freely among the inhabitants, there would be hope that 
the cup of bitterness might, for a season, be turned away. 

I now have my passport "vise," and have just secured 
my place in the diligence for Switzerland. Good bye; you 
shall hear from me again as I get a little further advanced in 
the path of iny orbit. May the Lord bless you with all that 
is good to fill your heart with rejoicing, and may the same 
blessing descend upon all the faithful Saints. 

Geneva, February 7. Bidding adieu to the brethren in 
Paris, on the morning of the 27th of January, I stepped into 
a diligence, and was soon on my way to Switzerland. The 
country, over which I passed the first two hundred miles 
seemed, though in the midst of winter, to wear the appear- 
ance of an American spring. France is un beau 'pays; one 
could scarcely wish to live in a more delightful climate, or a 
more beautiful and charming country. Everywhere people 
jvere seen in pasture and ploughed fields, meadows and vine- 
yards, 'busily occupied preparing for approaching spring. 
What appeared a dark spot in this otherwise beautiful scenery, 
was the number of poor women slavishly engaged in manual 
labor,. and exposed to all 'the hardships of out-door occupa- 
tions. 

Small towns and villages dotted the face of the country, 



204 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the foundations of which appeared in almost every instance 
to be that of some religious Catholic edifice. It would seem 
that in building these towns the churches were first erected, 
then private dwellings piled around, one after another, as the 
inhabitants arrived. As we approached Switzerland, the 
country was more and more broken, till we began to wind up 
and descend down the rugged, snow-covered steeps of the Jura. 

About midnight of the 28th I reached Geneva, where I 
had the happiness of meeting Elder Stenhouse, whom I found 
with several of the Swiss Saints waiting to welcome my 
arrival. I accompanied Elder Stenhouse .to his lodgings, 
where I had the gratification" of sitting down to an excellent 
supper, prepared by Sister Stenhouse with an eye single to the 
probable condition of my appetite at the completion of a 
fatiguing journey over the mountains. 

The following evening we had a very interesting meeting 
with the Saints, at which several strangers were present. 
Elder Stenhouse addressed the meeting in French with great 
fluency, and several brethren gave their testimony relative to 
their knowledge of the work of the Lord, and their joy and 
consolation in the principles of salvation. 

In moving the work forward here, much the same course 
has to be adopted as at our commencement in London, i. e., 
by forming acquaintances through one to another, and per- 
suading one here and another there to attend our re-unions. 
The people feel that they Jiave had so many new and false 
coins passed among them, that it is of little use to search for 
or anticipate anything that is genuine; nevertheless, patience 
and perseverance will, in time, overcome all these difficulties, 
and the power of truth will triumph through the length and 
breadth of Switzerland, unto the redemption of the wise and 
virtuous. 

Our little family of Saints here now numbers twenty. 
Having no acquaintance with the language, and being a 
stranger to the manners and customs of the people, and hav- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 205 ' 

ing no friend to introduce him to the favor and confidence of 
any one, Elder Stenhouse, as can readily be imagined, has 
had to encounter difficulties insurmountable to any but those 
who have the most perfect consciousness of the truth and life- 
giving power and spirit of the cause in which they are 
engaged. Through the blessing of the Lord these difficulties , 
are being fast overcome, and I have great confidence that the 
work will now roll on with accelerated speed. The Saints are 
full of life and energy, and embrace every opportunity to 
make known the doctrines of our Church; several of them are 
persons of education and influence in society. I expect that 
much good will shortly result from their united labors and 
testimonies. 

After having passed a few days very agreeably and, profit- 
ably at Geneva, I left, accompanied by Brother and Sister 
Stenhouse, to visit the Saints in the Canton de Vaud. We 
were favored with beautiful weather, which made our steam- , 
boat excursion'on the the clear lake of Geneva very agreeable. 
Switzerland has a world-wide fame for beautiful scenery; 
though the winter season is not the most favorable for land- 
scape varieties, we were much pleased with the general beauty 
of the country. The many fine villas and chateaux, sur- 
rounded with gardens and vineyards, that besprinkle the 
gently rising banks on one side of the lake, formed a beautiful 
contrast with Mont Blanc and the lofty, snow-capped moun- 
tains on the other. Though the works, wonders and beauties 
of nature prompted our minds to contemplation, and raised 
their springs of gratitude to the good and wise Preserver of 
all, yet there was a still higher theme for contemplation, a 
still greater incentive to gratitude — the work of the Lord. 

We arrived at Lausanne, an ancient town romantically 
situated upon the banks of this beautiful lake, and spent a 
few days very pleasantly with the Saints, the fruits of Elder 
Stenhouse's labors. We held meetings every night during our 
stay, and enjoyed much of the Spirit and power of the Lord. 



206 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Since my arrival here I have had a pleasant visit from Pro- 
fessor Reta, an Italian gentleman of literary talent and 
celebrity, who has published some important works in the 
Italian language, asjvell .as having edited several of the first 
journals in Italy. I presented him the four hundred pages of 
the Book of Mormon that I had with me, ( which he pro- 
nounced "a correct and admirable translation, and in a very 
appropriate style of language." 

I acknowledge with pleasure the benefits we are deriving 
from Elder Taylor's French publications, which, together 
with my own, we endeavor to circulate as widely as possible. 
My visit here has been a great blessing to me, and I humbly 
trust it will result in lasting and important benefit to the 
interests of the work generally. 

In a few days I leave for Italy. The gigantic Alps lie in 
my route, rearing their snow-capped heads high amid the 
clouds; I trust, however, they will prove no positive barrier, 
as passing over them last January in a severe snow storm has 
given me some experience and confidence in encountering 
such formidable obstacles. 

Brother Stenhouse joins me in kind love to yourself and 
your brother Samuel. 

Yours very affectionately, 

Lorenzo Snow. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 207 




CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Editor's note. — Lorenzo writes. — Leaves Geneva. — Over the hills. — Over the 
Alps. — A heavy snow storm. — Only two passengers in the coach. — Ten 
horses barely sufficient. — "Houses of Recovery" erected by the govern- 
ment for lost travelers. — Reaches Turin. — Meets Elders Woodard and 
Toronto. — Interesting "re-union." — Visions. — Healings. — Condition of 
Italy. — Brother Woodard's course commendable. — The Waldenses. 

[ITH all due respect to whatever romantic enthusiasm 
a, lively imagination may clothe "over the Alps" in 
the dead of winter, it certainly must be anything but 
a pleasure trip to those who encounter it. To say nothing of 
the thrilling aspect and the hazardous adventure, the sudden 
transition from the heat of summer to the depth of winter is 
calculated to produce a telling effect on the constitution of the 
traveler. This my prother experienced for several subsequent 
years. 

Italy, February 18, 1852. 
Dear President Richards: 

Bidding farewell to Brother and Sister Stenhouse and the 
Swiss Saints, I left Geneva on the 9th inst. by malic poste, 
and commenced winding my way over a rough, hilly and 
mountainous country that formed a strange contrast with the 
•beautiful, undulating pays of southern France. As we 
approached the towering Alps, there came a heavy snow 
storm, which made our journey very gloomy, dreary and 
altogether disagreeable. About six o'clock in the evening of 
the following day, we commenced the ascent of Mount 
Cenis, and reached its cloudy summit, six thousand seven 
hundred feet in height, at one o'clock the next morning. 

Though but one passenger beside myself saw proper to 



208 BIOGRAPHY AND 

venture over the mountain, it was found that ten horses were 
barely sufficient to carry us forward through the drifting 
snow, which had fallen to nearly the depth of four feet since 
the last post had passed, a circumstance that rendered it very 
dangerous making our way up the narrow road and short' 
turnings. One stumble or the least unlucky toss 'of our 
vehicle would, at very many points of our path, have plunged 
us a thousand feet down rocky precipices. 

It may be noticed to the credit of the government that 
"houses of recovery" are now erected in the dangerous por- 
tion of this route, for the preservation and- benefit of travelers 
that may lose their way or be caught in a storm, -and their 
progress hindered by the drifting snows. In going the dis- 
tance of a half mile, six or eight of these benevolent build- 
ings may be seen. We descended the mountain with much 
more ease to our horses, and more comfort to ourselves; and 
I felt thankful that my passage over these rocky steeps was 
completed, and hoped it might never be my lot to cross them 
a third time at night in the winter season; but regarding 
these matters, we need seek to exercise no anxiety, inasmuch 
as over them we hold no control. 

On reaching' Turin, I had . the happiness of meeting 
Elders .Woodard and Toronto, and the day following of pay- 
ing a visit to the Saints in Angrogna. 

I could see and feel that the brethren here had all been 
baptized into the same' Spirit. At a very interesting 
"re-union," one sister said, "Mr. Snow, it is the first time I 
see you with my bodily eyes, but the Lord gave me a mani- 
festation a few weeks ago, in which I saw you as plain as I see 
you now." Another bore testimony of an open vision which 
she had a short time before. A brother also testified of 
several cases of healing which had occurred in his own 
family. 

• I feel to commend the course pursued by Elder Woodard, 
whose operations have been directed by wisdom and prudence. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 209 

Here a branch of the Church has been raised up under cir- 
cumstances which would have paralyzed the efforts of any- 
one not in possession of the most unshaken confidence in the 
power of the Lord. We published books at the risk of coming 
in collision with the government. The Catholic priests called 
on the ministers of state to "prevent their sale; but in spite 
of every obstacle, we have disposed of nearly all we printed. 
We are not permitted to preach in public, and at every step 
find ourselves far off from the religious liberty enjoyed in 
England. But Italy is not silent under the shackles of 
spiritual despotism. Many noble sentiments, and liberal 
ideas, have been spread through the country by the speeches 
of honest-hearted men in Parliament, who have called 
loudly for religious freedom, and we trust they will not always 
call in vain. 

" The mission, up to this time, has been necessarily carried 
on in a narrow sphere, but more favorable openings now seem 
to present themselves, and the Book of Mormon will lend its 
powerful aid in building up the Church. After many 
anxieties with regard to that work, it was no small pleasure 
to find it welcomed by the Saints in Italy as a heavenly 
treasure, and the translation so highly approved. Nor can I 
express the delight which I experienced in gazing upon 
Mount Brigham, on whose rocky brow we had organized 
La Chiesa di'Gesu Christo del Santi degli Ultimi Gioni,in Italia. 
The Waldenses were the first to receive the Gospel, but 
by the press and the exertions of the Elders, it will be rolled 

I forth beyond their mountain regions. At this season they are 
surrounded with snow from three to six feet deep, and in 
many instances all communication is cut off between the 
villages. Our labors - in such countries will be eminently 
blessed when we can have persons in the Priesthood who are 
not under the same disadvantages and liabilities as foreign 
Elders, and such are rising up here. 
Elder John D. Malan, president of the branch, is a man 



210 BIOGRAPHY AND 

of God, and having labored faithfully under the counsel of 
Elder Woodard, I think it wisdom that he should take charge 
of the work here, while Elder Woodard opens the mission in 
the seaport of Nice. Italian'states are well known as being the 
most hostile upon earth to the introduction of religious truth, 
but as their subjects are in constant communication with 
many countries that are washed by the Mediterranean, they 
will have facilities for hearing the Gospel as we come into con- 
nection with their maritime relations; and being acquainted 
with all the languages around that central sea, the thousands 
of Italians who perform business upon its waters will furnish 
some faithful men to speed on the Kingdom of God, through 
the south and east of Europe. At Nice we shall be able to 
keep up connection with the Waldenses on one hand and the 
Maltese on the other. Malta will be an important field of 
labor, not only for Italy, but also for Greece, where, according 
to ancient tradition, a branch of the House of Israel long 
remained. 

The Turkish and Russian empires may also be reached 
through the same medium; and I hope to see the day when 
the countries I have named will all be cut up into confer- 
ences of Latter-day Saints. Brother Obray will join his 
labors with those of Brother Woodard, for both Nice and 
Malta, and for the extension of the mission into other parts of 
Italy. 

As soon as circumstances permit, I shall be moving for- 
ward to other realms, and from whence my next communica- 
tion will proceed, I cannot say; perhaps from Malta, or the 
crumbling monuments of ruined Egypt, or the burning 
climes of India. 

Praying that the Lord may always*be with you, granting 
you His richest favors, 

I remain, as ever, yours affectionately, 

Lorenzo Snow. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 211 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Editor's Remarks. — Lorenzo writes from Malta. — Naples. — Across the Med- 
iterranean — Detention. — Disappointed. — Makes virtue of necessity. — 
Samuel succeeds his brother. — Lorenzo explains cause of detention. — 
Revised edition of the "Voice of Joseph." — Prospects in Malta. — Michael 
and Lucifer represented. — In Gibraltar. — Good news from India. — 
Extracts. — Elder Willis writes. — One hundred and eighty-nine members, 
— Ordained two Elders. — More Baptisms. 

'HERE are tidal waves in the undulating stream of 
human events, which, although they may not be obsta- 
cles to anticipated results, frequently prove barriers to 
the fulfilment of human expectations. One of these swept 
suddenly over my brother's pathway. 

Having set his face in the direction and while vigorously 
urging his steps toward the far east, suddenly his" course was 
changed; and, although his interest in the East was not dimin- 
ished, duty pointed in the opposite direction, and the vista to 
the far West, the home of the Saints, the gathering place of 
Israel, opened brightly before him, and he moved forward. 

Malta, March 10th, 1852. 
Dear Franklin: 

On mature consideration, while at Genoa, it seemed wis- 
dom that Elder Woodard should accompany me to Malta, for 
which place we took passage, on the twentieth of February, on 
board the French steamer Telemaque. The following day we 
arrived at Leghorn, and proceeding thence passed the island of 
Elba, where Napoleon resided before his last return to France. 

On reaching Civitta Vecchia in the Papal States, in conse- 
quence of a severe storm, we' were detained twenty-four hours. 
Our next port was Naples, one of the largest cities of Italy, 



212 BIOGRAPHY AND 

and the seat of the Neapolitan government, containing about 
three hundred and sixty thousand inhabitants. Its celebrity 
may be judged from the old proverb, "See Naples and die." 
Upon entering the bay, the ever smoking brow of Mount 
Vesuvius is seen on the right like a demon watching for the 
destined hour when again he can pour forth desolation upon 
the surrounding county. • 

Leaving Naples on the morning of the twenty-fourth, we 
made our way, amid roaring winds and dashing waves, 
towards Sicily ; but the following morning, as we approached 
the harbor of Messina, a beautiful calm had succeeded — the 
air was that of genial Spring, and the gently sloping hills 
around the city were mantled with richest verdure. Passing 
these straits, we steered across the Mediterranean, and on the 
twenty-sixth reached the island of Malta. 

On arriving here, and calling on Mr. Holton, the agent 
for the Oriental Steam Company, I found myself obliged to 
remain some weeks longer than I had expected, in consequence , 
of one of their steamers, on the Red Sea, breaking down, three 
days out from Suez, and being compelled to return all her pas- 
sengers, who were remaining at -port waiting the next month's 
l3oat, which would be so much crowded, having to take in 
those arriving from Southampton, that no more could be 
received under any consideration whatever. 

Though at present disappointed in being able to move 
forward, I feel that much good will result from the manner in 
which the Lord may direct the employment of the time now 
at my command, as I am surrounded by an interesting people, 
and in a most important field of labor, where a great work 
may be accomplished, extending to adjacent nations. 

What will be precisely our mode of operation, as yet, we 
scarcely have had time to determine, but shall endeavor to do 
as prudence. and wisdom may dictate, on becoming more 
acquainted with the characteristic features of our position. 

This is decidedly a Catholic country, to which belong all 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 213 

the peculiar prejudices that anywhere appertain to that denom- 
ination, heightened by the presence of the religious disunion 
which always shows Protestantism to much disadvantage 
whenever and wherever it makes its appearance. 

Malta and two adjacent islands rise up amid the blue 
waters of the Mediterranean farther distant from the main 
land than any other upon the bosom of this inland sea. The 
British forces took them from the French in 1800, and great 
additions have since been made to their fortifications. The 
population amounts to about one hundred and twenty-four 
thousand, embracing English, French, Italians, Greeks, Ger- 
mans, Turks, Moors, Spaniards, etc. The lion and unicorn 
wave the banner of freedom over this little realm of Catholi- 
cism, proposing liberty of speech and of press, in consideration 
of which we are seeking a place for public services, and mak- 
ing arrangements with a respectable printing establishment for 
publishing such works as we shall judge most suitable. 

I have sent for Elder Obray to come immediately, and 
bring a good supply of books and pamphlets. The organiza- 
tion of a branch of our Church here Avould loosen the spiritual 
fetters of many nations, as the Maltese, in their commercial 
relations, are spread along the shores of Europe, Asia and 
Africa. Nearly all speak the Italian, and at the same time, by 
the' peculiarities of their native dialect, they make themselves 
easily understood by those using the Arabic and Syriac, which 
are exceedingly difficult for most other Europeans. Five 
newspapers are published in Italian, two. in English, and two 
others both in English and Italian. 

. Malta furnishes many objects of interest to the antiqua- 
rian and the lovers of the curious. Among the number may 
be noticed a small bay, where St. Paul was shipwrecked when 
on his way to Rome, as related in the Acts of the Apostles. 
There is also an extensive building, formerly occupied by the 
Inquisition, and * rings and hooks still remain in the walls 
underground, where the unhappy victims were confined who 



214 BIOGRAPHY AND 

fell into the power of that fearful tribunal. In the Church of 
the Inquisition is a magnificent picture, in which Martin 
Luther is represented in hell, surrounded with flames, agoniz- 
ing in fiery torments. Whether the artist, when taking the 
picture, was on the spot, we are not informed. 

At one corner of a street, in stone figures, may be seen 
Lucifer, writhing under a severe flagellation by Michael, who, 
with his feet placed triumphantly upon the neck, seems highly 
pleased with the effects going on through the powerful blows 
administered with his Herculean club. Many other striking- 
spectacles could be mentioned, but doubtless they would par- 
take more of the ludicrous than the instructive. 

I am now awaiting intelligence from Switzerland, Bom- 
bay and Calcutta, upon the receipt of which, if I find any- 
thing of particular interest or importance, I will notice here- 
after. 

Yours affectionately, 

Lorenzo Snow. 

' Samuel Richards succeeded his brother Franklin D. in the 
Presidency of the British Isles, hence Brother Snow's next 
letter is addressed as follows : 

Malta, May 1, 1852. 
Dear Brother Samuel: 

Supposing that your brother Franklin has taken his fare- 
well of Albion's shores, and is now upon the briny deep, 
returning home to the Saints, allow me to do myself the pleas- 
ure of addressing to you my communication, and that through 
( the Star the Saints generally of the British conferences may 
have some knowledge of our circumstances and prospects. 

My hindrances in London with the translation and publi- 
cation of the Book of Mormon, and several weeks of unavoid- 
able detention in this place, allowed me so little time to spend 
in India, and reach home in time to meet the wishes of the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 215 

First Presidency, as expressed in their last ejnstle; in view also 
of the various duties and labors that surrounding circum- 
stances have unexpectedly pressed upon my attention, I have 
judged it wisdom, for the present, to limit the sphere of my 
ministerial labors, and employ the brief time at my disposal in 
that way which, through the-blessing of the Lord, I trust will 
tend to the interests of my eastern mission, and much more to 
thcadvantage of other fields of labor, and more to the advance- 
ment of the cause generally among these nations. I am sorry 
to disappoint the brethren in India, but trust I shall be able to 
visit them at some period not long distant, when more time at 
my command will enable me to compensate them for their dis- 
appointment and doubly benefit the interests of the work in 
those lands. In view of carrying forward with efficiency those 
missions that have come under my direction, and to open the 
road to the introduction of the Gospel into these Catholic 
countries bordering upon the Mediterranean, we are arranging 
all our publications, in respect to kind, matter, quality and 
language. Our printer, who expresses much interest in the 
prosperit} r of our cause, has just made arrangements to order 
from England an apparatus for stereotyping, and we hope by 
this means and other opportunities, ere long to supply 
economically from this point, as a central book depot, Italy, 
Spain, Switzerland, Bombay and Calcutta., 

We have published another edition of "The Voice of 
Joseph," which is revised from the Italian, and commenced to 
send it abroad among the people, hoping much good may 
result from its instrumentality. Also an edition of the 
"Ancient Gospel Restored "(originally entitled "The Only Way 
to be Saved"), in French, and another in Italian. This little 
work is now published, and in a few days will be circulating 
here in four different languages. The Elders in Bombay and 
Calcutta will be supplied with publications from here, imme-. 
diately upon .learning their address; also a little more 
acquaintance with the ins and outs between this and Italy, 



216 BIOGRAPHY AND 

and we can supply Elders Malan and the Saints in Piedmont, 
also the Saints in Switzerland. 

People. are now constantly making calls to inquire con- 
cerning this "strange religion." A few evenings since we had 
at one time, at our private lodgings, gentlemen from eight dif- 
ferent nations, having' come from various parts of the city to 
hold conversation concerning our doctrines; among the num- 
ber were those from Poland and Greece, who' are now reading 
our works with peculiar interest. Two intelligent and enter- 
prising young men, the first fruits of our ministry upon this 
island, will ably assist in moving forward the cause in which 
we are engaged; one of them we have ordained an Elder — he 
speaks several languages fluently. 

Since our arrival, the slanderous reports of the United 
States "Judges," from Great Salt Lake City, through the 
medium of, the French and English newspapers, obtain lively 
circulation, losing nothing by importation Yet they serve us 
some good purpose by awakening curiosity, and sending many 
visitors, whereby we have increased opportunities of announ- 
cing our principles. 

Elder Woodard, as soon as his services can be- dispensed 
with here, will return to the assistance of Elder Malan, in 
Italy, leaving the work in this place in charge of Elder Obray. 
My European mission, on my departure, from these countries, 
will be under the superintendence of Elders Stenhouse, "Wood- 
ard and Obray; the Indian mission will be left with Elders 
Findlay, Willis and Joseph Richards. These brethren will 
keep up correspondence with the Presidency in Liverpool, from 
whom they will receive, from time to time, that instruction and 
counsel as shall tend to promote our Master's cause under their 
directions. 

The English and Italian languages are much spoken in 
Gibraltar as well as the Spanish, and we are anxious to see the 
work of the Lord beginning to spread its truths, if possible, 
through the Spanish dominions; and feel to do all in our 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 217 

power to effect so desirable an object. We cannot help but 
believe that the Lord has some good people in that place, that 
will hearken to His voice, and become instruments in carrying 
the Gospel to their countrymen. In a few days I shall have 
completed my arrangements here, and shall then take my 
departure for that country, and spend what little time I can 
spare, with a view of making an opening, as wisdom may 
direct. 

If a wise, energetic, faithful and experienced Elder, being 
well approved by yourself, who wishes to engage in that which 
will redound to the honor and glory of God, and the salvation 
of souls, will come to- Gibraltar, he shall be supplied with 
appropriate publications from here; and while there I will do 
for him what lies in my power, and make such * arrangements 
in laying a foundation for his advancement in the work, as my 
time and opportunities shall permit. If another Elder can be 
looked up for India, to aid Elder Findlay at Bombay, I believe 
I will then have done with my requests upon England, at least 
till my return from California. 

It is not our expectation to convert all these Catholic 
nations, but we can hardly expect any better or more favorable 
time to furnish them an opportunity for life and salvation; 
and we feel that there are a few among them who will appre- 
ciate the sacrifices we make in their behalf; and, giving heed 
to the call, will come forth fulfilling the words of the holy 
Prophets, that a remnant shall come to Zion, gathered "from 
every nation, kindred, tongue and people." 

We expect, also, on our part, in order to accomplish this 
work, much patience, faith, diligence, perseverance and long- 
suffering will necessarily be exercised. In the cities, both in 
America and in England, in which thousands ultimately 
received the Gospel, in several instances many months were 
spent in seemingly fruitless labors before a proper attention to 
those principles was produced; so, in reference to these Catho- 
lic countries, we may not only labor months, but perhaps even 



/ 
218 BIOGRAPHY AND 

years. But we feel assured that through faith, prayer, works 
and. the blessing of the Lord we shall ultimately overcome all 
difficulties, .and have the assurance that we have done our 
duty and cleared our garments of the blood of all men. 

Brother Woodard joins me in love to yourself and to all 
the Saints, praying that you may be attended in all your exer- 
tions for the cause of Zion, with the choicest blessings our 
Heavenly Father, bestows upon the faithful whose hearts and 
souls are devoted to His service. 

Since I commenced writing I have received cheering intel- 
ligence from my Indian missions, which no doubt has reached 
the columns of the Star. 

Yours affectionately, 

Lorenzo Snow. 
President S. W. Richards. 

In connection with the above letter, Ave copy the following 
from an editorial in the Millennial Star, in relation .to the East 
India mission: 

"By the politeness of Elder William Cook, of London, we 
are enabled to lay before our readers the following interesting 
items concerning the East India mission, being extracts from 
a letter from Elder William Willis, who, our readers will recol- 
lect, is on a mission to Calcutta: On Sunday, December 21, 
1851, Elder Willis baptized nine natives, five Christian and 
four Pagan. He was expecting to baptize four natives and 
three Europeans on- the 7th of Januan r , 1852. Four stations 
were open for preaching, and prospects were very encouraging 
for a good work being done. Elder Willis- was also engaged 
busily in translating the "Ancient Gospel Restored," by 
Lorenzo Snow, into Bengalee and Hindostanee. Thus are the 
glad tidings of salvation wending their- way into the dark 
regions of the earth. The energy of the Elders of Israel is 
rapidly causing Zion's glorious standard to be lifted among the 
nations, whilst the Holy Spirit of God inspires the scattered 
sons and daughters of Israel to the hope set before them." 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 219 

To follow up the progress of the East India mission, we 
copy from the Star an extract of a letter from Elder AVillis to 
Brother Snow, dated: 

2J Jaun Bazaar Street, Calcutta, 

May 15th, 1852. 
Beloved President Snow: 

The Church in and within forty miles of Calcutta consists 
of one hundred and eighty-nine members, one hundred and 
seventy of whom are Ryots, or native husbandmen, who pre- 
viously were nearly all professing Christians, and whose seces- 
sion has caused a great stir among the Padre Sahib (mission- 
aries). The children of the native brethren are more numerous 
than themselves, and, as soon as we can visit them, there are 
many more desirous of being baptized. Bui; they are scattered 
over an immense district of plowed fields, and very bad or no 
regular roads } but you know what " Mormon" perseverance will 
accomplish. We look upon these things as the droppings 
before the shower. There is a great work preparing among 
the Europeans here — much of earnest and polite inquiry — 
meetings are well attended, many coming in their carriages 
and palkees, and at the end of the lectures the people are very 
unwilling to leave the room until they have had the friendty 
shake of the hand, and the long debate after the lecture is 
over, frequently prolonging it till past ten at night, etc. 

I have just heard from Brother Findlay, at Bombay, who 
has commenced sowing the good seed. He has been attacked 
by a pious scribbler, and lias had the privilege of replying, 
twice, in a masterly style, in the Bombay papers; which replies 
have been also inserted in the Calcutta and other papers. 
About seven or eight rabid articles, letters, etc., have been 
leveled at me and the truth, and they have inserted three of 
my replies, which have caused many to inquire, and visit me, 
and read the tracts I brought out. 

The public library has been furnished with copies of all 



220 BIOGRAPHY AND 

of our works, through the recommendation of Major Marshall, 
who attended my lectures and presented me his card. I have 
my eye on several new stations, when my boys here have 
learned their drill. I am so circumstanced as to be able to do 
something every day and night in rolling on the work of God. 
If we had many more Elders they would all get "curry and 
rice," and souls for their hire. 

Your tract, "The Only Way to be Saved," has just been 
translated by Brother Brigham Prankisto, one of my children 
in the faith, a Priest; and I trust it will soon be printed in 
Bengalee and Hindostanee. He has commenced translating 
" Child's Ladder," and " Remarkable Visions." 

I have just concluded a course of twelve lectures, which 
have been well and respectably attended. One night four 
missionaries were present; two rose up in the meeting and 
violently opened their mouths, but as I promised to hear them 
at the conclusion of the lecture, they waited, and at the end of 
the lecture they questioned me and were silenced, being self- 
condemned out of the Scriptures; for neither of them had 
been baptized according to their requirements, and they sat 
down, saying, "they did not come to argue," to the great aston- 
ishment and amusement of the audieuce. The following day 
they were shown up in the newspapers by an anti-"Mormon" 
writer, who expressed his surprise at their demeaning them- 
selves b} T "interfering with the delusions of Mormonism." 

We have been blest with the gift of healing in cases of 
croup, fever, cholera, etc. ; the last was that of a Hindoo groom, 
who was in a dying state with Asiatic cholera. I anointed 
him with oil, and was assisted in the laying on of hands by 
Brothers McLachlan and Boynton, when the man soon 
recovered, although he was in great agony — turning up his 
e} r es, and was frightfully affected. To God the Eternal Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, be all the glory. 

The Saints here, with one heart; sustain the authorities of 
the Church, Presidents Young, Kimball and Richards, the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 221 

Twelve, the Seventies, the High Council, and all the organiza- 
tions of the Church in Deseret and elsewhere, and pray that 
heaven's blessings may continue to be poured out upon them. 

I am preparing seeds for the Valley. The flowering 
shrubs here are very numerous and beautiful. I trust to be 
favored with a ship-letter when you reach the Valley, and to 
hear what the Presidency think about the success of this 
mission. I have ordained two Elders, J. P. Meik and McCune. 
I hope soon to have an Oriental Star, as literature here is at a 
low ebb and high price. I have faith to ask if you 6 will 
sanction. 

June 1st. Last night I baptized two males and one female 
in a household, and of the same family as a few days ago, and 
expect the mother very shortly. She is the owner of several 
large houses in Calcutta — is of a noble spirit, and fully believes 
the Gospel. We now number one hundred and ninety-two. 
The Saints unite with your most affectionate 
brother and fellow servant in prayers and best wishes for your 
health, happiness and success in the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

William- Willis. 



222 BIOGRAPHY AND 




CHAPTER XXX. < 

Closing the Mission.— Elder Jabez Woodard writes.— Leaves Malta.— Elder ' 
Obray succeeds him.— A vision related.— Commendatory of Elder Malan. 
—Extract from Elder.Obray's letter.— From Western Hindostan.— Oppo- 
sition.— What a soldier dared.— The result.— Military oppose Mission- 
aries. — A Branch organized in Poonah. — The "Voice of Joseph," by 
Elder Lorenzo Snow. — "The Only Way to be Saved" republished.— A 
remarkable vision. - 

[RITING, as wc are, more particularly for the benefit of 
those \'et unborn, in order to make a record as com- 
* plete as possible, we compile the following extracts, 
and with this chapter close the synopsis of Lorenzo's eastern 
mission. 

Praissuit, Angrogna, Pigxerel, 

Piedmont, July, 1852. 
Dear President Richards: 

Elder Obray has probably informed you of my departure 
from Malta, after we had organized a branch of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. I could not help feeling 
deep regret in leaving that devoted brother in a country with 
whose customs and climate he is yet unacquainted; but he 
keeps the Word of Wisdom, which will preserve the life of 
many an Elder when exposed to blighting Avinds and burning 
suns. 

You see by the heading of my letter, that I am in the 
field of my former labors, and letters bearing that address will 
be pretty sure of reaching me, in whatever part of this land I 
may be working; in fact, I ought now to be in two or three 
places at the same time, and it is, therefore, with the greatest 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 223 

pleasure I hear from Elder Snow that assistance is coming, and 
[ shall be happy to hear from the brethren who are nominated 
for Ital} T . 

With regard to the present condition of this mission, I 
cannot do better than transcribe the words of a friend who 
received the following, in the -visions of the night: "I beheld, 
and lo ! the form of one that, was exceeding tall and great. The 
face was smiling and lovely, and while yet I gazed, became so 
resplendent with glory, that I was forced to look down towards 
the earth. Then I saw dark clouds wrapped around that 
gigantic body, leaving only a few places here and there, pene- 
trated by the rays of light. And the Spirit said unto me, This 
is Truth- ix Italy; and behold, at present the light just 
shineth in the midst of the darkness, but the days will come 
when all in this land shall be penetrated by the power of 
Truth, either unto their salvation or destruction." 

I have commenced preaching, baptizing, etc., and have 
also pruned the vineyard — cutting off dead branches. But I 
feel to commend- the faithfulness of Elder John D. Malan, who 
held the Presidency during m}^ absence in Malta. "The 
Saints in Italy salute you." 

'Yours in the New and Everlasting Covenant, 
— Millennial Star. Jabez Woodard. 

Extract of a letter from Elder Obray: 

124 Strada Sax, Domixico Malta, 

August 18, 1852. 
Dear President RicJiards: 

It is beyond my power to make known the difficulties 
attending this mission. I have not only to encounter Catholic, 
but Protestant, who are circulating lies' as' fast as a horse can 
run, in order to stop the work of God on this island; but God 
be praised! I am enabled to say that I have -added two since 
I last wrote to you, which make twenty-two members of the 



224 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saiuts here, rejoicing in 
God. 

Last Sunday, the 17th, I ordained a good man an Elder, 
by the name of George Burrage; he leaves Malta for England 
this day week; to get his discharge, when he will return to 
Malta, * * * 

Extracts from letters of Elder W. Willis, dated Calcutta, 
Aug. 3, 1852: 

"Elder Joseph Richards, late of the London Conference, 
arrived here on the 20th of last month. He left London in 
January, on board r the Elizabeth. He is, I am happy to say, 
in the best of health and spirits. He is under counsel from 
President Snow to assist me here, which I have realized to a 
most pleasing extent already, and have every hope that we 
shall, by the help of the Lord, pull well together. His presence 
and counsel have inspired me and the brethren here, with 
fresh hopes and courage. 

"Elder McCune, on the 25th of last month, delivered his 
farewell address, before leaving for Burmah, where he has gone 
to fight the battles of the Lord while he officiates in his military 
capacity of staff sergeant, in the ' Company's Bengal Artillery;' 
and we feel to ask an interest in his behalf in the prayers of 
the Saints at home. 

" Last Saturday, Elder Richards led Mr. William Sheppard 
into the beautiful limpid tank at Acra Farm, and baptized him 
for the remission of his sins, in the presence of many of the 
Saints. His son, also, and a young native of the medical caste, 
named Unnoda Persad Sen Gooptoy, who is very fluent in 
Bengalee and Hindostanee. He is a young man of great 
promise.'" 

The following is from Elder Findlay, in Western Hindos- 
tan, as published in the Millennial Star, dated Poonah, Sep- 
tember 13, 1852 : 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 225 

Beloved President Ricliards: 

Trusting that the letter I addressed to your office for 
President L. Snow, bearing date of June last, has been received, 
although detained one month on account of the steamer bear- 
ing mail having put back to Bombay, short of coal. I am 
doubtful that Elder Snow's communications have miscarried, 
as I have received none from him, save one from Malta, dated, 
the 11th of March. In the absence of other instructions, I beg, 
with your permission, to communicate through the medium of 
the Star what might be interesting to him and others who love 
the cause of'Zion. 

In the letter referred to, I gave a brief outline of the com- 
bined opposition, military and ecclesiastical, which met our 
first operations in Bomba} r ; these two powers combined leave 
little play for the privileges of the civil constitution. 

The majority of India's European population are of the 
military class, the chaplains not excepted, who, by dint of their 
sacred offices, in their varied grades, or, as the natives of the 
country would say, castes, bear great sway. All are hand in 
hand, jolly good fellows to keep out every invading foe; and, 
as "Mormonism," although it makes no interference with con- 
stitutional governments, either in military or civil affairs, save 
to honor and obey them; still, claiming spiritual authority to 
teach heavenly principles, and to call upon all men to repent 
of their transgressions of the laws of the Lord, and to obey the 
Gospel of the Son of God; which duty cannot be faithfully 
accomplished without revealing the vile corruptions of man- 
made schemes— this constitutes it a most formidable foe to the 
usurped pretentions of the holy orders of the various contend- 
ing systems, the pride, imbecility and inconsistencies of which 
have left a stench in the noses and a prejudice in the hearts of 

k India's children, against the Christian religion, which will not 
be easily eradicated. 
When an English commanding officer told me in Bom- 
bay that I should remember that I was not exactly under 



226 BIOGRAPHY AND 

English law in India, I expressed the idea as a piece of petty 
tyranny; but we are always learning. Noiv I know it is so. 

As I mentioned in my last, I left Bombay for this place on 
the 24th of June, in company of Elder Tail and family, and 
after one night's sailing and three days and two nights' travel 
by bullock wagons, in alternate rain and sunshine, we arrived 
at Poonah in the evening of the 27th. My first work was to 
hire a room to live and preach in; this was soon obtained; but 
the next and greatest difficulty was yet to be surmounted, viz: 
the possessing it; the grant of which rested with the military 
authorities, - this being a military cantonment, hence under 
military law. 'Our position proved the more precarious on 
account of the Bombay interdict from entering the military 
boundaries, the news of which, with many of the newspapers, 
having reached here in so ludicrous a form that they were 
almost amusing, only that they were aimed against a cause 
so sacred. * 

However, in this extremity the Lord wrought for us; we 
therefore, after some difficulty, got permission upon the con- 
sideration that "the less these people are opposed, the less harm 
they will do." 

I was only about two days in this new habitation, when 
about a dozen soldiers called, as a deputation from their regi- 
ment, to ascertain whether I had come to purchase the dis- 
charge of all who would join our Church, and send them to 
. California, as such reports had gone through their lines, and 
there were about two hundred of their comrades who were 
ready to fall in with these conditions.' T mention this farce 
because I believe it was a deep laid plot of the enemy to have 
me turned out of camp; this conviction has of late been 
more confirmed, from the circumstance, of a certain colonel 
on meeting one of his men saluting him thus: "Where are you 
going, sir? Are you going to the 'Mormon' meeting?" On 
receiving a negative repl}', he added: "You must not go there 
— they will send you to California." 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 227 

A soldier of another regiment dared to place one of our 
tracts (The Only Way to he Saved) on the, table of the public 
library. Upon information of this act being borne to the 
chaplain, the commanding officer was written to, Sunday as,it 
was (the better the- day the better the deed), the unfortunate 
librarian was first arrested, but, upon the black sheep being 
found out, orders were issued to arrest and imprison him the 
moment he set foot within the lines. Next morning, arraigned 
before the seat of judgment, he was well taunted as a "Mor- 
mon," in the low slang of the common hue and cry, until he 
told the commanding officer that he was not a "Mormon," 
neither did he care for any religion. Jamieson's code being 
well ransacked, no military law could be found to condemn 
him ; he was in consequence dismissed from the bar with an 
admonition. 

The same colonel, we are told, has issued an order that 
none of his men are to be allowed to come to our meetings; 
and if any are seen with one of our tracts, they are to -be 
severely punished. The chaplains and missionaries are dili- 
gently distributing a scurrilous publication purporting to be 
written by a J. G. Deck, in England, which, they have honored 
with a reprint, and a large and gratuitous circulation here and 
at Bombay. As this tract has gained so great celebrity 
amongst the people, I have written a repl^ 7 to the assertions of 
its author, in a tract of twelve pages, now in process of publi- 
cation. But, to cap the climax of this array of opposition, the 
reverend father, in the bosom of the old "Mother," has pub- 
licly threatened to curse every mother's son or daughter of his 
nock who will dare to set their feet in our meeting house. 

You may realize from the above outline that they are all 
in a stew here, and we mean to keep them so, so long as the 
truth will do it; and we only desire to have wisdom from the 
Lord to keep outside of every snare that may be laid to entrap 
us. 

Notwithstanding the attempt of the wicked one to thwart 



228 BIOGRAPHY AND 

our purposes, the Lord lias been, with us, and has so far pros- 
pered our labors that we had the happiness of organizing a 
branch of the Church of Christ at Poouah last Sundaj', com- 
posed of twelve members, including three Elders and one 
Teacher. This little company are of a mixed birth, Europeans, 
Eurasian and native, but one in spirit, and the first fruits of 
that spirit,' love and union begin to show themselves, as the 
evidence to all that we are of God; a contrast to the fact that 
the joint chaplains at. this station so heartily hate one another 
as to be unable to speak to each other. "Herein shall all men 
know that ye are my disciples." 

Your brother and fellow servant, 

Hugh Fixdlay. 

The following Ave cop3 r from the Millennial Star of Novem- 
ber, 1852: "We have just published an edition of the ' Voice 
of Joseph/ a brief account of the rise, progress and persecu- 
tions of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, with 
their present position and future prospects in Utah Territory. 
By Elder Lorenzo Snow. It is printed in new, cleat type, on 
superfine paper, and is adapted for extensive circulation among 
honest inquirers after truth, being peculiarly calculated to 
impart a general idea of the foundation, history and persecu- 
tions of the work of the last days." 

"We insert the folloAving item, which owes its importance 
io some extent to the circumstances of the situation in which 
the writer was placed : 

Lausaxxe, September 16th, 1852. 
Dear President Richards: 

Nearty two years have passed away, since I left parents, 
wife and children to join the Italian mission. During that 
long period I have experienced many changes in these foreign 
lands. 

One day I sat down in a solitar) 1- place, and melancholy 






AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 229 

thoughts began to occupy my mind. Then a strange sensation 
swept over my spirit. Did I fall asleep and dream, or did the 
visions of futurity beam around? The world seemed spread 
out before me, and revolution after revolution passed over the 
nations. 

I saw Jerusalem inhabited by happy multitudes. The 
children were playing in the streets, and old men leaning upon 
their staves. The curse brooded no longer over Judah's 
ancient land, for the midnight shades of sin and sorrow were 
replaced by the brightness of the Millennial morn. 

Jesus had visited the earth again, and all nature smiled 
as if conscious of her Creator's presence. Myriads of noble 
beings came from tower and temple, and stood near the holy 
city. Then the Savior came forth, and every eye rested upon 
His glorious countenance, while every knee bowed, in reve- 
rence. He raised His right hand, and, pointing to Calvary, 
thus addressed the mighty host which worshiped at His feet: 
" Two thousand years ago I died upon that Mount for the sins 
of the world, but now my Father hath given me the crown of 
universal empire. Thus shall it be known through all His 
vast creations that sacrifice and obedience bring forth honor and 
immortality." 

Then I started as from a trance, and lo! instead of the 
palm trees and flowers of the "pleasant land," I was sur- 
rounded by the rocks and snows of the Alpine wilds. But all 
was not fled, for those words, "sacrifice and obedience bring 
forth honor and immortality," left a soothing balm upon my 
spirit which will never be forgotten. 

* Yours in the New and Everlasting Covenant, 

Jabez Woodard. 



230 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XXXI. ■ 

Close of Mission. — Bids adieu to the Saints and scenes of his labors. — Poem, 
in which martial and ecclesiastical labors and honors are contrasted. — 
Lorenzo returns home. — Chosen Member of Legislature. — President of 
Council. — Reflections. — Joy and sorrow.— Vision.— A covenant. — Char- 
lotte's death. — Singular manifestation. — A little prattler. — Quandary.— 
Solution.— Social party.— Storm.— Drenched.— Lorenzo decides to build. 
— A struggle. — Proves a success. . 

T length the time for his departure arrived, and Lorenzo 
bade adieu to the Saints in the "Old World," with all 
the attractions of nature and of art with which their 
countries ure justly celebrated. Had his mission been one of 
ordinary character — one that pertained to earth and earthly 
things, he might have yielded to the power of fascination ; but 
with him the worth of souls — the elevation, happiness and 
exaltation — the emancipation from the bondage of priestcraft 
and tradition of his fellow-men, was the great mission with 
which he was invested, and until honorably released, nothing 
— not even the endearments of home — would draw him from 
his post, nor divide his interest. But when released by the 
same authority by which, he went forth, although his affec- 
tions twined around the Saints from whom he soon would be 
separated by long distance ; home, his wives and children, and 
associations with the Saints of God in the valleys of Ephraim, 
constituted a powerful magnet, which none but those who are 
husbands and fathers can realize. 

Well may the fire of glory blaze 

Upon the warrior's tread, 
And nation's twine the wreath of praise 

Around the hero's head; 
His path is honored, and his name 
Is written on the spire of fame. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 231 

His deeds are deeds of courage, for 

He treads on gory ground, 
Amid the pride, and pomp of war, 

When carnage sweeps around: 
With sword unsheathed he stands before 

The foe, amid the cannon's roar. 

If such the meed the warrior gains; 

If such the palm he bears; 
If such insignia he obtains; 

If such the crown he wears; 
If laurels thus his head entwine, 

And stars of triumph 'round him shine; 

How noble must be his reward, 

Who, 'midst the crafts of men, 
Clad in the armor of the Lord, 

Goes forth to battle, when 
The powers of darkness warfare wage, 
And Satan's hosts around him rage. 

Who goes opinion to unbind 

That reason may be free, 
And liberate the human mind 

From cleric tyranny: 
Who severs superstition's rod, 
And propagates the truth of God. 

Who wars with prejudice to break 

Asunder error's chain, 
And make the sandy pillars shake 

Where human dogmas reign, 
Who dares to be a man of God, 
And bears the "Spirit's sword" abroad. 

Above all earthly his shall be 

An everlasting fame — 
The Archives of Eternity 

Will register his name: 
With gems of sacred honor rife, 
His crown will be Eternal Life. 



232 BIOGRAPHY AND 

After an absence of nearly three years, starting from 
Malta, and, after stopping a few days in Gibraltar, Lorenzo 
returned home by way of Portsmouth, London, Liverpool, 
New York and St. Louis, arriving in Salt Lake City, July 30, 
1852. 

In the following autumn he was elected to the Utah Legis- 
lature, and continued a member until disfranchised, in 1882 by 
the decision of the "Commissioners" appointed by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, to execute the notorious Edmunds 
law in Utah ; and served, during ten years, as President of the 
Legislative Council. 

The following episode is from my brother's journal: 
Arriving at my home in Salt Lake City, the long antici- 
pated oasis of this portion of my life-journey— the beacon light 
which succeeded my arduous missionary labors, and shone 
with a brighter beam than all other earthly luminaries, the 
•happiness of once again meeting my loved and loving family 
would have been full, but alas ! there was a sad vacancy. A 
lovely one was not ; one who ever met me with a smiling face 
and a loving heart, was not there to respond to love's sacred 
call ; Charlotte, my dear wife, had been stricken down by 
death, and her beautiful form lay mouldering in the silent 
tomb. Yet there was consolation in the thought that her pure 
spirit was mingling with holy beings above. A short time 
after Charlotte's decease, while I was in Italy, a sister in Lon- 
don, a very faithful Saint, the wife of Elder Jabez Woodard, 
had an open vision, in which she saw a beautiful woman, the 
most lovely being she ever beheld, clothed in white robes and 
crowned with glory. This personage told Mrs. Woodard' that 
she was a wife of Lorenzo Snow. So much for the journal. 

All life-pictures have their backgrounds, and the death 
referred to threw a damper on what otherwise might have 
been an excess of enjoyment. But much more of instruction is 
to be drawn from the circumstances of this death than would 
strike the uninformed reader. It stands as an uncontroverted 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 233 

testimony that God, sometimes at least, takes us at our word, 
and holds us responsible for the fulfilment of covenants which 
we make with" Him. 

On the mountain in Italy which was subsequently named 
"Mount Brigham," on the same memorable day in which the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was there organ- 
ized, Lorenzo, in the force of his spirit, aroused by intense 
interest in the work devolving upon him, which seemed 
shrouded in darkness, and probably without realizing the 
weight of his covenant, told the Lord that he knew of no sacri- 
fice he could possibly make he was not willing to offer, that 
the Lord might grant a request concerning the mission before 
him. When I received a copy of the report of the proceed- 
ings of the day, in which the above was included, I was 
deeply struck with the coincidence. Just at this time, as 
nearly as I could calculate by comparing dates and distances, 
the Lord removed, by the hand of death, from my brother's 
family circle, one of the loveliest of women. 

Charlotte died very suddenly. I was with her and saw 
her draw the last breath ; her beloved husband was very far 
away, but his name was on her dying, lips. She loved truly 
for she loved sincerely; and as she loved, so was she beloved 
by all who kneAv her. As she had been very beautiful in life, 
she was beautiful even in death. She left one dear little girl, 
which, although bereaved of a tenderly affectionate mother, 
has been kindly cared for by other members of the family, and 
is now wife of an honorable husband, and mother of five chil- 
dren. 

I will here relate a very singular circumstance which 
occurred after Charlotte's death. Charlotte and Sarah Ann, 
another wife, had roomed . together, as it will be recollected 
that prior to his going to Italy Lorenzo had erected a log 
house as a temporary expedient for a shelter to his family till 
he had time and opportunity to provide better, and was so soon 
called to leave that very little opportunity was afforded for. 



234 BIOGRAPHY AND 

furnishing more than necessity required, and, of course, his 
wives were not supplied with extra apartments. 

After Charlotte's death Sarah Ann felt such a sad loneli- 
ness that with all the control of feeling she could exercise, a 
shuddering sensation came over her at the thought of sleeping 
in that, to her, desolate room — it required all the bravery she 
could command to enter it in the day time, and for several 
nights she made her bed in an adjoining room, until the fol- 
lowing circumstance, which she related to me, occurred. 

One night, whether asleep or awake when the vision com- 
menced, Sarah Ann could not tell; but she" thought it was 
mid-day, and that the family were all seated in their dining- 
room, when a very bright light, above the brightness of the 
sun, burst into the apartment, and in the midst of that light 
Charlotte entered, sat down and took her little daughter, Roxcy 
Charlotte, on her lap, and the extra light in which she came 
disappeared. She said she was happy, which her calm, settled 
expression verified. She said, "J dwell in a beautiful place." 
The brilliant light returned after a short time, and Charlotte 
went as she came, in the midst of the light. At this time 
Sarah Ann was fully awake, and although, no moon was shin- 
ing at the time, her room was sufficiently lighted that (as she 
describes it) "one could see to pick up a pin." This singular 
manifestation so completely revolutionized her feelings that 
on the following day, with the greatest pleasure, she replaced 
her bed in the deserted room, from whence all gloom and lone- 
liness had departed. 

After a short absence, the return of a missionary to the 
bosom of his family awakens mutual emotions of no ordinary 
character, and, in spite of the heart-yearnings for the departed 
one, that house, the home of wives and children, was lighted 
up with a brilliant glow of happiness. AVhile the original 
was absent, the father's portrait hung on the wall, which the 
children with affectionate deference caressed and invoked, 
and when they heard the announcement, u ffe has come," exhil- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 235 

arating shouts of joy resounded through that humble dwelling 
as none but children can put forth. 

One little prattler, named Sylvia, born a short time after 
her father left home, seemed to anticipate his arrival with as 
much enthusiasm as those that remembered him ; but after he 
came, she wholly ignored, and would not be coaxed to 
approach him. On the second day after his arrival, as he was sit- 
ting in the family circle, she entered the room, and slyly step- 
ping up to one of the children, she made the inquiry, "Is that 
my fawy?" On being answered in the affirmative, she went 
to another child and asked, "Is that my fawy ?" and received 
the same answer. She then placed herself directly in front of 
her father and looking him full in the face, said, emphatically, 
"Is you my fawy?" He answered, " Yes, I am your father." 
She then said, " Well then, if you is my fawy I will kiss you," and 
with a mutual warm embrace she gave him a hearty kiss. 

Now to his journal: My house, built of logs, with roof 
made of wallows and earth, and floors of primitive style, just 
before starting on my mission, had already become quite 
uncomfortable, and could not be sufficiently improved to meet 
the requirements of ordinary convenience. Having but little 
means at my command, I found it difficult to decide whether 
or not to undertake to erect a suitable building for my family; 
but the following circumstance settled the question: Presi- 
dent B. Young proposed a select party fo convene in the "Social 
Hall," to which myself and my wives were invited. My sister 
Eliza kindly proffered to keep house, and care for the children 
in our absence. While enjoying ourselves in the hall, a heavy 
shower of rain fell, and on our arrival home I learned that my 
sister had been obliged to struggle against difficulties which 
she had failed to take into account, when kindly volunteering 
her services. 

The whole of the carpetless floor, beds, bedding, etc., etc., 
were completely saturated with the pouring element. As the 
shower came on, some portions of the roof over the beds stood 



236 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the test better than others, and to the beds that were under 
those portions she consigned the children until the rain 
poured down upon them, when she moved them to another 
and dryer bed — continuing the process of camming them from 
bed to bed, until every bed, and even every part of the house 
was thoroughly soaking "Wet. As I looked upon the scene around 
me, a sense of the condition decided the matter, and I con- 
cluded to try to build. Through the blessing of God upon my 
efforts — with great economy and perseverance — I succeeded far 
beyond my most sanguine expectations. I erected a large two- 
story adobe house, with nine rooms — finished off several of 
them and moved into it with all my family, feeling truly 
thankful to the Giver of all good for the blessing of a comfort- 
able and respectable habitation. 

When his house was in course of erection, when no eye but 
that of God could see him, he frequently knelt within its 
foundation and prayed that the small means he could com- 
mand, might be blest and multiplied in its use. Thus by 
economy, labor, effort, faith and prayer, he succeeded. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 237 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

Discourse by Elder L. Snow, delivered in the Tabernacle, Salt Lake City. — 
Blessings proportioned to faith and diligence. — Plainness of the Gospel. 
— Naaman, the Assyrian. — How the Gospel found us. — The same as that 
of New Testament. — Power of the Gospel. — Testimony of the Elders. — 
What Philanthropists tried to do, the Lord has done. — Joseph Smith. — 
His mission. — Obedience brings knowledge. — Elders honest and brave as 
the ancients. — Knowledge not confined to our leaders. — Falsehood 
refuted. — The dishonest will apostatize. — Persecution promised. — The 
honest will receive the truth. — The Latter-day work will triumph. 

N addressing an assembly of Saints, I expect the benefit 
of their prayers, without the ceremony of asking, being 
. assured they are aware, as well as I am, that our teach- 
ings and administrations in the Gospel of life are blest 
according to our faith and prayers and the diligence and 
attention we bestow. 

I propose to make some general observations upon the 
Gospel and its administrations, and in relation to its effects 
when received, and the important blessings derived by this 
community through its divine power and virtue. This Gos- 
pel, which God has commanded us to offer to the world, is an 
order or system of things, simple, plain, and may easily be 
understood. In regard to its principles — the nature of its 
requirements and the precise kind and character of its bless- 
ings and promises, no one, however ignorant or unlearned, 
needs to be left in the dark any great length of time; but 
may discover its golden truths and the emblazoned mark of 
divinity in its arrangements as distinctly and as speedily as ' 
Naaman, the captain of the Assyrian host, found divine 
virtue and the hand of divinity in the order prescribed to 
him by Elijah, through which his leprosy was removed. In 



238 BIOGRAPHY AND 

his case the order of obtaining miraculous blessings, viz. : to 
immerse seven times in Jordan, as prescribed by Elijah, was 
so simple, so plain, and in regard to its divine efficacy,.so easy 
of ascertainment, that the great captain, at first, was exceed- 
ingly wrathy at the idea that God should propose to work 
upon him through such easy and simple forms; but the order 
through which he could be healed of his leprosy was pres- 
cribed of God through the Prophet, and finally the Assyrian 
officer, 'through the plain, common-sense reasoning of his 

' servant, concluded to waive his objections, and comply with 
the requirements; and having done so, he received the prom- 
ised blessing. 

The first principles of the Gospel which we offer, and 
which put men in possession of the revelations of God and of 
a knowledge of this work, are precisely as simple, plain and 
as easy of understanding as the order before alluded to, 
through which the heavens were opened in Naaman's behalf. 
The Gospel was brought to our respective locations, far 
remote from these mountain vales. It found us citizens of 
many nations — speaking our respective languages, each pos- 
sessing his peculiar notions and prejudices, with our associa- 
tions and a strong attachment to kindred, friends and country. 
However unpleasant, unkind, unjust and inconsistent it 
might appear at first, we clearly foresaw that, in receiving 
this Gospel, we should be compelled to break up those associa- 
tions and sever those attachments, leaving the lands of our 
nativity, and going forth with our wives and children to a 
distant land, of which we had but little knowledge. Yet a 
similar requisition was made upon the House of Israel, in the 
land of Egypt; also upon Noah and his family, and upon" 
Abraham and the family of Lot, in the city of Sodom, and 

1 upon the families of Lehi and Ishmael, as mentioned in the 
Book of Mormon. But in the provisions of the Gospel which 
was offered to us, there were fairness and safety; it proposed 
to give us, through obedience to its requirements, a perfect 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 239 

knowledge of its divine authenticity; so that in leaving our 
kindred, breaking up our social relations, and going forth 
from our native lands, we should first become perfectly- 
assured that it was no human contrivance — something gotten 
up to effect some political purpose, or to satisfy some worldly 
ambition to achieve some private end through human cun- 
ning or craftiness. 

The Gospel was plain and simple in its requirements, 
and there could be no mistaking the precise nature of its 
blessings and promises, nor the manner and time in which 
they were to be reached. 

The first feature in this system which struck us with sur- 
prise and arrested our attention, was its perfect similarity, in 
all its parts, with the Gospel as recorded in the New Testa- 
ment. It required repentance and a forsaking of sins — 
immersion in water for the remission of sins, with a promise 
that, through the laying on of hands by those having author- 
ity, people should receive the Holy Ghost, by which a knowl- 
edge should be obtained of the truth of. the doctrine. 
Another remarkable feature which called into exercise our 
most serious consideration," was the solemn testimony of the 
Elders, that they possessed the right to administer these 
sacred ordinances by virtue of the holy Priesthood committed 
to Joseph Smith through the ministration of the Apostles, 
Peter, James and John. And furthermore, that this solemn 
and most important fact should be revealed to every man 
upon his faithful obedience to the Gospel requirements. 

In these propositions, though at first seemingly strange, 
we saw that everything was plain, fair and honorable. In 
doing what they required, we should only do, in fact, what, 
as true-hearted believers in the ancient Gospel, we ought to 
do, and if we failed to receive the promised blessings, and 
thereby proved the Elders' testimony false, our religious con- 
dition would, nevertheless, be then as good as any other 
Christian's, and a little better, perhaps, because we should 



240 BIOGRAPHY AND 

have approached a little nearer to the doctrines of the Scrip- 
tures, inasmuch as their true forms and ceremonies were con- 
cerned. Of course, in this case, having proved to our satis- 
faction that there was no Holy Ghost — no supernatural 
manifestations — no knowledge — no revelations accompanying 
the Elders' administrations of the Gospel; no human persua- 
sion, no cunning sophistry could have induced us to leave 
our homes and friends, to embark in a scheme which our 
common sense taught us would eventuate in bitter disappoint- 
ment and inevitable ruin; but, like other Christians, we 
should have continued in the enjoyment of friends and 
home, groping our way through religious darkness, expecting 
nothing, hoping nothing, and receiving nothing. 

But the fact that I am now speaking to assembled thous- 
ands of intelligent and enlightened people; who received this . 
Gospel with the aforementioned fond considerations and 
lively expectations — gathered here by their own free will and 
choice, out of almost every nation, demonstrates most clearly, 
most forcibly and most solemnly, that this system of life, this 
Gospel as proclaimed by Joseph Smith, has been shown to us 
by the revelations of the Almighty — that it is undeniably 
His will, His word and His message; not only this, but we 
find within ourselves a fixed purpose — an unalterable resolu- 
tion to do, if need be, what many of us have already done; 
show the sincerity of our convictions of these solemn truths, 
through sacrificing all we possess — not even holding our lives 
as dear to us as this religion. 

There was yet another prominent feature embraced in 
this order of things, viz., where it found people in poverty, 
misery and in a condition but a little above starvation, it 
spoke in positive terms of future relief and effectual deliver- 
ance. It did not simply say, "Be ye warmed and be ye 
clothed," but it declared plainly, and in distinct terms, that 
the Lord had seen their bondage and oppression, and heard 
their cries of sorrow and affliction, and had now sent His 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 241 

Gospel for their deliverance, and would lead them into cir- 
cumstances of independence, where they could supply their 
own wants and necessities. There, again, was something con 
sistent and worthy of all praise and admiration, and char- 
acteristic of our Great Parent,, which we discover in all of 
His dispensations, when they are in actual working order, as 
they were in the case of Noah', and in calling Israel and mak- 
ing them an independent people ; likewise as in calling Lehi 
to establish a people upon this continent, as well as in many 
other instances. 

A religion or system is of very little account, where it 
possesses no virtue nor power to better the condition of 
people, spiritually, intellectually, morally and physically. 
Enoch's order of the Gospel did. for his people all this, and 
it has done the same in every instance, when preached in its 
purity and obeyed in sincerity. Many of the thousands of 
persons in these beautiful valleys, who formerly were com- 
pelled, with their wives and children, to subsist in a half 
starved condition — not owning a habitation, nor a foot of land, 
nor a horse, cow, pig, nor chicken — in fact, not anything they 
could call their own — subject at any moment, through the 
whim of .their employer, to be turned into the streets, miser- 
able beggars ; now own cabinet shops, factories, mills, flocks 
and herds, beautiful gardens and orchards, productive farms, 
wagons and carriages, dwelling in their own houses in com- 
fortable and easy circumstances. No one has any apprehen- 
sion of starvation within the jurisdiction of the Latter-day 
Saints. 

The Gospel proposed these blessings at its announcement, 
and they have been most miraculously accomplished. No 
other religious system could have achieved such things, nor 
dared any other Christian denomination venture to send out 
its missionaries " without purse or scrip," and without a col- 
legiate education, to declare to the people that they had 

authority from God to administer the sacred ordinances of 

is 



242 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the Gospel, through which should be revealed tangible evi- 
dence and knowledge of its divinity, and of their being 
authorized to- administer it, and take the people from a state 
of poverty, and lead them thousands of miles, and despite 
every obstacle, establish them as a comparatively independent 
people in the midst of a wild desert country. That they 
found the people poor, friendless and without the means of 
living, and in servitude not much better than Egyptian 
bondage, as we found many of thern ; they would have im- 
parted no cheering news of an approaching salvation from the 
God of heaven, but could only have exhorted them to be con- 
tented and reconciled with their unhappy lot, and in no case 
must they look for any new revelation or miraculous inter- 
position. 

What philanthropists have wished to accomplish, and 
have often attempted, the Lord is now doing on a magnificent 
.scale in this great American Desert. Flourishing settlements, 
towns and cities are rapidly being built, extending over a dis- 
stance of five hundred miles in length — hundreds of miles in 
width, through the untiring energy and perseverance of a 
people formerly totally ignorant of such labors. In these cities 
people live in harmony and peace; and robberies, grog shops, 
gambling hells, houses of ill-fame and prostitution are not 
known in any of our numerous towns and cities, except in 
some instances where Christians (so called) possess a footing 
and influence. Everywhere else this community flourishes 
without these demoralizing institutions. 

No one, however prejudiced he may be, can scarcely 
avoid acknowledging the palpable fact that this system has 
conferred miraculous blessings upon thousands and tens of 
thousands, in the way of putting them in possession of the 
means of sustaining themselves, after having delivered them 
from oppression and tyranny little better than African 
slavery : and no doubt,our legislators at Washington, one and 
all, would give us credit for our indefatigable and successful 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 243 

labors in establishing an extensive and nourishing colony on 
a portion of our government's domain, formerly inhabited 
only by savages and wild beasts, provided we would admit 
this work to be the work of man, and not of God — that it had 
been accomplished through the artifice and wisdom of man, 
and not by the power, wisdom, and revelations of God. 

Joseph Smith, whom God chose to establish this work, 
was poor and urieducated, and belonged to no popular denom- 
ination of Christians. He was a mere boy, honest, full of 
integrity, unacquainted with the trickery, cunning and 
sophistry employed by politicians and religious hypocrites to 
accomplish their ends. Like Moses of old, he felt incom- 
petent and unqualified for the task — to stand forth as a 
religious reformer, in a position the most unpopular — to 
battle against opinions and creeds which have stood for ages, 
having had the sanction and support of men the most pro- 
found in theological lore ; but God had called him to deliver 
the poor and honest-hearted of all nations from their spiritual 
and temporal thralldom. And God promised him that who- 
soever should receive and obey his message, and whosoever 
would receive baptism for the remission of sins, with honesty 
of purpose, should receive divine manifestations— should 
receive the Holy Ghost — should receive the same Gospel 
blessings which were promised and obtained through the Gos- 
pel, as preached by the ancient Apostles : and this message, 
this promise, was to 'be' in force wherever and to whomsoever 
it should be carried' by the Elders, God's authorized messen- 
gers. So said Joseph Smith, the uneducated, the unsophisti- 
cated, the plain, simple, honest boy. 

It is through the virtue and force of this boy's statement 
that I speak this afternoon to assembled' thousands. In the 
integrity of my heart, with 'honesty of purpose to know the 
the truth, I received the message — I obeyed this form of doc- 
trine, and I received, in the most tangible and satisfactory 
manner, a divine manifestation, the promised blessing — a 



244 BIOGRAPHY ' AND . 

knowledge of this work. Am I the only witness? How is it 
with the experience of thousands whom I now address? Are 
you also witnesses ? If you are not, I ask you in the name of 
common sense, Why are you here ? Why did you leave your 
homes and countries, giving your sanction to the truth of a 
system which promised you divine manifestations, but which 
• you failed in experiencing? Being honest ourselves, if we can- 
not bear a solemn testimony of having received divine mani- 
festations of the great fact that God himself has founded 
this order of things, then it becomes a serious fact that we are 
witnesses, and in truth the only proper witnesses, that this 
whole plan and pretension of Joseph Smith is a sheer false- 
hood — a miserable fabrication. 

It will be recollected that this Gospel message proposed' 
to give us divine manifestations through our doing certain 
specified acts ; we have performed those acts in precisely the 
manner indicated. Nqne but ourselves have attempted to 
•conform to this arrangement, consequently, no other people 
are prepared to be witnesses either for or against this 
system. 

The Gospel, as recorded in the New Testament, in its 
promises and provisions, was precisely similar. It required 
certain specified acts to be done, with promises that divine 
manifestations should follow their performance. Jesus said, 
"He that will do the will of God shall 'know of the doctrine." Peter, 
on the day of Pentecost, said, "Repent, and be baptized for 
the remission of sins, and you shall receive the Holy Ghost." 
Again, Jesus said, "These signs shall follow them that be- 
lieve," etc. A multitude of testimonies could be ^produced 
from the New Testament, showing that divine manifestations 
and perfect knowledge were promised to and were actually 
received in a specified and tangible form by those who then 
obeyed the Gospel. Those who obeyed its requirements were 
the only competent witnesses for 'or against its divine authen- 
ticity- After honestly complying with its requisitions, viz.: 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 245 

repenting of, and forsaking their sins, being immersed in 
water for the remission of sins, and receiving the ordinance 
of the laying on of hands; then had they failed to receive 
the Holy Ghost, with its gifts and promised knowledge and 
attendant signs, they would have seen that the entire Apos- 
tolic scheme of salvation rested on a baseless fabric. 

When the Gospel, or order of things which we have 
received, was presented to us, we carefully compared it with 
the Gospel recorded in the Scriptures, and found it alike pre- 
cisely, in every particular, as regarded its forms, ordinances, 
and the authority to administer them : its promise of the 
Holy Ghost and of the signs that should follow, together with 
a promise of a knowledge of its divinity. In many instances 
it was brought to us by men with whose character we were 
perfectly familiar, and for whose honesty and integrity we 
could vouch ; who solemnly stated, in private and in public, 
that through an obedience to its requirements, they had 
obtained, in a tangible form, a perfect knowledge of its 
heaven-born principles. 

This was my experience, and after having complied with 
its demands, and thereupon received a knowledge of its 
genuineness, and having obtained authority to preach aud, 
administer its ordinances, I commenced forthwith to proclaim 
it to the world ; and no doubt there are persons in this audi- 
ence, out of different nations, to whom I have administered 
this Gospel, who can witness to its virtue and efficacy. Many 
years I have been engaged in forwarding the interests of this 
order of things, and you are the proper judges whether it be 
of God or of man.. 

We have the same Gospel the primitive churches had, 
and the same knowledge and evidence they had of its divine 
authenticity; and we have just as honest and brave men to 
preach it as they had —men that have proved their integrity 
through sacrifice as great as the Elders of the primitive 
churches ever made. The testimony of our Elders is as valid 



246 \ , v BIOGRAPHY AND 

and worthy of credit as the testimony of their Elders. Our 
Apostles who are living are* as honest as the Apostles of the 
New Testament, and their testimony is as worthy of credit, so 
far as they live and speak according to the Scriptural law and 
testimony. If this order of things which we have obeyed is 
not the Gospel — if these evidences, these manifestations, this 
knowledge, this Holy Ghost, these deliverances from misery 
and bondage, and being placed in comfortable and happy cir- 
cumstances, living together in peace and harmony, building 
beautiful towns and cities, free from demoralizing institu- 
tions, be not the legitimate fruits of the working of a pure 
and holy system established by God, through Joseph Smith, 
we shall be compelled to question the genuineness of the 
Gospel of the former day Saints, as recorded in the New Tes- 
tament. 

By some it has been argued that Joseph Smith and his 
prominent Elders were the most corrupt, wicked and infamous 
of impostors, but his followers, the Latter-day Saints in gen- 
eral, though deceived, were very good people, and scrupu- 
lously honest in their- religious Opinions. 

From what I have already said in regard to the operations 
and effects of this work, it is easy to be seen that, if it be an 
imposition, it is not confined exclusively to the leaders of this 
people, but this whole community are actively and knowingly 
engaged in a stupendous scheme of deception and hypocrisy; 
and by the way, as I before hinted, if this could be proved to 
be the case, we should be driven to the belief that the former 
day Saints, also, had been engaged in the same disgraceful 
imposition. More than one hundred thousand people now 
dwell in these valleys, many of them having come from dis- 
tant climes and nations. In this great fact they willingly and 
understanding^ exhibit to the world a clear and power- 
ful testimony— more expressive and powerful than any 
language could command — that they did undeniably and 
most positively receive, "through the ordinances of this 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 247 

Gospel, administered unto them by our Elders, a knowl- 
edge of this work through the divine manifestations of the 
Almighty. 

But it may be objected that, whereas members of this 
community were found by our missionaries in great poverty 
and distress, therefore they obeyed the Gospel and emigrated 
here to better their circumstances financially, without any 
regard to its truth or falsity, as a divine system. This might 
be true in some instances, but impossible as regards its appli- 
cation to this people as a community.' Those persons who 
received this work without religious motives, and without 
honest convictions of its divine requirements, but solely for 
the "loaves and fishes," cannot possibly abide the test to 
which every one's faith, sooner or later, must be brought, but 
will have every particle of his dishonesty -and hypocrisy 
exposed, and will sooner or later apostatize. 

Hundreds of my brethren, Elders in this Church, full of 
godly zeal, animated with the purest motives, having obtained 
a knowledge of the will of God, have left their wives and chil- 
dren, everything that the heart holds most dear, and gone forth 
to the nations, without any worldly compensation, and called 
on all to repent and turn their hearts to the Lord — obey, the 
Gospel, with a promise that they should receive the Holy 
Ghost, which would "lead them into all truth, and show them 
things to come," and it should be their guide and monitor — a 
principle of revelation remaining with them through life, 
provided they preserved their honesty and integrity, continu- 
ing faithful in keeping the commandments of God — devoting 
their time, their means, their talents, their all, to building up 
the Kingdom of God. These duties were required, these 
blessings promised, in the preaching of the Gospel by our 
missionaries and the prominent Elders of this Church. To 
obtain light — a knowledge of the will of God; to get the true 
religion as now revealed through the Gospel — divine manifes- 
tations regarding .the truth of the doctrine as taught by 



248 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Joseph Smith, was the first and all absorbing proposition pre- 
sented to the people. 

Now, whether these Elders and missionaries were base 
impostors, promulgating sheer falsehoods or not, is, of course, 
a question of grave consideration; and it is a matter of far 
greater importance, and of more serious inquiry; whether 
this people, as a community, having failed to receive those 
divine testimonies, kept silence as to that most vital and 
important fact, and came here to practice hypocrisy in 
religion, and thus fasten, irresistibly, on our children and 
future generations a system of falsehoods for a divine religion. 

Joseph Smith affirmed that Peter, James and John vis- 
ited him and conferred on him authority to administer the 
holy ordinances of the Gospel, through which every honest- 
hearted man and woman were promised the Holy Ghost and 
a perfect knowledge of the doctrine. Our Elders simply 
affirm that, having received a divine knowledge of the fact 
that this Gospel was a heaven-born institution, and through 
its virtue and divine force every honest-hearted person may 
obtain this same knowledge. 

I had been a member of this Church but a short time 
when I obtained, through a divine manifestation, a clear, 
explicit and tangible demonstration of the truth of this work. 
Thousands and tens of thousands of Latter-day Saints, men 
and women in private life, can testify to the same experience; 
and though I may know many things in regard to this doc- 
trine which in their limited experience they may not under- 
stand, yet, in this one fact they are equal to me in knowledge 
and equal to the messengers who administer to them this 
Gospel. 

I now wish to examine another prominent feature con- 
nected with the religion of this Gospel. An important item 
which was held forth prominently wherever this Gospel was 
announced, was that its followers should have abundance of 
persecutions, and- would probably, in the progress of their 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 249 

new life, be compelled to make the most trying sacrifices, as 
wife, children, houses and lands, the spoiling of goods, and 
perhaps even of life itself. No persons are properly prepared 
to enter upon this new life until they have formed within 
themselves a resolution to abide this ordeal. 

The Savior, the Apostles, Joseph Smith and the latter 
day Elders, when offering this great system of salvation to 
the people, told them clearly and emphatically that it 
required sacrifices of' the most serious and trying nature — 
that it would bring persecutions, change our warmest friends 
into bitter and relentless enemies, and that instances would 
occur when people, in their confused notions of right and 
wrong, would even conceive they were doing God service in 
taking our lives. These were dull and forbidding prospects 
to a rational person, in being proselyted to a system whose 
truths he could not know, but only guess at by what he was 
told, or of ^vvhich he had read. Every man and every woman, 
before receiving a system that required such sacrifices, would 
require a positive assurance that submission to its require- 
ments would bring indisputable knowledge of its true divin- 
ity, so that, after having obtained a divine witness of its 
genuineness, they could willingly, cheerfully, and with a reso- 
lution inspired by the Almighty, move onward over the path- 
way of persecution and sacrifice, traversed in all ages by the 
martyred Saints and Prophets. 

On this point permit me again to quote what Jesus prom- 
ised, viz. : "Blessed art thou, Simon Barjonah, flesh and blood 
hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father in heaven; and 
upon this rock will I build my church, and the gates of. hell 
shall not prevail against it." Peter had obtained a revelation 
which Jesus called a. rock, which every man might receive 
individually to himself and build upon with perfect assur- 
ance and safety, upon which he could found all his hopes and 
prospects of salvation. Peter, on the day of Pentecost, prom- 
ised the Holy Ghost to all who would be baptized, or in other 



250 BIOGRAPHY 'AND 

words, yield obedience to the Gospel. The Holy Ghost would 
impart the knowledge which would constitute the rock of 
revelation upon which the Savior said His people should be 
established. This people have their hopes and prospects of 
peace and happiness in this life and in the life to come rest- 
ing and grounded upon this rock of revelation; and we con- 
stitute the only religious community which dares to occupy 
a Scriptural position; and our claims upon the Savior's 
promise, that hell shall not prevail against a people so estab- 
lished, gives us peace, tranquility, unshaken confidence, and a 
cheering and happy assurance of security, in the midst of all 
kinds of threatened ruin and overthrow. 

It is the people, the - masses — not exclusively their 
leaders — who possess this knowledge, and boldly testify of its 
possession. The astronomer may know of many laws and 
phenomena connected with the sun and its movements 
through ethereal space; but as regards the simple fact that it 
exists and shines upon the- earth, millions know as well as 
himself. President Brigham Young, and e\en Joseph Smith, 
so far as respects the simple fact that this Gospel, which we 
preach as a divine institution, never professed to have a 
knowledge more thorough, more convincing, or more satisfac- 
tory, than tens of thousands in these valleys who never arose 
to address a public audience. 

This system of religion, in its nature, in the character of 
its origin, the manner of its operations, and in the purposes 
for which it was designed, coupled with the fact that people 
of honest hearts can and will apprehend and appreciate 
divine truth, is such that it cannot be destroyed. A person 
who is honest, full of integrity and love for the interest and 
happiness of his species, having explored this long untrodden 
path, and made this glorious discovery, will not and cannot 
keep silence, but despite of threats and opposition, however 
fierce and terrific, will boldly declare the glorious fact, spread- 
ing and multiplying the announcement of the divine intelli- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 251 

gence, and, if so required, seal this testimony with his own- 
life's blood. 

Should the prominent men of this Church, together with 
tens of thousands of its Elders, be swept away by our enemies, 
the Gospel would still survive, and, with unabated force and 
vigor, still continue its irrepressible operations; these holy 
and sacred truths would be avowed and vindicated, order and 
proper authority continue their peaceful and happy reign, 

and Elders^ith hearts, overflowing with love and heavenly 

'i 
zeal, go forth to the nations; churches spring up in every 

land and clime; Saints increase and multiply and gather 

together; the Kingdom of God continue to be established, and 

the suggestive and inspired sayings of the Prophet Daniel be 

literally and emphatically fulfilled. 



CHAPTER X^XIII. 

Polysophical Association. — Lorenzo no one-idea man.— Character of the 
Association. — Called to write. — Responded. — Speeches from ten to fifteen 
minutes. — Time fully occupied. — How it was accomplished. — Everything 
high-toned. — The effect captivating. — Anxiety to become members. — Note 
by the Editor. — Nationality. — Where is the place of my nativity? — Where 
is my home? — Not in any European country. — Not even in America. — 
Not on earth. — Here I am a stranger. — My home, my nationality in the 
courts of immortality. — Address to parents. — Our mutual aim. — Respon- 
sibilities. — Necessity of cultivating children. — What they should be pre- 
pared for. — What they are to become. 

1 ORENZO SNOWS rich inventive genius has not been 
confined to any one particular routine. He has never 
earned the reputation of "one-idea man." The Poly- 
sophical Association, one of the most interesting and extraor- 
dinary productions, was the offspring of his fertile brain. It 



252 , BIOGRAPHY AND 

was in the form of a series of evening entertainments, con- 
sisting of a most remarkable combination of physical, moral, 
mental and spiritual exercises, all blended in one harmonious 
whole. 

The association met once in two weeks, in my brother's 
hall, which was decorated in a manner to correspond with the 
occasion. The first intrmation I had of this singularly bene- 
ficial and enjoyable project, Lorenzo called at my residence 
and requested me to write an article, either pro.se or poetry, 
and read it on the first opening of the contemplated series, 
which he briefly explained. Of course I was obedient, wrote 
a poem, was punctual to time and place, and was amply 
rewarded with pure, unsophisticated enjoyment. 

The grand aim in getting up the programme for each 
meeting was to awaken an unflagging interest, by riveting the 
attention from the opening of the exercises to the close. To 
secure this effect, the parts allotted to each were full of point 
and vigor, and no one' was allowed more than fifteen minutes. 
The speeches, songs, readings, recitations, instrumental music 
on guitar, organ, piano and bagpipe were all previously 
arranged and assigned to their respective speakers and players, 
giving them sufficient time for preparation. 

During the exercises the attention of all was so firmly 
riveted that apparently no one in the audience felt!any incli- 
nation to leave a seat, speak or whisper, but an all absorbing 
heed was directed to each contributed portion of the mag- 
nificent moral, intellectual and spiritual picnic. 

In order to preserve quietude and profound silence, and 
that each member, as his or her turn came, might be ready, so 
that not one moment should pass unoccupied to slacken the 
interest or cool the awakened enthusiasm, the one who was 
appointed "master of ceremonies," being seated beside a small 
table in the centre of the hall, penciled notes on small slips 
of paper, informing each officiate when the precise time for 
his or her part would arrive. Thus the name of the indi- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 253 

vidual was not called. A small lad, wearing an appropriate 
badge indicative of his office, moved quietly around and pre- 
sented the notes as addressed, and a light touch on a small 
bell gave the signal of the niO/ment. 

Extempore speeches were judiciously interspersed with 
exercises, and a careful consideration was observed in all of 
these arrangements, to relieve the grave with the gay, the sad 
with the joyful, etc. « All were strictly enjoined to present 
nothing that would have the least tendency to corrode or in 
any possible manner annoy the feelings of any; and again, 
nothing was permitted that was bordering on low witticisms 
or vulgarity, anything that could possibly offend the most 
refined sensibility. 

A sacred, elevating, refining influence at all times per- 
vaded the whole assembly, inspiring pure and lofty senti- 
ments, and, at times during the exercises, the entire audience 
seemed perfectly enrapt, with the Spirit and power of God. 
On one occasion "Mother Whitney" was so^ inspired and filled 
with the Holy Spirit in the midst of those soul-stirring exer- 
cises that she arose from her seat, and, while her face glowed 
with supernatural brightness, she sang with heavenly sweet- 
ness, in the gift of tongues, a song of Zion, in the pure 
language spoken by Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. 

The effect of these varied exercises on invited guests was 
captivating. Throughout the city quite a sensation was 
created, insomuch that after he had admitted as members all 
that could reasonably be accommodated, many came to my 
brother and with persistent earnestness begged admittance. 

In order to give a more definite idea of the character of 
our polysophical entertainments, my brother requests speci- 
mens, either in prose or poetry, or both, inserted in connection 
with the foregoing sketch. In compliance, I select the follow- 
ing poems from my own copies which I had preserved: 






254 BIOGRAPHY AND 

NATIONALITY. 

Written for, and read before an assembly op the " Polysophical 
Association," in L. Snow's Hall, Salt Lake City, 1855. 

Most courteously, this evening, I'll present 
Before this audience, a sentiment — 

At least a hint on nationality, 

A love, or rather a partiality" 

For birthplace, country, and the people, where 

Our lungs at first inhaled the vital air. 

One might as well my thoughts exterminate — 
My place in pedigree, annihilate, 
Or the warm pulse of life eradicate, 
As to efface, or to remove from me 
The sentiment of Nationality. 
It, of my nature, constitutes a part — 
Unites with all the life-blood of my heart; 
And if no trait, or portion of my spirit, 
• 'Tis something I eternally inherit. 
Not all the charms surrounding scenes impart, 
Can chase the high-toned feelings from my heart; 
For oft — full oft, so tenderly they yearn, 
A kindling impulse prompts a fond return 
Unto the land of my nativity — 
My native home — my native scenery. 
But where — 0, where the land so choice — so dear? 
Which is the nation I so much revere? 

I do not languish for the lakes and rills, 
The nigged heights of' Europe's Alpine hills, 
The verdant vales which smilingly repose 
'Nenth their bold summits of eternal snows; 
Nor would I boast a proud nativity 
On the luxuriant plains of Italy, 
With glowing, sunny landscapes, rich and fair, 
-Tall city spires, and grand cathedrals there; 
Where the salubrious climate's genial heat 
Gives to the pulse a soft and ardent beat; 
Where nature, with accelerated force, 
With less of time, completes her wonted course. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 255 

Nor yet in Germany, where laws are made 
To fit like tenons for the joiner's trade — 
Where every code of civil policy, 
Mocks the precision of geometry. 
Where ease and luxury are smiling 'round, 
And merry glee and cheerfulness abound; 
Where summer vineyards and the harvest field 
- To man and heast a joyous plenty yield. 

Not Britain, with its mountains, .hills and dales, 
Including England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales; 
With inland products, and ship-crested coast — 
Comprising much that wealth and honor boast; 
With far-famed cities, towns and villas too, 
Where genius flourished and where valor grew; 
With all varieties of grade and sphere, 
Of "Home, sweet home," most lovely and most dear, 
The honored home of noble thousands, where 
Are executed with judicious care, 
Those legal powers, created to bestow 
Protection's banner on the high and low; 
And where religious tojeration, now, 
Above all elsewhere lifts its manly brow. 

Not Sweden, Denmark, Norway, nor in France, 
Where revolution's onward strides advance, 
And then recede, as tides that ebb and flow — 
As moons that waxing, waning, onward go; 
While soft refinement, with its graceful air, 
Displays a master-stroke of polish there; 
Where vinous foliage— native fruits and flowers, 
Vie with exotics, in luxuriant bowers. 

Neither America's much favored land, 
Where Lehi, guided by Jehovah's hand, 
Obtained a place for him and his, to be « 

Through generations of posterity; 
Where those choice records, where the truth was found, 
•As said Isaiah, "speaking from the ground." 

Nor coasts, nor capes, nor islands of the sea; 
For none I cherish fond partiality. 



256 BIOGRAPHY AND 

I say, with Brother Eddington, I'm not 
Italian, Hindoo, English, German, Scot; 
Neither American, Swiss, Welsh or Dane, 
Nor yet an Islander from ocean's main, 
Nor Spanish, French, Norwegian, nor Swede — 
I claim no country, nation, kingdom, creed, 
Excepting Zion; that I proudly name — 
Home of all homes, that home I fondly claim. 
Were I to boast of nationality, 
I'd look beyond this frail mortality. 

The noblest spirits scattered o'er the earth, 
By truth's eternal influence gathered forth 
From Babylon to earthly Zion, here, 
Are on their way to heaven's celestial sphere. 
Our inns, our stopping places, which, or where, 
Don't matter, when we've paid our bills of fare. 

One God, one faith, one baptism — we are now 

All in one kingdom, at one altar bow. 

The union of the Father and the Son, 

Is heaven's true pattern; we must all be one. 

All local feelings must be laid aside, . 

And former differences no more divide. 

The time approaches; soon will Zion be 

The pride of earthly nationality; 

When 'twill the. histories of those adorn 

Of whom 'tis said, "they were in Zion born." 

The Holy Spirit every Saint receives, 
Is one sense added to what nature gives, 
And forms a powerful telescope, whereby 
We look beyond the stretch of mortal eye. 
Its keen perceptive vision takes a view 
Of origin and destination too. 
Through this superior spirit-sense, we learn 
What our inferior senses ne'er discern, 
That we're not natives of this fallen earth. 
We lived before — we had an earlier birth, 
A clime and habitations highly pure 
Beyond what these gross senses can endure. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 257 

There is the charm, the nationality, 
The spring of impulse actuating me; 
That is the point to which I would attain — 
The country home I fondly would regain ; 
From whence, for noble purposes, we all, 
To gain experience through our Parents' fall, 
To gain the zenith of perfected worth, 
Have come on pilgrimage, through mortal birth; 
As foreign trav'lers, each a camping ground 
On different portions of the earth has found. 
The force of habit gives to each a grace — 
A special charm to each and every place; 
And yet, with all the adoration felt, 
As at their shrines devotedly we knelt, 
Not one — not all, possessed sufficient worth, 
To make us feel quite naturalized to earth. 

Our hearts beat upward, and our feelings move 
In homeward currents up to those we love, 
Where uncorrupted nature's beauties glow — 
Where life's* pure streams from endless fountains flow. 
And there the sixth, the spirit sense will lead, 
If to its dictates we give earnest heed; 
.And its refining process will prepare 
Us for a full and free reception there; 
And there we'll talk of nationality 
With the celestials of eternity. 



ADDRESS TO PARENTS. 

Written for, and read before a Polysophical assembly in L. Snow's 
Hall, in the Winter of 1854-5. 

With much respect, fathers and mothers too, 

The muse, this evening, humbly unto you, 

In Zion's name, would proffer an appeal , , 

Upon a theme involving Zion's weal. 

As Zion's welfare is our mutual aim, 

And our united interest I will claim, 



258 BIOGKAPHY AND 

Not the indulgence of the listening ear, 
Nor flattering plaudits sycophants would hear, 
But your attention — thoughtful, calm and grave — 
Your sober judgment earnestly I crave. 

You all are stewards of what you possess, 
And may abuse,' or use in righteousness; 
And thus the children you most dearly love, 
Either a blessing or a curse may prove. 

The infant mind is like an empty cell^ 
Where good and evil find a place to dwell; 
And may, by culture, be enlarged and filled, 
And truth and error, one or both, instilled. 

Let healthy, vigorous limbs inactive lie, 
How soon they wither, and how soon they die. 
And without exercise, the mental powers, 
Weak, unsupplied with proper, useful stores, 
Will not attain to their diplomaed worth, 
Nor shed their own inherent lustre forth. 

We cannot powers and faculties create, 

But 'tis our province both to cultivate; 

And while life's busy scenes are hurrying through, 

The most important is the first to do. 

You want your sons prepared to carry on 

The work you have commenced, when you are gone; 

In high important offices to act — 

As Zion's judges, business to transact, 

In things momentous, for all Israel's sake, 

With the salvation of the world at stake. 

Inspire their hearts to earnestly pursue 

Improvement; and inspire your daughters too.- 

Prompt both to mental labor, while the mind, 

Like pliant boughs, is easily inclined; 

While they with readiness and pleasure take 

Impressions which the sculptor's chisels make. 

Your sons, as heralds, soon may go abroad, 
To face the world and teach the truths of God; 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 259 

The wise, the erudite of earth to meet, 

Knowledge with knowledge, mind with mind compete; 

All their attainments criticised and tried 

Before tribunals of ungodly pride, 

Where no apologies will be received, 

And no mistakes and errors be retrieved. 

'Tis true the Lord His Spirit does bestow, 

And through that medium streams of knowledge flow; 

But when the opportunities are given, 

Through the overruling providence of heaven, 

For cultivation, no one need expect 

That God, with smiles, will sanction our neglect. 

Would not your hearts with deep compassion yearn 

To think your child in stranger lands must learn, 

By force of cruel circumstances, what 

He should have been, at home, in kindness taught? 

And very soon your blooming daughters will 
Their destined spheres of wives and mothers, fill: 
The best, the noblest boon they can receive — 
The richest fortune you have power to give — 
The best of patrimonies under heaven, 
Is education, timely, wisely given. 
Not erudition's superficial gloss, 
, Its glitt'ring tinsel and its flimsy dross. 
Instead of fabled, sentimental glare, 
Teach them what was, what will be, and what are: 
Teach them the principles of life and health, 
And store their minds with intellectual wealth; 
For what they treasure here, of real worth, 
They'll cany with them when they leave the earth. 

The power of method students gain in school, 
Forms a credential — constitutes a tool — 
An operative instrument whereby 
Their own resources they can self-supply. 

Let Zion's children all be taught in youth, 
Upon the basis of Eternal Truth — 



260 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Self-cultivated too, as well as taught, 

Trained to reflection, and inured to thought; 

And here in time, and in eternity, 

The sons as pillars in the Church will be; 

The daughters, too, as "polished stones" will shine, 

And ornament their true ancestral line, 

And be prepared, in beauty clad, to move 

With grace and dignity in courts above. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

How Lorenzo spent the interval. — His next mission. — Difficulties to be over- 
come. — Lays out a city. — Description of the premises. — Builds a house. — 
President Young visits him.— Introduces a precedent. — Description of it. 
—Succeeded by railroads. — Gift of the Gospel. — The Patriarch's promise. 
— A sick man. — Faith in Lorenzo's administration. — A handkerchief is 
sent. — He blesses and dedicates it. — Is taken to the patient. — Placed upon 
him. — He recovers. — A letter. — In memoriam. — To Elder Porter Squires. 
— Expressions of gratitude. — Good wishes and.blessings. 
■•> 

Q^HE interval which succeeded Lorenzo's Italian mission 
( \gj was occupied in school teaching, and in domestic and 
* legislative labors — occasionally accompanying President 
Young in his visits to the settlements and Stakes of Zion, 
preaching, administering to the sick, etc., and as a minute-man, 
officiating in the various duties of his calling. 

The next mission of importance to which he was called 
was to locate fifty families in Box Elder County, sixty miles 
north of Salt Lake City. There a small settlement had been 
formed, which, for want of the right master spirit, had lost 
every vestige of enterprise and was minus every aim in the 
direction of advancement. To diffuse active energies and a 
spirit of progress into this stereotyped condition of people, was 
not unlike raising the dead; and a man of less strength of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 261 

purpose would have faltered. Not so with the one in question. 
Prompt to the call, he went to work, laid out a city, naming it 
Brigham in honor of the President of the Church, moved his 
family to the new city, and thus laid the foundation for the 
great financial co-operative enterprise which subsequently he 
there built up. 

When the county was organized by the authority of the 
Legislature, he was appointed to preside over it, as a Stake of 
of Zion. He was elected member of the Legislative Council, 
to represent the district composed of the counties of Box Elder 
and Weber. 

Here follows Lorenzo's own version of the situation: 
When I" arrived in Box Elder County, I' found the location 
where Brigham City now flourishes in a very unprosperous 
condition. Whether its change from a primitive state should 
be called improvement, i. e., whether it was better or worse for 
what had been done on the premises, would puzzle an anti- 
quarian. Even the log meeting. house, with its ground floor 
and earth roof, was more extensively patronized as a receptacle 
for bed bugs than for the assemblage of Saints. 

At first, in locating there, I only took a portion of my 
family, as a small and incommodious adobie hut was the only 
tenement attainable. During the summer and fall I succeeded 
in erecting a house, one story and half in height, thirty feet by 
forty. It being impossible to obtain shingles, I covered the 
building with slabs, and for two winters the rattling of those 
slabs, put in motion by the canyon breezes, supplied us with 
music in the absence of organs and pianos. I had thus cov- 
ered the roof of my house, but before my front door was in, 
and all my floors laid, and before any plastering was done, our 
house was the' stopping place and the home of President 
Brigham Young and his company of tourists, whenever they 
visited these northern settlements. We sometimes entertained 
as many as forty at once. As soon as my house was up and 
partly finished, I had all of my family with me; and on the 



262 ■ BIOGRAPHY AND 

occasion of these visits of the Presidency, my family all united 
to make our visitors as comfortable as possible. 

To manifest, due respect, and a proper appreciation of 
those visits, which were productive of a vast amount of good 
to the Saints scattered throughout the Territory, I introduced 
a precedent which was widely adopted and carried into effect, 
until railroads superseded those lengthy carriage drives. To 
perpetuate a remembrance of this unique order of reception, I 
will give a description of the original one, as follows: 

On learning the precise time when the party would arrive, 
I arranged a programme for the occasion. In the first place, a 
set of hands was detailed to put the roads in good condition 
for carriages, by clearing away stones, filling crevices, repairing 
bridges and causeways, etc. Much care and labor were 
devoted to organizing the escort to meet the President's long 
train of carriages some miles from the city. We had not the 
means in those early days of our history to be very elaborate 
in furnishing equipments as would have gratified our vanity, 
but what we lacked we supplied in ingenuity and enterprise, 
in fixing up what our means and circumstances would admit. 

"We selected forty or fifty intelligent, interesting looking 
young gentlemen, dressed in gray uniforms, each carrying a 
lance, the top of which was pointed with shining material, 
from which gay ribbons floated gracefully in the breeze. 
These young gentlemen were mounted on our finest horses 
and properly instructed and disciplined for the oeeasion. 
Next, we selected sixteen or twenty fine intelligent young 
ladies, had them dressed "in white, with corresponding decora- 
tions. These were seated 'in wagons, each drawn by two span 
of horses-, properly caparisoned. All the members of the 
escort were carefully instructed respecting a proper' manner of 
giving the salute on meeting the visiting party; the various 
branches of the escort bearing flags and beautiful banners 
with appropriate mottoes. All were preceded by one or two 
carriages occupied by the authorities and leading men of the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 263 

city, the whole led by a martial band under the direction of 
the city marshal. 

In connection with the foregoing arrangement, the chil- 
dren, in their Sunday attire, gathered from all parts of the 
city, and many from adjacent settlements, were formed into 
line on each side of the street, and as the company entered, it 
was conducted through these long lines of children to my 
house, amid loud cheers, the ringing of bells and waving of 
banners. 

The effect of this display on President Young and party 
was truly thrilling. They were taken by a surprise of the 
most impressive character. Thus an example was set which 
has been extensively followed, until carriage riding has, to a 
great extent, yielded to that of railroads. 

One of the precious gifts of the everlasting Gospel con- 
ferred on Brother Lorenzo, that of healing the sick by the 
power of faith and the instrumentality of the sacred ordinances 
which God has revealed, is a prominent one. Early in his 
experience in the Church, when he received his patriarchal 
blessing under the hands of the Patriarch, Joseph Smith, 
father of the Prophet, he received a promise of this gift, and 
he was told that the sick should even send handkerchiefs to 
him for his blessing, by which they should be made whole. 

A very striking instance in fulfilment of this prediction 
occurred .in the winter of 18GG. Brother William Smith, of 
Kaysville, Davis County, Utah, was taken very sick; his faith 
centred in God and in the ordinances of His house, instead 
of human medical skill; and he and his wife had, from 
experience, great faith in Brother Snow as an administrator, 
but he was forty miles away. It was winter, the weather verj r 
cold and stormy, and the roads almost impassable, and they 
thought it preposterous to send for him, and tried to content 
themselves witli the services of those present. 

But with all the faith that was exercised, with all that 
patient, skilful and careful nursing — all that love and affection 



2G4 BIOGRAPHY AND 

could do for him — he continued to grow worse, and gradually 
sank until his life was despaired of and his case considered 
hopeless by all but his heart-stricken, loving wife. She was 
hoping and praying with all the fervor affection inspires, 
when, by the promptings of the Spirit which brings "all things 
to remembrance," she recollected that when Brother Snow was 
at lier home in Wiberson, England, in reading a copy of his 
patriarchal blessing, she was struck with the prediction that 
the sick should send handkerchiefs to him, etc. Like a lamp 
suddenh T lighted, and like the sunbeams streaking forth from 
under a heavy cloud, her heart took courage and the light of 
eternity seemed to spread a halo around; and the thought was 
immediately suggested to her that, as her husband, now 
almost unconscious, was too far gone to act for himself, she 
might act for him, and forthwith she started to carry the sug- 
gestion into effect. 

No time was lost in commissioning a messenger to go with 
all posssible dispatch and take to Brother Snow a new silk 
handkerchief, with a note from Sister Smith containing her 
request, also instructions relative to, and descriptive of her 
husband's condition. The messenger accomplished the trip, to 
and from, as expeditiously as the state of the roads would 
possibly admit. 

When Brother Snow was made acquainted with the situ- 
ation, his sympathies were much aroused. From long 
acquaintance, he had full confidence in their faithfulness and 
integrity. They had befriended him when on a mission in a 
foreign land, and from first acquaintance, with him and them, 
confidence was mutual. 

We now copy from Brother Snow's journal: I took the 
handkerchief and a bottle of perfumery, and on retiring to my 
closet, I pnnyed, and then I consecrated the perfumery and 
sprinkled it on the handkerchief. I then again bowed before 
the Lord, and in earnest supplication besought Him to 
remember the promises He made through His servant, the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. . 265 

Patriarch, whom He had now taken to Himself, and let the 
healing and life-inspiring virtues of His Holy Spirit bo 
imparted to this handkerchief, and from thence to Brother 
Smith when it shall be placed upon him, speedily restoring 
him to life, health and vigor. ' 

As soon as the messenger returned, with the handkerchief 
neatly folded in an envelope, it was unfolded and spread over 
the head and face of Brother Smith, the apparently dying- 
man, with almost instantaneous effect. 

His immediate recovery was observed with surprise and 
astonishment by all around, and well might they exclaim : 
" It is the Lord's doings, and it is marvelous in our eyes." 

IN MEMORIAM. 

Out of respect to the family of the departed, who has 
gone to reap the reward of the righteous — as a tribute justly 
due the memory of the faithful; trustworthy Elder Porter 
Squires, and as a testimonial of my brother's recognition and 
appreciation of true merit, we think the following extract 
worthy of insertion : ; 

Legislative Hall, Fillmore City, 

Millard County, Utah, 

December 21, 185G. 
Elder Porter Squires: 

Dear Brother. — When traveling abroad among the 
nations of 'the earth, I have often thought of your kindness 
and faithfulness, and the assistance you have rendered me 
and my family. And while thinking of you, my prayers have 
often been ' offered up in your behalf, in every place, and in 
every nation wherever I have set my feet. 

Language fails to express the feelings and the sincere 
gratitude of my heart for the interest you have manifested in 



2G6 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the many kind and important services you have discharged in 
my interest since you came into my family. 

I feel that you are fully entitled to be blest when I am 
blest, to be honored when I am honored, to be exalted when 
I am exalted, and to be glorified when I am glorified. 

I have decreed in my heart that, some day, I shall pay 
you four-fold, and with interest, for all you have done for me, 
but when this will be, the Lord only knows. Till then, I can 
only pray for you, that the Spirit of the Highest may be richly 
poured out upon you, and that peace may always dwell with 
you. 

I shall be glad when you find a companion and have a 
home of your own. But I say, as I always have said, be not 
in so much haste as to take one that your wisdom and judg- 
ment will not approve. - I declare to you in the name of the 
Lord, there are wives in store for you of the Lord's choosing, 
that will be given you, and you shall lose nothing, but shall 
be crowned and glorified with your brethren in the Kingdom of 
the Lord our God, and in the midst of your wives and chil- 
dren, and no power on earth or in hell shall prevent you 
receiving this blessing. I say this in the name of the Lord, 
and by the spirit of prophecy which is in me, and -it is true 
and sacred. 

I have no time to get away from public business except 
in the evening, when I go out into the fields alone by myself, 
to call upon the Lord to bless me and my family. I never 
enjoy myself so well as I do on these occasions. Men change 
and circumstances alter, but the Lord is always the same kind, 
indulgent and affectionate Father, and will bless those that 
will, in childish simplicity, humble themselves before Him, 
and ask for what they want. I think of you at such times, and 
always have the spirit to bless you in the name of the Lord. 

Your brother in the Gospel, 

Lokenzo Sxow. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 2G7 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

.Necessity of recreation. — Lorenzo anticipates the need of the people. — Pro- 
vides a miniature theatre. — How it was managed.— Moves to a new 
building. — A windstorm. — House blown down. — Everything destroyed. 
— Discouragement. — President J. Young speaks prophetically. — His 
prophecy fulfilled. — The Dramatic Association organized. — Lorenzo pre- 
sides over it. — Bishop McQuarrie speaks. — Relates an incident. — The 
Social Hall erected. — Its uses. — Concerning circulating medium. — 
Checks as good as gold. — Within reach of all. — Assessment. 

EALIZING as he did, the fact that those who have 'the 
charge and oversight of the people, without providing 
proper recreation', have adopted a mistaken * policy, 
Lorenzo made an elaborate effort, in this direction, to meet 
the wants of the semi-progressive inhabitants of his new-born 
city. 

Early in the winter of 1855-6, while his recently erected 
dwelling house' was unfinished, he converted his largest room, 
which was fifteen by thirty feet, into a theatrical department, 
by erecting a stage in one end of this not-too-capacious hall — 
furnishing scenery appropriate to the situation. He then 
organized a dramatic company; and during the long winter 
evenings his amateur performers drew crowded audiences of 
invited guests. The diminutive size of his auditory being 
insufficient to accommodate all of the citizens at once, it was 
necessary, in order to avoid partiality, to invite the 'people 
alternately, which gave equal opportunities to all. 

Here the* old and the young, the grey-headed and the 
little prattlers, met and mingled — the people were drawn 
together and a union of feeling was awakened. These were 
free of charge. My brother, in connection with the voluntary 
actors, furnished the entertainments — he held the strings, not 



268 BIOGRAPHY AND 

allowing anything of a demoralizing character to be presented 
— carefully examining the plays before they were exhibited on 
the stage, and only accepting such as would create innocent 
merriment, or inspire elevating and refining sentiment. 

The effect was very satisfactory, not only in producing 
pleasurable recreation at the time, but was one of the aids in 
arousing the partially dormant energies of the people. * 

This hall, and these theatricals, answered their purpose 
for the first winter. During the summer, the people, although 
in their poverty, experiencing the great need of a larger build- 
ing, commenced the erection of one forty-five by sixty-five 
feet. This was called "Court House," and was designed to be 
at the service of the county for county purposes, but was' mostly 
built by the labor tithing and donations of the people, of Brig- 
ham City. It was an adobie building, two stories high; they 
succeeded in erecting the walls, and early the next winter 
Lorenzo had several thicknesses of boards laid on the sleepers 
overhead as a temporary roof — fitted up the comparatively 
spacious hall, which was twenty-two by forty-five' feet, and 
moved his theatricals into the basement. 

With this improved condition my brother determined to 
have a dramatic company of ability, and capable of attaining 
to celebrity in the profession. Accordingly, he selected some 
of the most talented young gentlemen and ladies, including 
several of his own family, and engaged an actor who had con- 
siderable experience on the Salt Lake stage — set apart one of 
his private rooms for the instruction of the class, in which the 
students made rapid progress. 

When the "Dramatic Association of Brigham City" was 
organized, Lorenzo was chosen president, which position he 
has filled from that time. 

But misfortune awaited them. After enjoying their im- 
proved circumstances, and having successfully performed dur- 
ing the winter, in the spring a terrific windstorm visited the 
city, and the court house was blown down with destruction to 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 2G9 

the stage, theatrical scenery, and all the acco'mpan3 r ing fix- 
tures, which, of course, put a quietus on the Dramatic Asso- 
ciation for a season. 

The people were poor; they had struggled beyond meas- 
ure to erect the walls now lying in ruins, and how to repair 
the loss was a problem which apparently amounted to impossi- 
bility — even the irrepressible Lorenzo Snow felt almost dis- 
heartened. Not long, however, after the trying occurrence, he 
attended a dinner-party at Brother Hunsaker's, in company 
with President Joseph Young (familiarly called Uncle Joseph), 
when, rather xlespondingly, as they sat viewing the ruins, he 
remarked, "I cannot see how we ever can rebuild those walls;" 
when Uncle Joseph, turning to him, very emphatically said: 
"Brother Lorenzo, the Lord will soon open your way to build, 
and you shall have a much better house than the first;" then 
taking a sovereign from his pocket, said, "Take this for that 
purpose as a commencement." Lorenzo's feelings were averse 
to taking anything from Prest. Young, and said, "No, Brother 
Joseph," but, on second thought, it flashed across his mind, 
"Yes, I will take it, for I think it a favorable omen — a start-' 
ing point." And so it proved — from that time the way opened 
little by little, and in fulfilment of Brother Joseph's words, 
the} r erected a second structure, in many respects better than 
the first. But in several instances labor and ingenuity sup- 
plied the lack of cash. In case of roofing, not being able to 
purchase nails, they made wooden pins with which their sheet- 
ing is fastened to the rafters, as can be seen to this day. 

The upper story of the building was forty-five by sixty- 
five feet, and was used .as an assembly hall, for meetings of 
religious worship, concerts, lectures and dancing, until they 
built their large Tabernacle. After the first year, the theater 
was transferred from the basement to the upper story. A 
stage was erected in the east end, 18x45 feet, furnished 
with fine elaborate scenery and -apartments, where the 
members of the Dramatic Association had appropriate oppor- 



270 BIOGRAPHY AND 

trinities to exercise and displaj^ genius and abilit} r . They soon 
won laurels and gained considerable celebrity, and were justly 
acknowledged as the best dramatic company in the Territory 
outside Salt Lake City. The main body of the lower story 
was used for county purposes, sittings of the courts, etc., the 
county having assisted sufficiently to claim a share, although, 
as with the first building, this also was mostly built by labor 
tithing, and donations from the people of Brigham City. 

On or about the middle of March just past, the writer 

' attended the Ladies' Relief Society Quarterl}' Conference in 
Ogden City. One of the speakers, Bishop Robert McQuarrie, 
in addressing the large attentive audience in the "Tabernacle," 
earnestly and eloquently impressed on the minds of the audi- 
ence the virtue, benefit and, as Saints of God, the practical 
necessity of living in constant communion with and acknowl- 
edging God at all tinios, and relying on His assistance in the 

•performance of ever} r dut} r ; he also admonished all present to 
honor Him and cultivate His Spirit in their hearts, not only 
when officiating in organized capacitj r and in religious exer- 
cises, but in their amusements, he said, they should be gov- 
erned. b} r its influence, and engage in nothing in which they 
could not, with propriety, ask the blessing of the Lord. As a 
corresponding closing refrain, the Bishop related an impressive 
incident which he said had made a lasting impression on his 
mind. At. a time not specified, he was spending an afternoon 
with my brother in his family residence in Brigham City. A 
theatrical performance was in anticipation for the evening 
entertainment, and Lorenzo invited the Bishop to attend. He 
accepted the invitation, and as the hour of opening approached 
all made readj r for going, and when in group assembled and 
ready to start, Lorenzo said, "Let us all kneel down and pray," 
which accordingly they did. 

As a theater promoter, theater director and theater attend- 
ant, this little, yet significant incident is very strikingly char- 
acteristic of my brother, and so illustrative of Jhe leading 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 271 

principles of his life, it is worthy of record as a true index and 
as a judicious monitor. 

In 1875 the " Brigham City Mercantile and Manufactur- 
ing Association" erected a Social Hall 33xG3 feet, and two 
stories; the first 'was designed for amusement, social and 
dancing parties, lectures, and the assemblies of the Polysophi- 
cal Association ; the second for a high school or seminary of 
learning. 

"How blessings brighten as they take their flight /." Although 
the good people of Box Elder County had exhibited well- 
developed appreciative faculties, it is hardly admissible to sup- 
pose that they fully realized the many advantages and con- 
veniences resulting from their co-operative system, which 
extended to the social, as well as to the business and financial 
departments of society. The checks (scrip) issued by this 
institution, as a home circulating medium, (until an unlawful 
assessment, with its blighting touch, rendered it obsolete, as 
will be fully explained hereafter,) were good as gold for admis- 
sion to theatres, lectures, dancing parties — in fact, wherever 
and whenever entrance fees were demanded; and, independent 
of cash fluctuations, they were within the reach of all — men, 
women and children. Being paid out for all kinds of labor, 
they were accessible to all who were able to work, arid pro- 
vision was made for those who were not. 



272 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Mission to the Sandwich Islands. -Elders called home.— Walter M. Gibson. 
—Goes to the Sandwich Islands.— His perfidy.— Lorenzo, with other 
Elders, sent to investigate.— Take Stage.— Arrive at a mining town.— 
Incident. — New driver. — Favorable impressions. — Sings melodiously. — 
Swears blasphemously. — Drives furiously. — Perilous predicament. — 
Other perils.— Arrive at San Francisco.— At Brother Eveleth's.— Take 
stpamer.— Arrive near the landing at Lahaina. — Boat upset.— Lorenzo 
and the Captain drowned. — Both restored to life. — Rejoicing and thanks- 
giving. 

SlfTX 1857, when the United States army was on the march 
towards Utah, the Latter-day Saint Elders abroad on 
missions were called home, and the mission on the Sand- 
wich Islands was, for about two years, left in charge of a native 
Elder. 

During this time, Walter M. Gibson, a man of deep 
scheming polic} r , came to Utah — professed to adopt the faith of 
the Latter-day Saints, was baptized, took a short mission to the 
Eastern States, and when he returned started immediately for 
the Sandwich Islands, and there palmed himself on the unsus- 
pecting natives as a superior personage, authorized bj and 
superior to President Brigham Young, and claimed the presi- 
dency over all the Pacific isles. 

He re-organized the Church in accordance with his own 
schemes, ordained twelve Apostles, and charged them one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars each for the office conferred, and High 
Priests and Elders in proportion. With, means thus obtained 
he purchased one-half of the island of Lanai, where he gath- 
ered the Saints and all for his own aggrandizement. 

Fearing they might be deceived, some eight of the Elders • 
wrote to brethren in Utah who had labored many years among 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 273 

them. They stated some of the facts concerning Mr. Gibson's 
course, and asked advice. This communication was translated 
and submitted to President Young. The First Presidency 
decided that Apostles Ezra T. Benson and Lorenzo Snow should 
visit the islands, and that Elders Joseph F. Smith, Alma 
Smith and William W. Cluff should accompany them. 

From Lorenzo's journal: "We took stage at Salt Lake 
City, about the 1st of March, 1864, for San Francisco, Califor- 
nia. Some, interesting incidents occurred during our OA r er- 
land trip to California, that seemed to us at the time rather 
interesting or, at least, a little exciting. It is true, so far as 
the tremendous jolting was concerned, we had decidedly the* 
advantage of Horace Greeley in his ludicrous lone stage-ride 
over the same road, inasmuch as five of us could maintain a 
better balance than a lone man. At any rate, on the roughest 
portions of the route, we partially succeeded in keeping our 
heads clear from the top of the stage,. which, as per report, he 
failed in doing. 

On arriving at a small mining town one Sunday morning 
about sunrise, our stage-man drove to the post office to 
exchange 'mail bags; just then a negro rushed out of a saloon 
directly in front of our horses, and had barely crossed the 
street, when a white-man in his shirt-sleeves hurried out of the 
door from whence the negro came, with revolver in hand, and 
fired several shots in the direction in which the negro was run- 
ning. We saw him fall, and as his antagonist absconded, curi- 
osity prompted us to follow and ascertain the condition of his 
victim. Pie lay upon the ground groaning and writhing in 
agony. He pointed to places on his body where the bullets 
struck him, but just then, the stage was ready to start, and we 
left the unfortunate fellow to "his fate. 

At another time, having stopped to exchange horses just 

as night was setting in, one of our company remarked that our 

new driver had quite the air and appearance of an intelligent 

gentleman, and we soon discovered that he possessed a won- 
20 



274 BIOGRAPHY AND 

derful musical talent, in the exercise of which he elicited our 
surprise and admiration. It really seemed to me that a 
sweeter, a more pathetic or melodious voice I had never heard. 
It is quite possible that the stillness of night and the wild 
scenery of nature around us had a tendency to enhance the 
effect and increase our appreciation of melodious accents; 
whatever it might be, I was charmed, delighted, and felt that 
I could embrace that man and call him brother. 

Whether the causes of these variations exist originally in 
their organizations, or are the result of a life training, may be 
a subject' for philosophical discussion, but facts definitely prove 
that some people are made up of opposite elements, the proof 
•of which one may visibly notice by waiting and observing, as 
in the case now instanced. 

A sudden lurch of the coach, which was occasioned by a 
miss-step or awkward movement of the horses, wrought a sud- 
den, marvelous change in our entertainer, and instantaneously 
closed our animating entertainment, while a volley of oaths 
and the most horrid blasphemies succeeded. As he poured 
forth his disgusting and heart-sickening profanity, he most 
furiously lashed the innocent horses. 

At this time *we were just commencing the descent of a 
mountain some miles in length; it. was quite dark, the road 
rough and rocky, and it may be readily imagined that our 
prospects were not the most inviting. Our coach swayed fear- 
fully — the wheels ever and anon striking fire as they whirled 
over the rocks, with a double span of horses upon a keen run, 
tossing us up and down, giving us a few hard strokes of the 
head against the cover of the coach. 

At length Elder Benson, in a tremulous yet poAverful 
voice, demanded of the driver to moderate his speed, which 
was responded to by an increased and more furious lashing of 
the foaming, panting steeds; thus, and more, with a drunken 
coachman (as we afterwards learned), we tore along down the 
mountain, every moment in jeopardy of being dashed to 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. , 275 

pieces. When at last reaching a station, we were happily 
relieved from this perilous adventure. On our return we 
learned that the inebriate had been discharged. 

But one peril over, another comes. The most exciting 
and dangerous portion of our overland route is yet before us, 
which we encountered irC passing over the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. Many portions of the road were covered with 
snow and ice, and ran a long way close beside fearful ravines, 
hundreds of feet in depth. One sitting in the coach, by 
inclining the head a little one side, could gaze down into the 
vast depths below, conscious that the wheels of the vehicle 
were often within a few inches of the terrible gulf; conse- 
quently, the slipping of the wheels, the least blunder of a 
horse, or a strap or buckle giving way, or the least careless] less 
of the driver, would plunge the whole outfit over the rocky 
crags into the abyss below. The danger was increased by the 
ice and snow, and the sudden, abrupt turns in the road. When 
we approached very slippery places, where the road frequently 
was barely of a sufficient width for the coach to pass between 
the high sharp rocks on one side and the frightful chasm on 
the other, the driver, in guarding against catastrophes, would 
put his two spans on their utmost speed. 

Hour after hour, as we thus moved on, particular points 
in the road were pointed out to us, where coaches had whirled 
down precipices, and every occupant had been killed. These 
nerve-stirring 'recitals caused us more seriously to realize the 
gravity of our situation and our dependence on God for the 
preservation of our lives; and we truly felt grateful for our 
deliverance, and breathing more freely, felt our pulses restored 
to their normal state as we dismounted from the coach at the 
western base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 

On our arrival in San Francisco Ave were kindly enter- 
tained by Elder Eveleth, whose hospitable house was our home 
during our short stay, while making arrangements for our 
passage by steamer for the point of our destination. Brother 



276 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Eveleth's kindness and hospitality to the latter day mission- 
aries traveling to and from Salt Lake is proverbial; and 
although called to a higher and broader sphere, he lives in the 
grateful, affectionate remembrance of those "who knew him. 

The following is from the narrative of Elder W. W. Cluff: 
We arrived at Honolulu, the capital of the islands, about the 
27th of March, 1864. On the 29th we sailed for Lahaina, on 
the schooner Nettie Merrill, Captain Fisher, for the island of 
Maui, a distance of about ninety 'miles from Honolulu. On 
the morning of the 31st of March, we came to anchor about 
one mile from the mouth of the little harbor of Lahaina. 

Apostles Ezra T. Benson, Lorenzo Suoav, Brother Alma L. 
Smith, and myself, got into the small boat to go on shore!; 
Brother Joseph F. Smith, as he afterwards stated, had some 
misgivings about going in that boat, but the manifestation was 
not sufficiently strong to indicate any general accident. He 
preferred to remain on board the'* vessel until the boat 
returned. The boat started for the shore. It contained some 
barrels and boxes, the captain, a white man, two or three 
native passengers, and the boat's crew, who were also natives. 

The entrance to the harbor is a very narrow passage 
between coral reefs, and when the sea, is rough, it is very 
dangerous, on account of the breakers. Where the vessel 
lay, the sea was not rough, but only presented the appearance 
of heavy swells rolling to the shore. 

As we approached the reef it was evident to me that the 
surf was running higher than we anticipated. I called the 
captain's attention to the fact. We were running quartering 
across the waves, and I suggested that we change our course so 
as to run at right angles with them. He replied that he did 
not think tlfrre was any danger, and our course was not 
changed. We went but little farther, when a heavy swell 
struck the boat and carried us before it about fifty yards. 
When the swell passed it left us in a trough between two huge 
waves. It was too late to retrieve our error, and we must run 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 277 

our chances. When the second swell struck the boat, it raised 
the stern so high ' that the steersman's oar was out of the 
water, and he lost control of the boat. It rode on the swell a 
short distance and swung around just as the wave began to 
break up. We were almost instantly capsize, d into the dash- 
ing, foaming sea. - * 

1 felt no concern for myself about drowning, for while 
on my former mission I had learned to swim and sport in the 
surf of those shores. 

The last [ remember of Brother Snow, as the boat was 
going over, I saw him seize the upper edge of it with both 
hands. Fearing that the upper edge of the boat, or the 
barrels, might hit and injure me as the boat was going over, 1 
plunged head foremost into the water. After swimming a 
short distance, I came to the surface without being strangled 
or injured. 

The boat was bottom upwards, and barrels, hats -and 
umbrellas were floating in every direction. I swam to the 
boat and as there was nothing to cling to on the bottom, I 
reached under and seized the edge of it. 

About the same time Brother Benson came up near me 
and readily got hold of the boat. Brother Alma L. Smith 
came up on the opposite side of the boat from Brother Benson 
and myself. He was considerably strangled, but succeeded in' 
securing a hold on the boat. 

A short time afterwards the captain was discovered, about 
fifty yards from us. Two sailors, one on each side, succeeded 
in keeping him on the surface, although life was apparently 
extinct. 

Xothing yet had been seen of Brother Snow, although the 
natives had been swimming and diving in every direction in 
search of him. We were only about one-fourth of a mile 
from shore. The people, as soon as .they discovered our 
circumstances, manned a life boat and hurried to the rescue. 
We were taken into the boat, when the crew wanted to row for 



278 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the shore, and pick up the captain by the way. We told them 
that one of our friends was yet missing, and we did not want- 
to leave. We discovered that a second boat had left the shore 
and could reach the captain as soon as the one we were -in. 
Seeing this, the crew of our boat consented to remain and 
assist us. 

The coptain was taken ashore, and by working over him 
sometime was brought to life. Probably his life would not 
have been much endangered but for a sack of four or five 
hundred silver dollars which he held in his hand, the weight 
of which took him at once to the bottom. The natives dove 
and brought him up, still clinging to the sack. When his 
vitality was*restored, the first thing he inquired about was the 
money ; intimating to the natives, with peculiar emphasis, that 
it would not have been healthy for them to have lost it. 

Brother Snow had not yet been discovered, and the 
anxiety was intense. The natives were, evidently, doing all in 
their power. 

Finally, one of them, in edging himself around the 
capsized' boat, must have felt Brother Snow with his feet and 
pulled him, at least, partly from under it, as the first I saw of 
Brother Snow was hispiair floating upon the water around one 
end of the capsized boat. As soon as we got him into our 
boat, we told the boatmen to pull for the shore with all 
possible speed. His body was stiff, and life apparently 
extinct. 

Brother A. L. Smith and I were sitting side by side. We 
laid Brother Snow across our laps, and, on the way to shore, 
we quietly administered to him and asked the Lord to spare 
his life, that he might return to his family and home. 

On reaching the shore, we carried him a little way to 
some large empty barrels that were lying on the sandy beach. 
We laid him face downwards on one of them, and rolled him 
back and forth until we succeeded in getting the water he had 
swallowed out of him. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 279 

During this time a number of persons came down from 
the town; among them was Mr. E. P. Adams, a merchant. 
All were willing to do what they could." We washed Brother 
Snow's face with camphor, furnished by Mr. Adams. We did 
not only what was customary in such cases, but also what the 
Spirit seemed to whisper toais. 

After working over him for some time, without any indi- 
cations of returning life, the by-standers said that nothing 
more could be done for him. But we did not feel like giving 
him up, and still prayed and worked over him, with an 
assurance that the Lord would hear and answer our prayers. 

Finally we were impressed to place our mouth over his 
and make an effort to inflate .his lungs, alternately blowing in 
and drawing out the air, imitating, as far as possible, the 
natural process of breathing. This we persevered in until we 
succeeded in inflating his lungs. After a little, we perceived 
very faint indications of returning life. A slight wink of the 
eye, which, until then, had been open and death-like, and a 
very faint rattle in the throat, were the first symptoms of return- 
ing vitality. These grew more and more distinct, until con- 
sciousness was fully restored. 

When this result was reached, it must have been fully one 
hour after the upsetting of the boat. A Portuguese man, 
living in Lahaina, who, from the first, rendered us much 
assistance, invited us to take Brother Snow to his house. 
There being no Saints in the place, we gladly accepted his 
kind offer. Every possible attention was given for Brother 
Snow's comfort. t, 

We will here append my brother's account of the upsetting 
of the boat, and what he can recollect of the sensations of a 
man drowning and afterwards coming to life. 

As we were moving along, probably more than a quarter 
of a mile from where we expected to land, my attention was 
suddenly arrested by Captain Fisher calling to the oarsmen in 
a voice which denoted some alarm, "Hurry up, hurry up!" I 



280 BIOGRAPHY AND 

t 

immediately discovered the cause of alarm. X short distance 
behind us, I saw an immense surf, thirty or forty feet high, 
rushing towards us swifter than a race horse. We had scarcely 
a moment for reflection before the huge mass Avas^upon us. In 
an instant our boat, with its contents, as though it were a 
feather, was hurled into a gulf of briny waters, and all was 
under this rolling, seething mountain wave. It took me by 
surprise. I think, however, that I comprehended the situation 
— in the midst of turbulent waves — a quarter of a mile from 
the shore, without much probability of human aid. 

I felt confident, however, there would be some way of 
escape; that the Lord would provide the means, for it was not 
possible that my life and mission were thus to terminate. This 
reliance on the Lord banished fear, and inspired'me up to the 
last moment of consciousness. In such extreme cases of excite- 
ment, Ave seem to live hours in a minute, and a A r olume of 
thoughts croAvd themselves into one single moment. It Avas so 
with me in that perilous scene. 

HaAdng been somewhat subject to faint, I think that after 
a few moments in the water I must have fainted, as, I did not ' 
suffer the pain common in the experience of droAvning persons. 
I had been in the .Avater .onh r a few moments, until I lost 
consciousness. The first I kneAV aftenvards, I Avas on shore, 
receiving the kind and tender attentions of my brethren. The 
first recollection I haA T e of returning consciousness, Avas that of 
a very small light — the smallest imaginable. This soon disap- 
peared, and I Avas again in total darkness. Again it appeared 
much larger than before, then sank aAvay and left me, as before, 
in forgetfulness. Thus it continued to come and go, 'until, 
finally, I recognized, as I thought, persons Avhispering, and 
soon after, I asked in a feeble Avhisper, "What is the matter?" 
I immediately recognized the voice of Elder Guff, as he 
replied, "You have been drowned; the boat upset in the surf." 
Quick as lightning the scene of our disaster flashed upon my 
mind. I immediately asked, "Are you brethren all safe?" The 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 281 

emotion that was awakened in my bosom by the answer of 
Elder Guff, will remain with me as long as life continues: 
"Brother Snow, we are all safe." I rapidly recovered, and very 
soon .was able to walk and accompany the brethren to our 
lodgings. Brother Guff resumes the narrative : 

As soon as Brother Snow was out of danger, it occurred 
to rnc that I had better return to the vessel. As I reached the 
deck by the rope ladder over its side, I saw at a glance that 
Brother Smith was under great anxiety of mind. We were 
both under an intensity of feeling which men usually experi- 
ence only a few times in their lives. Brother Smith had been 
informed by a native that the "captain and an elderly white 
man were drowned. The latter he' supposed to be Brother 
Benson, hence his great anxiety. My own nervous system was 
strung up to an extreme tension by the events of the past two 
hours. When I told Brother Smith that all were safe, the 
sudden revulsion of feeling almost overcame him. We rejoiced 
together that through a merciful Providence, and the faith that 
had been bestowed upon us, we were all alive. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Mission to the Sandwich Islands concluded. — Journey to Lanai. — Mr. Gib- 
son. — Pagan superstitions. — Adopted by Miss Gibson. — Mr. Gibson rev- 
erenced by the natives. — His impudence. — Elder J. F. Smith's reply. — 
Elder Snow's prophecy. — Gibson cut off from Church. — Prophecy ful- 
filled. — Sermon on the ship. — An earthquake. — Return home. — Inter- 
view with President Young. 

N the second of April Brother Snow had so far recov- 
ered his strength that it was thought best .to pursue 
our journey. We hired some natives to take us in an 
open boat across the channel, sixteen "miles, to Lanai. We 
arrived at the landing place, three miles from the village, just 



282 BIOGRAPHY AND 

at dark. We sent a messenger to Mr. Gibson, with the 
request that he would send down some saddle horses for us to 
ride up in the morning. 

Early the following morning, April 3d, the horses were 
ready for us. An hour's ride 'over a rough, rocky road, 
brought us to a settlement; our reception by Mr. Gibson and 
most of the native Saints was cool and very formal. Many 
improvements had been made since our last visit that were 
praiseworthy and reflected great credit on'Mr. Gibson. 

After breakfast, Apostles Benson and Snow engaged in 
conversation with Mr. Gibson oh the affairs of the mission. 
That day and the following were principally spent in laboring 
with Mr. Gibson and the native Elders, to get them, if possi- 
ble, to see the condition they were in. During this time, 
Brothers Joseph F. Smith, Alma L. Smith and myself took a 
ride around the valley, accompanied by Mr. Gibson's daughter 
as our guide. 

About one half mile from Mr. .Gibson's residence was a 
large rock, the top several feet above the ground. Mr. Gibson 
had a chamber cut into this rock, in which he had deposited 
a Book of Mormon and other things, and called it the corner 
stone of a great temple, which would be erected there. A 
frame work of poles had been constructed, in a circular form, 
around this rock, and this was covered with brush. 

Mr. Gibson, by appealing to the pagan superstitions of 
the natives, made them believe that this spot was sacred, and 
if any person touched it he would be struck dead. So much 
faith had the daughter of Mr. Gibson in the teachings of her 
father, that she related, apparently in good faith, the circum- 
stance of a hen flying upon the booth and immediately fall- 
ing down dead. 

Notwithstanding the protest of Miss Gibson, that it was 
very dangerous to do so, we went inside of the brush struc- 
ture and examined the rock and came out unharmed. 

We were further informed that Mr. Gibson had sue- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 283 

ceeded in surrounding his own person and residence with 
such a halo of sacred n ess in the minds of the natives, that 
they always entered his house on their hands and knees. 

This was repeated on other occasions. It was the old 
customary way in which the natives had been in the habit 
of paying their respects to their kings, and the custom had 
been revived by Mr. Gibson in order to increase his personal 
prestige. 

We had previously learned that the Saints would assem- 
ble in conference on the sixth of April. At ten o'clock a. m., 
they had assembled in the meeting house. We all started to 
go in, when Mr. Gibson made some excuse for returning to his 
house. We went in and took our seats on the stand. The 
house was well filled. v In a few minutes Mr. Gibson made his 
appearance. As soon as he entered the door, the entire con- 
gregation instantly arose to their feet and remained standing 
until he was seated on the stand. The execution of this act 
of reverence evinced long and careful training. 

Mr. Gibson had doubtless delayed his entrance to make 
a fitting opportunity for this exhibition. He entirely ignored 
the presence of the Apostles, and, after the people were seated, 
arose and gave out the opening hymn. This act ga\e evi- 
dence at once that he had no proper idea of the organization 
and authority of the Priesthood. Seeing this, President Ben- 
son called on me to pray. 

Without giving any time for consultation, as soon as the 
second hymn was sung, Mr. Gibson arose to his feet and com- 
menced to address the congregation, in sub&tance, as follows: 
"My dear red-skinned brethren, sisters and friends. I pre- 
sume you are all wondering and anxious to know why these 
strangers have come so suddenly among us, without giving us 
any notice of their coming. I. will assure you of one thing, 
my red-skinned friends, when I find out, I will be sure to let 
you know, for I am your father, and will protect you in your 
rights. These strangers may say they are your friends; but 



284 BIOGRAPHY AND 

let me remind you how, when they lived here, years ago, they 
lived upon your scanty substance. Did they make any such 
improvements as you see I have made? Did I not come here 
and find you without a father, poor and discouraged? Did 
I not gather you together here, and make all these improve- 
ments that you to-day enjoy? Now you, my red-skinned 
friends, must decide who your friend and father is, whether it 
is these strangers or I who have done so much for you." 

When he took his seat, President Benson requested 
Brother 'Joseph F. Smith to talk, rather intimating that it was 
desirable to speak on general principles, and that he need not 
feel bound to notice all that Mr. Gibson had said. 

It seemed impossible for any man to speak with greater 
power and demonstration of the Spirit. He referred the 
Saints to the labors of Brother George Q. Cannon and the 
first Elders who brought them the Gospel. He reminded 
them of facts with which the older members were well 
acquainted — the great disadvantage the Elders labored under, 
and the privations they suffered in first preaching the Gospel 
on the islands. How they slept in their miserable huts and 
lived as they lived; how they traveled on foot in storms and 
.in bad weather, from village to village, and from house to 
house, exposing health and life. How they went destitute of 
clothing, and what they had been in the habit of considering 
the necessaries of life, to bring to them the blessings of the 
Gospel, without money and without price. 

He asked by what right Mr. Gibson called himself the 
father of the people, and the Elders who faithfully labored to 
establish them in the Gospel, strangers. 

The spirit an'd power that accompanied Brother Smith's 
remarks astonished the Saints and opened their eyes. They 
began to see how they had been imposed upon. Every word 
he spoke found a response in their hearts, as was plainly 
manifest by their eager looks and animated countenances. 

There was another meeting in the afternoon, in which 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 285 

Apostles Benson and Snow addressed the Saints. The 
remarks were interpreted by Elder Joseph F. Smith. 

On the seventh, there was a meeting in the forenoon. A 
Priesthood meeting was' appointed for the evening, and the 
conference adjourned sine die. 

The meeting of ,the Priesthood in the evening was well 
attended, as it was understoodthat Mr. Gibson's course would 
be investigated. The complaints that were made by the 
native Elders, in the communication that led to our present 
mission, were read, "and Mr. Gibson was called on to make 
answer to the charges. 

In addition to nearly a repetition Of his harangue at the 
meeting on the day previous, his reply consisted of a bom- 
bastic display of some letters of appointment and recom- 
mendations from President Young, to which he attached 
large seals, bedecked with a variety of colored ribbons, to 
give them an air of importance and official significance, in the 
eyes of the unsophisticated natives. These papers he held up 
before the people, and, pointing to them, said, with great 
emphasis, "Here is my authorit3 r , which I received direct 
-from President Brigham Young. I don't hold myself 
accountable to these men!" meaning the Apostles and those 
who come with them. Had there been no other proof of the 
wrong course of Mr. Gibson, that remark was sufficient to 
satisfy the brethren what their plain duty was, and they acted 
promptly in the matter. 

Apostle E. T. Benson followed Mr. Gibson. He reviewed 
Mr. Gibson's past course, and showed that, in making merchan- 
dise of the offices of the Priesthood, introducing the former 
pagan superstitions of the people, for the purpose of obtaining 
power, and his idea of establishing a temporal and indepen- 
dent kingdom on the Pacific isles, were all in antagonism to 
the plan laid down in the Gospel for the redemption of man. 
The spirit manifested by Mr. Gibson proved that he was 
ignorant of the powers of the Priesthood, or that he ignored 



286 BIOGKAPHY AND 

them for purely selfish motives. What they had seen and 
heard since their arrival, proved that the complaints made by 
the native Elders, in their letters to Utah, were correct, as far 
as they went, but the half had not been tolji. 

Brother Benson's remarks were interpretedj after which 
it was motioned that Mr. Gibson's course be disapproved. 
When this was put to a vote, all but one of the native Elders 
voted against the motion. This showed that Mr. Gibson still 
retained a strong hold on the minds of the Saints. 

Notwithstanding this show of strong opposition, Brother 
Snow arose, and in his remarks prophesied that Mr. Gibson 
would see the time that not one of the Saints would remain 
with him. 

Brother J. F. Smith remarked that among the scores of 
Elders who had labored on the islands, none had been so 
utterly wanting in the spirit and power of the Gospel as to 
charge the Saints anything for conferring on them the 
blessings .of the Priesthood,, until Walter M. Gibson came, and 
had the presumption to claim that he had a right to ordain 
Apostles and High Priests for a price — for money. 

The Apostles informed Mr. Gibson and the Saints that, 
when they left the islands for home, Elder Joseph F. Smith 
would be left in charge of the mission. That all those who 
wished to be considered in good standing in the Church, 
should leave Lanai and return to their homes on the other 
islands, where the branches would be re-organized and set in 
order by the brethren who would be left for that purpose. 
The next day we returned to Lahaina, where we held a council, 
and cut Mr. Gibson off from the Church. We returned to 
Honolulu, and about eight days after, Apostles Snow and 
Benson took passage on the bark Onward, for San Francisco. 

Brother Snow's prophecy was literally fulfilled. The 
Saints all left Mr. Gibson, and returned to their former' homes, 
as they had' been counseled to do. All the plans of Mr. Gibson 
were completely frustrated. He is a prominent example of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 287 

the nothingness of man, when he attempts to battle against 
the Kingdom of God. 

The following is from Brother Snow's- journal: On our 
return from the Sandwich Islands, the captain of the ship on 
which we sailed, whom we appreciated as a social, polite, 
matter-of-fact gentleman, invited us to deliver a "Mormon" 
discourse on board, to which we cheerfully assented. On 
Sunday morning, the weather being fine, the sea calm, the. 
atmosphere fresh and balmy, the stately ship moving grace- 
fully over the water, propelled by its inward force — the 
mystical power of steam — we notihed the captain that we 
were ready to respond to his invitation. Accordingly, the 
officers, crew and passengers assembled on the deck, "inspired 
with curiosity to hear the "Mormons." Brother Benson 
insisted on my doing the preaching, to which I consented, and 
had great liberty in explaining our faith and the principles of 
the everlasting Gospel. Although I may not have convinced 
any of them of the truth and fulness of the Gospel, and of 
its present existence on the earth, they all listened with 
marked attention to my discourse, and all seemed pleased and 
entertained, with one exception, viz: a Presbyterian clergy- 
man who was present manifesting great uneasiness and dis- 
pleasure by dark expressions of countenance and various 
contortions of his features and body. 

After a favorable voyage on the Pacific, we arrived safely 
in San Francisco. San Francisco is proverbial for its fine com- 
modious restaurants. When in that city, I partook of refresh- 
ments in one which has the reputation of seating at once one 
thousand people. A miniature indoor railway was so con- 
structed as to carry, in carriages, dishes of food and empty 
dishes, forward and back, all around this i-mmense hall. The 
noise and clatter produced by this operation is not particularly 
soothing and musical to a delicate and refined ear, and more 
especially not very much so to a highly sensitive nervous 
organization. 



288 BIOGRAPHY AND 

I had, in a few instances in my life, experienced the sen- 
sation produced by slight earthquakes, but not of those of any 
considerable magnitude. One day in San Francisco, while 
sitting at the table, enjoying the good things provided in one 
of these magnificent halls of entertainment, all of a sudden 
a very singular sensation came over me, for which I could not 
decipher the cause. At the same moment I imagined a 
heaving or rocking motion of the floor, as if the foundation 
was giving way. Immediately the people arose from the 
tables and rushed to the door. Not comprehending the cause 
of the sudden excitement and confusion, I arose to follow the 
excited multitude, still ignorant of what was up, and, of 
course, anxious to learn. Approaching the gentleman who 
stood still in his usual place to receive pay from his custom- 
ers, I thought he appeared to be vexed. Passing him my 
change, I begged him to explain to me the cause of the abrupt 
evacuation. "An earthquake!" he ejaculated. And as I was 
the only customer remaining, I attributed his vexation to the 
fact that the multitude rushed out minus paying their bills. 
But the earthquake proved to be of destructive magnitude — 
sufficiently so to satisfy my curiosity. Much injury was done, 
not only to the restaurant so suddenly vacated, but to many 
other buildings. 

The president of the Western Telegraph Company 
procured for,Elder Benson and myself, and for our baggage, 
a free pass through to Salt Lake City; for which unsolicited 
favor we felt very grateful. 

I was very favorably impressed with the wonderful 
beauty, the lovely scenery and magnificent foliage which I 
saw, and the sweet, balmy, healthful air I experienced while 
in Honolulu. But -my attention and admiration were more 
deeply and more interestedly attracted toward the people of 
that city of the isles, and those of the adjacent islands — I 
mean those who were members of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints. Their fidelity and faith in the Gospel, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 289 

their childlike simplicity and warm affection for their teachers, 
impressed me with a great interest and love for them. , In 
fact, so much that on my return to Salt Lake, in a prolonged 
conversation with President Young, I plead with him, by the 
deepest and strongest feelings of my heart, not to slacken his 
interest, nor withhold from ^continuing his former generous 
and benevolent plans in relation to that field of missionary 
labor. I told him that if I were twenty years younger, and 
should the Presidency think proper to invest me with the 
privilege of selecting the field for my missionary work to 
continue for twenty years, I would prefer to spend those 
years among the good, simple, warm-hearted natives of those 
islands. 

I was prompted to say this and more, in consequence of 
• fearing, from some remarks of his during the conversation, 
that he felt inclined through discouragement arising from 
the difficulties at this time affecting that mission, to doubt 
the propriety of applying time, means and missionary labor 
in that direction, as formerly. 

Subsequent history proves my brother Lorenzo's fears, 
relative to the Sandwich Islands, groundless, as will be seen 
by a letter which will be compiled in this work, written by a 
son-in-law, who, with his family, is now on a mission to those 
isles of the sea. 



:i 



290 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Lorenzo's gigantic movement. — In accordance with President Young's sug- 
gestion. — A social monument. — To be perpetuated. — Letter to Bishop 
Lunt. — Mercantile and Manufacturing Association. — Effort requisite. — 
First, Merchandise. — Second, Tannery. — Third, Woolen Factory. — 
Fourth, Dairy. — Fifth, a Horn Stock Herd. — Agricultural Department. — 
Hat Factory. — Between thirty and forty industrial branches. — Furnish 
employment for all. — Form of checks. — Labor received for capital stock. 
— Organization of the Association. — Directors. — Council. 

HE 'great work, designed to bring into exercise the 
gigantic powers, and exhibit . Lorenzo in a higher 
sphere of practical engineering as an organizer, states- 
man and financier, was yet to come. 

Prompt to the suggestion of President Brigham Young, 
in an order designed to firmly cement the bonds of union 
among the Latter-day Saints, thereby laying a foundation for 
mutual self support and independence, through a combina- 
tion of temporal and spiritual interests, founded on a co-op- 
erative basis, Hercules-like, Lorenzo put his shoulder to, the 
wheel, and, although he saw at a glance the magnitude of the 
undertaking, that it required almost superhuman skill and 
the labor of years, with him duty was the watchword, and 
success the ultimatum. Results have shown that no difficul- 
ties were too 'great for him to encounter, and no achievement 
too ponderous for his grasp. 

Generations hence, when its illustrious founder shall be 
sleeping with the fathers, Brigham City will be an unique, 
interesting subject for the study of the sociologist, and the 
review of the historian. It will stand as an example of a city 
that grew up on a pure co-operative plan; it will prove that 
social commonwealths are possible; and it will historically 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 291 

perpetuate to the Latter-day Saints themselves the order that 
the Prophet Joseph revealed as the basis of a millennial 
society. Truly is Brigham City a great social monument of 
the age. Its venerable founder is worthy of immortality for 
the social problems he has solved for our latter day Zion; and 
the people who have so nobly wrought with him are worthy 
of remembrance in the pages of history. 

In the following letters the reader will find a condensed 
history of the United Order of Brigham City, which shows 
the work of great inventive skill, the power and strength of 
union and concert, combined with unabated perseverance and 
unwavering faith in God. 

Notwithstanding a series of calamities have, for a time, 
partly suspended the combined operations of this model 
system of co-operation, the very satisfactory point to which it 
has attained, and the beneficial results 'of the workings of the 
combination, are proof of the practicability of its success. 

Brigham City, October, 1876. 
Bishop Lunt, Cedar City: 

In accordance with your request, I send you the follow- 
ing brief account of the rise, progress and present condition 
of "Brigham City Mercantile and Manufacturing Association." 

We commenced over twelve years ago by organizing a 
mercantile department, which consisted of four stockholders, 
myself included, with a capital of about three thousand 
dollars. The dividends were paid in store. goods, amounting, 
usually, to about twenty-five per cent, per annum. 

As this enterprise prospered, we continued to receive 
capital stock, also- adding new names to the list of stock- 
holders, until we had a surplus of capital, or means, and suc- 
ceeded in uniting the interests of the people and securing 
their patronage/ We resolved, then, to commence home 
industries and receive our dividends, if any, in the articles 
produced. 



292 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Similar fears and notions were entertained by the stock- 
holders when this was proposed as you stated agitated the 
minds of your capitalists, viz: a possible diminution of 
dividends. It required some effort on the part of our stock- 
holders to reconcile their feelings with a knowledge of their 
duty and obligations as Elders of Israel and servants of God. 
A good spirit, however, prevailed, and a desire to build up 
t the Kingdom of God, and work for the interests of the people, 
outweighed all selfish considerations; hence, consent was 
-granted by all the stockholders to establish home industries 
and draw dividends in the kinds produced. 

We erected a tannery building, two stories, 45x80, with 
modern improvements and conveniences, at a cost of §10,000 
(ten thousand). Most of the materials, mason and carpenter 
work were furnished as capital, stock by such persons as were 
able and desired an interest in our institution. 

, The larger portion of this work was done in the winter 
season, when no other employment could be had, one-fourth 
being paid in merchandise to such as needed. We gained, by 
this measure, additional capital, as well as twenty or thirty 
new stockholders, without encroaching much on any one's 
property or business. This tannery has been operated during 
the past nine years with success and reasonable profits, pro- 
-ducing an excellent quality of leather, from §8,000 to §10,000 
{eight thousand to ten thousand) annually. We connected 
with this branch of industry a boot and shoe shop; also, a 
saddle and harness shop, drawing our dividends in the articles 
manufactured in those departments. 

Our next enterprise was the establishing of a woolen 
factory, following the same course as in putting up the tan- 
nery — procuring the building materials, doing the mason and 
carpenter work in the season when laborers would otherwise 
have been unemployed. This, also, added to our capital — 
increasing the number of our stockholders without interrupt- 
ng any man's business. The profits of the mercantile 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 293 

department, with some additional capital, purchased the 
machinery. During the past seven years this factory has done 
a satisfactory business, and we have not been necessitated to 
close for lack of wool, winter or summer, and have manufac- 
tured about $40,000 (forty thousand) worth of goods annually. 
'This establishment, with its appurtenances, cost about §35,000 
( (thirty-five thousand). 

With the view of probable difficulty in obtaining wool, 
we now started a sheep herd, commencing with fifteen hun- 
dred head, supplied by various individuals who could spare 
them, as capital stock. They now number five thousand, and 
prove a great help to our factory in times like these, when 
money is scarce, and cash demanded for wool. 

• Our next business was the establishment of a dairy; and, 
having selected a suitable ranch, we commenced with sixty 
cows; erected some temporary buildings, making a small 
investment in vats, hoops, presses, etc., all of which have been 
gradually improved till, perhaps, now it is the finest, best and 
most commodious of any dairy in this Territory. The past 
two years we have had five hundred milch cows, producing, 
each season, in the neighborhood of §8,000 (eight thousand) 
in butter, cheese and pork. 

Next we started a horn stock herd, numbering, at present, 
one thousand, which supplies, in connection with the sheep 
herd, a meat market, owned by our association. 

We have a horticultural and agricultural department, the 
latter divided into several branches, each provided with an 
experienced overseer. 

Also, we have a hat factory, in which are produced all 
our fur and wool hats. We make our tinware — have a 
pottery, broom, brush, and molasses, factory, a shingle mill 
and two saw. mills, operated by water power, and one steam 
saw mill; and also blacksmith, tailor and furniture depart- 
ments, and one for putting up and repairing wagons and car- 
riages. 



294 BIOGRAPHY AND 

We have a large two-story adobie building, occupied by 
machinery for wood turning, planing, and working mould- 
ings, operated by water power. 

We have established a cotton farm of one hundred and 
twenty-five acres, in the southern part of the Territory, for the 
purpose of supplying warps to our woolen factory, where we 
maintain a colony of about twenty young men. This enter- 
prise was started about two years ago, and has succeeded 
beyond our expectations. The first year, besides making 
improvements in building, making dams, constructing water 
sects, setting out trees, planting vineyards, plowing, scraping, 
leveling and preparing the ground, they raised a large crop of 
cotton, which produced in the neighborhood of seventy 
thousand yards of warp. More than double that amount has 
been raised this season. 

. We have a department for manufacturing straw hats, in 
which we employ from fifteen to twenty girls. Last year we 
employed twenty-five girls in our dairy, and have them in con- 
stant employ in our millinery and tailoring departments, also 
in making artificial flowers — as hat and shoe binders — as 
weavers in our woolen mills, and clerks in our mercantile 
department. 

Many of our young men and boys are now learning 
trades, their parents being highly pleased that they are being 
furnished employment at home, rather than going abroad, 
subject to contract bad habits and morals. 

We have erected a very elegant building, two stories, 
32x63 feet'; the upper part devoted to a seminary, and the 
lower occupied as a dancing hall. I have considered it of the 
highest importance to the interest of our community, to pro- 
vide for and encourage suitable diversions and amusements. 

We have a department of carpenters and one of masons, 
embracing all in the city of that class of workmen. 

Our association now comprises between thirty and forty 
industrial branches — a superintendent over each, who is res 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 295 

ponsible to the general superintendent for its proper and 
judicious management. The accounts of' each department 
are kept separate and distinct — stock' taken annually — sepa- 
rate statements and balance sheets made out and kept by the 
secretary of the association, so that the gain or loss of each 
may be ascertained and known at the end of the year, or 
oftener if required. At the close of each year a balance sheet 
is made from the several statements, giving a perfect exhibit 
of- the business. From this exhibit a dividend on the invest- 
ments or capital stock is declared. The profit or loss of each 
department, of course, is shared equally by the stockholders. 

We aim to furnish every person employment, wishing to 
work; and pay as high wages as possible — mostly in home 
products. The past two or three years we have, paid our 
employees five-sixths in home products and one-sixth in 
imported merchandise, amounting in aggregate, at .trade rates, 
to about §160,000 (one hundred and sixty thousand). In the 
year 1875 the value of products, in trade rates, from all our 
industries, reached about §260,000 (two hundred and sixty 
thousand). All these figures which I give you indicate our 
trade prices, which are less subject to change than when 
arranged on a cash basis. 

The employees in the various departments are paid' 
weekly, at the secretary's office, in two kinds of scrip; one of 
which is redeemed at our mercantile department, the other is 
good and redeemed at our various manufacturing depart- 
ments. These checks are printed on good, strong paper, in 
the form of bills, from five cents up to twenty dollars, and 
constitute the principal currency in circulation. 

Through this medium of exchange our employees pro- 
cure their breadstuff's, pork, mutton, beef, vegetables, clothing, 
boots and shoes, building materials, such as lumber, shingles, 
lath, lime, a'dobies, brick, etc., and pay their masons and car- 
penters, school bills, admission to concerts, theatres, lectures; 
also pay for Deseret News, Salt Lake Herald and Juvenile 



296 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Instructor, etc., besides many other things that are unnecessary 
to mention. 

The following is the form of our checks: First class — 



No. 



Brigham City Mercantile and Manufacturing Association. 
Good for In Merchandise. Secretary. 

Second class — 



No. S- 

Brigham City Mercantile and Manufacturing Association. 
Good for 



Payable at our retail trade prices, in an assortment of 

Home Manufactures. 

N. B. — Good only to stockholders and employees of Brigham City. 

Secretary. 

Last year it cost §30,000 (thirty thousand) cash to carry 
on our business; half of this was paid to employees, in 
imported merchandise, one-sixth of their wages, the other for 
imported material, such as iron, horse shoes, nails, furniture, 
boot and shoe trimmings, paints, dye-stuffs, warps, etc., neces- 
, sary in our business. 

Labor is received from employees for capital stock, and 

dividends paid in home products, averaging about twelve per 

cent per annum, since starting our home industries. 

'Trusting this brief review will satisfy your inquiries, I 

close with the most sincere and heartfelt wish that you may 

prosper and succeed in establishing principles of union and 

brotherhood in the hearts of your people. 

Respectfully, 

Lorenzo Snow. 

The following shows the elaborate organization of the 
grand systematic co-operative order which combines the faith, 
wisdom, intelligence, means, skill, labor, effort and enterprise 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 297 

of many in one general interest. Names of the officers: 
Original directors — Lorenzo Snow, president; Samuel Smith, 
Abraham Hunsaker, Alvin Nichols, James Pett, H. P. Jensen, 
G. W. Ward, J. D. Reese, W. L. Watkins, secretary. United 
Order Council — Lorenzo Snow, Samuel Smith, Alvin Nichols, 
H. P. Jensen, William Box,-John Welch, James Bywater, N. 
C. Mortensen, A. Hillam, I. Jeppason, L. Mortensen, W. 
Wrighton, John Christensen, J. M. Jensen, G. W. Ward, M. L. 
Ensign, J. C. Wright, Mads C. Jensen, S. N. Lee, J. C. Nielson, 
David Boothe, Ephraim. Wight, Paul Stork, Jacob Jensen, 
Carlos Loveland, John Johnson, B. Morris Young, R, L. Fish- 
burn, 0. N. Stohl, Alexander Baird, Abraham Hunsaker, 
Oliver G. Snow, J. D. Burt, Charles Kelley, James Pett, Henry 
Tingey, Adolph Madsen, L. 0. Christensen, William Horsley, 
T. H. Wilde, George Reader, A. Christensen, P. F. Madsen, 
H. E. Bowring, Elijah A. Box, William L. Watkins, N. H. 
Nelson, P. A. Forsgren, A. A. Jansen, Willard Hansen, Neils 
Madsen, Jr., P. C. Jensen, Lucius A. Snow, Lars A. Larsen, 
Jonah Evans, Neils. Madsen, J. D. Reese, J. C. Wixom', C. 
Hansen, Charles Wight, George Facer, F. Hansen. 



298 BIOGRAPHY AND 




CHAPTER XXXIX. 

All was flourishing. — Attaining to independence. — Factory burned. — Sent a 
chill to Lorenzo's heart. — Instead of discouragement it was proof of tho 
strength of their compact. — Everywhere manifest, even in the Children. 
— Union could not be broken. — Impregnability of their Order. — Deseret 
News speaks. — Commendatory. — Sympathy. — Calamity is proof of the 
strength of the Co-operative system. — Determination to rebuild. 

HILE everything in connection with the United Order 
was in a flourishing condition, and the people, 
through their extensive departments of home indus- 
tries, were fast attaining to a comparative state of indepen- 
dence, in the providence of God a serious calamity befel 
them, ^heir woolen factory, one of their most productive 
and important departments, with all it contained, was des- 
troyed by fire, which will elsewhere be fully explained. 

After all the deep study, intense anxiety, constant labor 
and long-continued watchfulness in behalf of the interests of 
the people dependent on the success of their united efforts, 
the burning, of their factory, although at the instant it sent a 
chill to his heart, was proof to Lorenzo of the power and 
strength of- their grand compact. Instead of discouragement, 
misfortune actually seemed to draw the people more closely 
together, and more firmly cement the bonds of union. 

This principle was everywhere apparent — even actuating 
the little children, as was shown in instances when little girls 
and boys, of their own accord, came forward, with the small 
fractional moneys they had been carefully saving for Christ- 
mas, saying, " We will give it to Brother Snow to help build 
another factory" Children, with few exceptions, are an index 
to the parents, and the foregoing little incident goes far to 
illustrate the general feeling in Brigham City after the burn- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 299 

ing. Their subsequent losses, although heavy, , and aggra- 
vated by injustice and oppression, had not sufficient power 
to disrupt the bond of union in which those people were 
linked .together. By the help of the Almighty t they had 
constructed a fortress that was proof against calamity, and 
impregnable to the common^ vicissitudes of human life, for 
the vital reason — it was founded and conducted on eternal 'prin- 
ciples. 

Relative to this subject, the Deseret News expressed as 
follows: 

"The intelligence of the destruction, by the devouring 
element, a few days since, of the Brigham City woolen factory, 
caused a general profound feeling of regret and sympathy in 
the minds of the Latter-day Saints. That little community 
in the northern part of the Terrritory have been engaged, for 
a little over a dozen years, in demonstrating a principle of 
intense importance — the feasibility of a self-sustaining co-oper- 
ative policy. In this direction they stand in advance of the 
people of the entire West. In fact, considering the numerous 
disadvantages under which they have labored, we doubt if a 
more satisfactory development of material interests exists 
'anywhere on this globe. 

"The eyes of the Latter-day Saints have been turned in 
the direction of the people of Brigham City, and their co-oper- 
ative system has been watched perhaps more closely than 
was imagined. It was thought that the burning of their 
excellent factory would retard the development of their home 
industrial pursuits, and delay the further demonstration of 
the great truth that a community, even a small one, can 
exist and flourish in a condition of measurable indepen- 
dence of the changes and fluctuations in operation out- 
side of it. Apparent misfortunes are, however, not deficient 
of benefit. This seeming calamity exhibits,, perhaps as much 
as any other circumstance could, the extraordinary vitality 
and consequent power existing .in a comparatively united 



300 BIOGRAPHY AND 

community, whose business is done on a co-operative mutual 
protective system. 

"Nothing daunted, those good people, inspired by the 
example of their leaders and advisers, and by the spirit of 
the Gospel say, 'We will build another factory/ and at once 
commence to carry their commendable resolution into effect. 

"Coupled with this determination, is another to provide 
labor and the means of subsistence, in the meantime, for the 
operatives- thrown outof employment by the burning of the 
factory. 

"Such a community shows its independence in the true 
sense of the word; and every right thinking person cannot do 
otherwise than wish such a people well. 

"We understand there are between forty and fifty home 
industrial branches of business carried on under the Brigham 
City co-operative system." 



CHAPTER XL. 

Dedication day.— Fourth of July.— Gratitude and[thanksgiving. — More than 
two thousand had suffered loss. — In six months the Factory is rebuilt. 
— Great rejoicing. — Dedicatory prayer. — Address. — Speeches. — Brigham 
City M. and M. Association. — A raid. — Railroad contract. — How a village 
sprang up. — An onslaught. — Confusion ensues. — The Grand Jury issues 
indictments. — Men drove to jail in a herd. — Great excitement. — Superin- 
tendent Dunn speaks. — John Merrill in custody. — Handcuffed. — Chained 
in jail. — Telegrams from the United States President. — How the Judge 
received' them. — More about Merrill. — Left unguarded and unacquitted. 
— About the mill. — Dishonesty of Jurors. — Financial loss. 

N the fourth of July, 1878, just six months after the 
calamitous conflagration, the Box Elder people, by 
their united efforts, indomitable energy and enter- 
prise, had "erected another factory building — 48x80 feet, two 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 301 

stories high, and nearly fireproof and more substantial and 
commodious than its predecessor. They also had purchased 
and put in running order an improved set of machinery. 
Our national day, the fourth of July, was chosen for the dedi- 
cation, and the entire day, from early dawn, was, by men, 
women and children, devoted to gayety, mirth, congratula- 
tions and expressions of gratitude and thankfulness to Him 
who overrules the destinies of nations, and whose watchful 
care is ever extended to His people. 

More than two thousand of those people were sufferers 
in the loss of their factory, and on this day a feeling of 
recompense and remuneration warmed and cheered the most 
desponding heart. It is utterly impossible for any disinter- 
ested person to appreciate the satisfaction of the good people 
of Brigham City and vicinity on this occasion. The repro- 
duction of one of the most remunerative and important 
branches, which constituted their independence, was calcu- 
lated to inspire every heart with gratitude to the Giver of all 
good, for the marvelous success with which He thus far had 
crowned their efforts in overcoming difficulties which at first 
seemed insurmountable. 

We shall not attempt a description of the general exer- 
cises of the day — the mammoth procession, the huge floating 
flags and waving banners, and the brilliant, profuse decora- 
tions}; suffice it to say the dedicatory services „were performed 
in the factory building, which was filled to overflowing. 
Lorenzo Snow, president of the association, offered the dedi- 
catory prayer, delivered the opening address, and was fol- 
lowed by others, all interspersed with singing by the Brigham 
City choir, and music by the bands. The assembly was dis- 
missed by prayer. 

So rapidly had the Brigham City Mercantile and Manu- 
facturing Association increased in wealth, influence and popu- 
larity, that a strong feeling of envy, jealousy and avarice, 
the outgrowth of political aims and financial cupidity in the 



*302 BIOGRAPHY AND 

hearts of Gentile officials and unscrupulous apostates, broke 
out in one of the most flagrant raids ever concocted. 

After the heavy loss the association suffered by the burn- 
ing of their woolen factory, estimated at thirty thousand dol- 
lars in cash, being- in great need of funds to liquidate cash 
indebtedness, incurred in rebuilding their, factory, purchas- 
ing new machinery, etc., they took a large contract on the 
Utah Northern Railroad, then in progress of construction 
through Idaho, to furnish supplies of timber, ties, shingles 
and lumber, to meet demands. It was a gigantic contract, 
and they immediately "shaped their plans to meet emergen- 
cies. They purchased a saw mill and shingle mill in Marsh 
Valley, Idaho, and moved to that place their steam saw mill, 
from Box Elder' County. They employed about one hundred 
men in the various departments of labor, also a number of 
women, who assisted as cooks. 

The arrangements were- so made with Mr. Dunn, the con- 
struction superintendent of the railroad, that the furnishing 
contract might be extended to an indefinite length, or>as long 
as the furnishing party wished; in view of this, it was requi- 
site that the laborers employed should be made comfortable 
as practicable, so as to continue- work during the winter 
months. Accordingly, log and frame houses were erected — 
shanties, sheds, stables, stack-yards and corrals were built; 
and the location presented the appearance of a village formed 
for comfort, of no inconsiderable dimensions, and not entirely 
devoid of taste. 

There the association kept a small store, from which the 
employees supplied their wants. In fact, the entire concern 
was so complete in its organization, and so systematically con- 
ducted, that everything -moved like clockwork, honorably 
representative of the institution by which it was inaugurated. 
Superintendent Dunn was highly pleased with the prompti- 
tude with which his bills were filled and his calls answered. 
He was furnished from twelve thousand to fifteen thousand 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 303 

feet of lumber or timber per day, besides a large quantity of 
ties. 

For several months this satisfactory order of things con- 
tinued, much to the advantage of the railroad as well as to 
the prospects of the co-operative establishment, when, sud- 
denly, without any premonition, like a tremendous avalanche, 
a mobocratic raid, instituted by the grand jury and sustained 
by an unprincipled judge, a Methodist minister, Hollister by 
name, changed the scene, and an indescribable pell-mell and 
confusion ensued. • 

In October, 1878, the grand jury, composed mostly of 
apostates from the Church of Latter-day Saints, sat in Malad 
City, and conniving against the interests of the co-operative 
efforts of the Saints, got up indictments against the laborers 
at the mills for unlawfully cutting timber. Fifty-three of the 
men were simultaneously arrested and driven, like a herd of 
cattle, fifteen miles to Malad City, and the mills were ordered 
to be shut down. 

Then, instead of peace and thriving industry, all was 
consternation and disorder among the workmen, and great 
excitement spread everywhere abroad. The men who were 
not arrested were every moment apprehensive of the marshal 
pouncing upon them; some concealed themselves in the 
woods, some under hay. stacks, while others made steps for 
their homes as fast as possible. Thus the camp was broken 
up, the villagers scattered to the four winds, and the busi- 
ness prospects closed. 

Although these difficulties were settled, as will be shown 
hereafter, it was not till winter had set in, and the people 
gone to their homes, many having entered into other engage- 
ments, etc.; and thus the anticipated resources were gone, but 
not without heavy losses. 

In order to show the villainy of the instigators and con- 
ductors of that fiendish raid, we will take one specimen, for 
instance: Elder John Merrill, who had charge of one of the 



304 BIOGRAPHY AND 

mills, and had not cut one tree, was arrested by indictment 
of the grand jury, for cutting seventeen thousand trees, and 
was sentenced to pay a line of §13,800 and three months' con- 
finement in jail. The construction superintendent of rail- 
road said to Mr. Merrill: "You shall not go to jail; I iconic! 
bond the railroad rather than you should go." But all to no pur- 
pose; the trial was a humbug — an immense crowd of wit- 
nesses were called, and no one had seen Mr. Merrill cut a 
tree. After the sentence was pronounced, he was placed in 
.charge of the United States marshal, handcuffed, chained to 
another prisoner and lodged in Malad jail. 

The following telegrams speak for themselves: 

From Oneida County, October 13th, 1878. 
To Judge Smith, Brigham City: 

Merrill's fine, thirteen thousand eight hundred dollars — 
three months imprisonment. Your son, eighteen hundred 
dollars and nine months imprisonment. The judge refuses 
parties as bail having less than five thousand dollars real 
estate. We cannot raise the bail here. 

[Signed] Washingt6n Dunn. 

Oneida, Idaho, October 18, 1878. 
Judge Smith, Brigham City: 

Jay Gould says theJJ. S. President will remit fine and 
imprisonment. 

[Signed] Washington Dunn. 

Salt Lake, .October 18, 1878. 
Judge Smith, Brigham City: 

Received the following last night: "I have arranged with 
the Attorney-General to pay the value of timber taken for 
the U. N. R. R., and the fines and sentences will be remitted 
by the President of the U! S. Jay Gould." 

[Signed] Williams & Young. 



autobiography. 305 

New York, October 24, 1878. 
Judge Smith, Bricjham City: 

The President has ordered the lumber men released and 
fines remitted. 

[Signed] Joe Richardson. 

Oneida, October 24th, 1878. 
Has Merrill been released? If not, where is he? 

[Signed] Washington Dunn. 

On receipt of the foregoing telegrams, the judge ignored 
the authority of the President, saying that President Hayes 
had no jurisdiction in the case — that it belonged to the Sec- 
retary of the Interior, Carl Schurz; and finding himself in an 
awkward and embarrassing dilemma, this policy judge, being 
destitute of sufficient noble manhood to acknowledge and 
honor a, defeat, instead of dismissing those cases q,nd dis- 
charging those under indictment, he affected to disregard the 
telegrams and resorted to base subterfuges, conniving with his 
mobocratic clan; and all of those indictments remained for 
years as so many foul blots on the judicial docket. At length 
they were expunged by order of the court. 

On Sunday, four or five days after the receipt of the 
despatch to set the prisoners free, the United States marshal 
took Elder Merrill from Malad jail, and, pretending he was 
taking him to Boise in conformity to the verdict of the judge, 
stopped in Corinne, sixty miles from Malad, after dark, when, 
after Mr. Merrill stepped out of the carriage and proposed to 
assist in taking care of the horses, the marshal gruffly replied, 
"No, I'll see to them myself," and drove off, leaving his pris- 
oner standing alone, unguarded and unacquitted. 

The mill, which the Brigham City Mercantile and Manu- 
facturing Association purchased in Marsh Valley, had been 
in operation there twelve years before the purchase; and, 
after the raid, the foreman of the jury bought it of the asso- 

22 



306 BIOGRAPHY AND 

ciation at half price, and has kept it running from that time, 
supplied from the same woodland, which proves his egregious 
dishonesty as a juror. 

' It was understood, and those raiders must have been cog- 
nizant of the fact, that the government not only granted the 
right of way, but also the right of timber for building the 
railroad, and that the section under controversy was included. 
Irrespective of the anxieties, disappointments and embar- 
rassments resulting from that unhallowed onslaught, the 
financial loss which the association suffered amounted to from 
six thousand to eight thousand dollars. 



CHAPTER XLI. , 

/ ^ 

To President F. D. Richards. — Burning of the woolen factory. — In thirty 
minutes all consumed. — Foiebodings that the people would be dis- 
couraged. — Fears unfounded.— What was done within six months. — The 
people superior to the loss. — A raid follows the fire. — An unlawful tax 
follows the raid. — Statement of losses. — Business curtailed. — Checks 
canceled. — Eleven industrial departments in operation. — The mercantile 
flourishing. — Confidence preserved. 

'HE following recital of loss by fire, followed by the 
most unwarranted hostility against the hitherto suc- 
cessful enterprise of the conjoint organization, illus- 
trates beyond what continued prosperity could do, the strength 
of union, and the genuine confidence cherished by those con- 
stituting the United Order: 

Brigham City, November 1st, 1879. 
President F. D. JRichards: 

The deep interest you have taken in our efforts to unite 
the people of Brigham City, in their financial interests, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 307 

induces me now to give you a statement of some of our misfor- 
tunes and difficulties against which we have been struggling. 

Two years ago to-day, about two o'clock in the morning, 
we were aroused from our slumbers, by the ringing of bells 
and startling cries of Fire!, Fire! Fire! Our woolen factory was 
all in flames, and in less than thirty minutes the whole estab- 
lishment, with its entire contents of machinery, wool, warps 
and cloth lay in ashes. 

This involved a cash loss of over §30,000 (thirty thous- 
and). While viewing the building, as it was rapidly con- 
suming, my mind became exercised with painful thoughts 
and reflections, whether the people would survive the severe 
pressure which would bear upon them through this unforeseen 
calamity, or lose heart and courage in supporting our prin- 
ciples of union. These misgivings, however, were unfounded, 
for the people resolved at once to try again, and went to 
work with a hearty good will, and, by extraordinary exertion, 
in less than six months had erected another factory, and had 
it in operation, superior to the one destroyed. 

But this involved us in a large indebtedness. In view of 
liquidating this liability, we engaged a large contract to sup- 
ply timber and lumber to the Utah & Northern Railroad, 
incurring a heavy expense in procuring a saw mill in Marsh 
Valley, Idaho, and moving there also our steam saw mill. 
We were employing one hundred men — everything moving 
along prosperously, when, suddenly, through influence of 
apostates, aided by a mobocratic judge, a raid w^is made upon 
our camps, fifty of our workmen were arrested and imprisoned, 
and our operations stopped. And, although the embargo on 
our business was withdrawn, and the men liberated by order 
of the President of the United States, through the influence 
of Jay Gould, it came too late; thus we /were compelled to 
abandon this enterprise, sell our saw mill for one-half its 
value, and move back our steam mill, etc., the whole involving 
an expense and loss of over $6,000 (six thousand), besides the 



308 BIOGRAPHY AND 

vexation in our disappointments in raising the money to pay 
our indebtedness. 

The following July, a tax of §10,200 (ten thousand two 
hundred) was levied on our scrip by 0. J. Hollister, United 
States assessor and collector of internal revenue. Though 
illegal, unjust and highly absurd, the payment could not be 
avoided; therefore we borrowed the money and paid the 
assessment. 

Through these and other unfortunate occurrences, we 
became greatly embarrassed in our business. This embarrass- 
ment, as may be seen, is not the result of the natural pressure 
of the times,, nor of the financial crisis which has broken up 
thousands of banking institutions and business firms through- 
out the world, neither that of mismanagement, nor any defect 
in our systems of operations; but, as before mentioned, it has 
been brought about through a succession of calamities unpar- 
alleled in the experience of any business firm in this or any 
other Territory. 

The following is .a showing of our losses, including the 
assessment, all occurring in the space of about nine months: 

Crops destroyed by grasshoppers, "*•• - $ 4, COO 

Crops destroyed by drought, - - - 3,000 

Burning of woolen mills, - - 30,000 

Losses in Idaho, - 6,000 

By assessment on scrip, - 10,200 

Total, - - - $53,200 

We were then compelled to raise, within eighteen months, 
§30,'000 (thirty thousand) independent of the $45,000 (forty- 
five thousand) required during the same time to carry on our 
home industries. 

Thus there appeared but one course left for us to pursue, 
viz: curtail our business, close several of our departments, 
lessen the business of others, and dispose of such property as 
would assist in discharging our cash obligations, thus making 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 309 

every exertion to outlive our misfortunes, and save ourselves 
from being totally wrecked. Accordingly we have labored 
faithfully to this end, and, although no one has made any 
abatement of his claims against us, except Zion's Co-operative 
Mercantile Institution in canceling ihe interest on what we 
owed them, we are now nearly out of debt, having but one cash 
obligation to discharge, of §2,500 (two thousand five hundred), 
to Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution, which will be 
paid this fall. 

Our checks, in the hands of employees or other parties, 
have all been redeemed, with the exception of a very few 
which we are prepared to settle whenever presented. 

We now have eleven industrial departments in operation; 
the business, however, is not carried on quite so extensively 
as formerly. 

The mercantile department is doing three times the 
business it was previous to the curtailing of our home indus- 
tries, and has the patronage of nearly the entire people of 
Brigham City and surrounding settlements.' 

It has been our uniform practice to submit all business 
matters involving important interests of the people to the 
council of the United Order, where the most perfect liberty 
and greatest freedom of expression of thought and opinion 
have always been allowed and always indulged. 

The council is composed of sixty members, those most 
influential in the community, selected on account of their ' 
integrity, faithfulness and willingness to lab,or and assist in 
promoting the cause of union and brotherhood. 

Notwithstanding our severe reverses and the fiery ordeal 
through which we have passed, the confidence of the people 
in our principles of 'union has been preserved, and they feel 
that we have worked earnestly and unselfishly to secure their 
interests and promote the general welfare. 

Respectfully, 

Lorenzo Snow. 



310 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XLII. 

s • 

Remarks by the Editor. — Lorenzo writes to George Q. Cannon. — Makes sug- 
gestions concerning the illegal assessment. — Letter two. — What Lawyer 
Sutherland says.— Letter three.— A description of Scrip.— How used.— 
Affidavits. — Correspondence. — Joseph F. Smith writes. — Lorenzo 
responds. 

9l(f"N connection with the raid heretofore described, the dia- 
n]j|^ bolical swindle of 0. J. Hollister, United States assessor 
and collector of internal revenue, by levying an assess- 
ment of $10,200 on the scrip used • by the association as 
a circulating medium in their business departments, burst, 
like a thunderbolt, on the Brigham City Mercantile and Man- 
ufacturing Association. • 

Hon. George Q. Cannon, Delegate, in Washington, to 
whom the following letters were addressed, generously tendered 
his services in behalf of the association. The following let- 
ters, copied from my brother's journal, explain: 

Brigham City, December 23, 1878. 
Hon. George Q. Cannon, Washington, D. C: 

Dear Brother. — Yesterday I was informed by Mr. Webber, 
secretary of Z. C. M. I., that you had telegraphed to the effect 
that United States Commissioner Raum had about decided 
that "bills" under consideration were taxable; and that two 
lawyers, Shellabarger and Wilson, in Washington, had pro- 
posed to undertake the case of Zion's Co-operative Institution 
for four hundred dollars, and, provided th'ey win, one thousand 
in addition; and that they would undertake our case for two 
hundred dollars, and, if successful, an additional five hundred 
dollars. I understand Zion's Co-operative has decided to 
accept the proposition, and I write to say that if you see the 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 311 

least shadow of prospect, please employ those lawyers in our 
behalf, and on you communicating to me by letter or telegram, 
I will forward you a draft of two hundred dollars, forthwith; 
and, if they succeed in our case, will be responsible for the 
additional rive hundred, dollars. 

Can you get payment of our assessment deferred till a 
decision is reached? And how soon shall Ave be obliged to 
paj', on receiving notice, etc.? 

God bless you, my dear friend and brother, » 

Lorenzo Snow. 

Brigham City, January Ttii, 1870. 
Hon. George Q. Cannon, Washington, I). C: 

■ Dear Brother. — To-morrow I will mail 3 r ou a brief, sworn 
to by the president and directors of our association, and some 
affidavits for the benefits of our counsel, and will send others 
as soon as they can be obtained. 

We have consulted Lawyer Sutherland, of Salt Lake — 
giving him a view of our case. He expressed himself san- 
guine of winning, cOuld he have had the entire management; 
said he was acquainted with our counsel in Washington; spoke 
highly of their abilities, and said if they failed in our case, 
which is a peculiar one, the failure would occur through lack of 
time and proper attention, and not thoroughly looking into 
the real merits of the subject, sufficiently to make a just, true 
and full presentation, and should, by no means, be mixed up 
with any other case, as it embraced features entirely distinct, 
and of a weighty character, in our favor, etc., and that our 
counsel should demand sufficient time to get in all our testi- 
mony and affidavits, if it took the whole year; and they 
should send copies of the affidavits against us, that we might 
get up rebutting testimony. %. 

I wish our counsel would inform us immediately what 
information and affidavits they require — also send copies of 
affidavits made against us that require rebutting testimony. 



312 BIOGRAPHY AND 

We feel that we have a right, and we claim it, to have a 
fair, full and impartial investigation, which, if allowed, we 
fully believe, will give a decision in our favor, and if not 
allowed, will prove ruinous to' our association. 

Should we ask our counsel if they think it would be 
advantageous to employ Lawyer Sutherland to work up our 
case here for them, they, perhaps, would answer in the affirma- 
tive, as it might save them time and trouble, which would 
almost, commit us to the necessity of gratifying their interest. 
.Please suggest the idea, and let us know, from you, their 
opinion. We would have to pay Lawyer Sutherland one hun- 
dred dollars to begin with, and if circumstances required a 
continuation of his labors, an increase of pay would be 
demanded. 

Do those lawyers want further information? Do they 
want more affidavits, and on 'what points? Please have them 
send immediately a statement of what they want, and demand 
time for a fair, truthful and impartial investigation. This is 
all we wish, and this we insist upon and claim as our right; 
and if not allowed will do us a most serious injury. 

Respectfully, 

Lorenzo Snow. 

Brigham City, January 13th, 1879. 
Hon. George Q. Cannon, Washington, D. C: 

Dear Brother. — I write you now with a view of furnishing 
such information as I apprehend may be useful to our counsel, 
in reference to the general character and object of our associa- 
tion and our manner of business, so far as concerns our "bills" 
and their circulation. We aim in our brief and affidavits to 
establish two points: 

' First — That our currency has been limited in its circula- 
tion to our association — that the officers and agents of the 
association have never been authorized to pay it out to other 
parties. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 313 

Second — That it does not represent cash or legal money, 
and has never been paid or received as cash, or in lieu thereof, 
and has no authorized cash value. 

There is possibly another point I ought to suggest for 
the consideration of counsel. I think the law requires the 
assessor to make returns at stated times — I think once in six 
months. Mr. Hollister made no call upon us for report till 
last October, and a few clays after called personally at our 
office, examined our books, and in making out his assessment 
list went back as far as 1875. Has he a legal right to collect 
back taxes? 

There may be other" points that our attorneys will wish to 
argue, and would like information, testimony or affidavits 
relative to, which, if they will inform us, we will endeavor to 
furnish. 

Respecting the first point, the limitation of scrip circula- 
tion, the laAV makes bills taxable if "paid out" — that is, if a 
bank or corporation pay its bills "out" to other parties, it thus 
renders itself liable. But the peculiarities of our association — 
its aim and policy — did not pay "out," but, as 'seen and fully 
expressed upon all of our home department bills, being over 
nine-tenths of the amount reported for assessment, instead of 
being "paid out," has been "paid in" and its circulation con- 
fined within itself — within its own body or person. 

Our association is, in its organized business capacity, a 
person, and, as such, it simply uses the scrip as a medium of 
exchange within itself, for such articles only as it produces. 

Our main object in making our bills payable only to 
employees and stockholders, was this: We commenced with 
but little capital, the people being, with scarcely an exception, 
very poor, some of them almost destitute of means of living. 
We succeeded, after many years of toil and perseverance to 
establish a tannery, boot and shoe shop, woolen factory, and 
afterwards various additional minor branches of industry were 
added, and have been fourteen years reaching our present 



314 BIOGRAPHY AND 

financial condition. It required nearly as rancli outlay of 
cash to operate those main branches of industry as all the 
other departments together, which made their products much 
nearer cash value than those from the other departments. We 
have not been able to make leather for sale, but are obliged to 
purchase more or less of imported, to supply our shoe depart- 
ment, From these departments we have produced but very 
little more than is required by the members and employees of 
our association, who number nearly fifteen hundred. 

Before the tax law was so amended as to affect co-opera- 
tions, we issued to employees and .stockholders unrestricted 
bills, but found serious trouble b} r persons not interested in our 
institution receiving them, and requiring payment in the arti- 
cles that were nearest to cash, and which we could scarcely 
supply ourselves. People abroad knew that Brigham City 
Mercantile and Manufacturing Association had a tannery, boot 
and shoe shop, and woolen factory, and innocently imagined 
that when they had a demand on our institution it meant pay- 
ment in any articles from any one of those departments they 
wished; and thought they were greatly wronged if they were 
refused. To remedy this difficulty we called in all that class 
of bills — determined in future to keep them at home; there- 
fore, when we commenced the new issue we printed upon the 
face, "Good only to employees and stockholders." These bills 
are, among us, called "Home D." i. e., good for articles made in 
our home departments. 

There are forty of these departments, each having a fore- 
man, who reports the time of the employees, weekly, to the 
secretary, who pays them in these Home Ds. for five-sixths of 
their labor, and one-sixth in the scrip representing merchan- 
dise, samples of which we enclose; and refer you, also, to the 
petition presented to the commissioner. 

The secretary, superintendent and every officer and agent 
of the association are strictly forbidden to dispose of these 
Home D. bills to any other than employees and stockholders, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 315 

or to receive them from any other, part}'. I think this rule 
has been observed as to paying out, but in some isolated cases, 
when persons, through ignorance or misrepresentation, have 
been imposed upon, in taking our bills, they have been 
received and redeemed, but only through protest and compro- 
mise. 

Again, our emplo} r ees are almost exclusively stockholders 
or members of a famil} r whose head is a stockholder. You 
will see in our petition that the object of our association was 
to furnish employment and opportunities for learning trades 
and for reasonable remuneration for labor, which, up to the 
present, is about all we have been able to accomplish*. 

Mr. Hollister will probably endeavor to prove by affida- 
vits, that we "pay out" our bjlls to other than stockholders 
and employees; and he may find some such who have had our 
bills; but I think no one will testify under oath that he 
received them from any authorized agent, or that they were 
redeemed without protest and injunction not to take them 
ag'ain, etc. 

Our store scrip is not limited in circulation by specifica- 
tion on its face, though in fact it does not circulate outside our 
institution—it is used to pa} r emploj'ees, and is good onl} T for 
just what it calls for; it comprises little less than one-tenth of 
the bills reported for assessment. 

A great distinction exists between these two classes of 
bills. The store bills being good for any imported article in 
our store, while the Home D. is not presentable at this depart- 
ment, and in no instance has it ever been redeemed in such 
articles. In one respect, however, these two classes are similar, 
to wit: neither of them is ever paid or redeemed in cash or 
legal mone}', by any officer or agent of the association. We 
pay and redeem in the kind designated upon the face of the 
bills, and in nothing else. 

1 We have done business to a considerable amount with out- 
side parties — the Utah Northern Railroad Company, the super- 



316 BIOGRAPHY AND 

intendent of the Ogden Junction printing office, the Deseret News 
and Salt Lake Herald, etc., and could get affidavits from those 
parties showing we have never paid them our bills, but have 
given them direct orders to draw on departments agreed upon. 

If our counsel cannot relieve us of assessment on both 
classes of bills, they may think it polic}" to separate them, and 
only claim abatement on the "Home D." bills which, if 
allowed, would probably save over $8,000. 

The counsel will notice that the "Home D." bills are 

characteristically different from bills issued by any other 

co-operation. 

Yours affectionate^, 

Lorenzo Snow. 

We copy the two following affidavits as specimens of 
many others that were forwarded to Washington : 

Territory of Utah, | 

• Box Elder County, J 

January 28th, ,1879. 

Robert L. Fishburn, of Brigham City', in said county and 
Territory, being duly sworn according to law, deposes and 
says that he has occupied the position of chief clerk in the 
mercantile department of Brigham City Mercantile and Manu- 
facturing Association, during several years last past, and that 
he has never received, nor knoAvn any other clerk, secretary, 
superintendent, officer or agent of said Brigham City Mercan- 
tile and Manufacturing Association to have received, by way 
of exchange, or by way of payment for cash, or any legal 
tender, the scrip used by said association. 

Robert L. Fishburn. 

Sworn and subscribed to before me, this 28th day of Janu- 
ary, 1879. " 

. John D. Burt, 

Probate Judge, Box Elder County. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 317 

Territory of Utah, ( 

Box Elder County, j 

James Pett, superintendent woolen factory; Charles Kelley, 
superintendent boot and shoe department; I. C. Nielson, super- 
intendent cabinet department; 0. W. Stohl, superintendent 
tailors' clothing department; nil of Brigham City Mercantile 
and Manufacturing Association, of Brigham City, county and 
Territory aforesaid, being duly sworn according to law, depose 
and say that we are, and have been for a number of years 
last past, the salesmen of the articles made in our respective 
departments, and that we have exchanged the greater part of 
said articles for the scrip used by said association, which scrip 
we have never recognized as possessing a cash value, and have 
never known an instance in which said scrip has been received 
for cash or redeemed in cash. 

James Pett, 
Charles Kelley, 
I. C. Xielsox, 
0. W.' Stohl. 

Sworn and subscribed to before me, this 28th day of Janu- 
ary, 1879. 

John D. Burt, 
Probate Judge, Box Elder County, Utah. 

All efforts proved futile; "the powers that be" are opposed 
to union and progress, and justice was not to be obtained by 
legal process. Those people were forced to borrow ten thous- 
and two hundred dollars to meet an illegal, oppressive tax 
(which they paid under protest) which, in reality, was nothing 
but a swindle, concocted and enforced by heartless, unprin- 
cipled demagogues. 

The note following is the honest expression of a broad 
and generous heart, and worthy of preservation as a memorial 
of brotherlv love: 



318 biography and 

Salt Lake City, October 21st, 1879. 
Elder Lorenzo Snow: 

My Dear Brother. — I have always felt, since the burn- 
ing of your" factory, very sorry for your misfortune, and have 
often thought that it would only take a few dollars from each 
of the many friends of home industries to make v you whole. 
The accompanying ten dollars does not begin to express the 
extent of my sorrow, but I trust you will accept it as a free- 
will offering from the not ov^r abundant cash resources' of 
' Your brother in the Gospel, 

Joseph F. Smith. 

R espouse: 

s Bkigiiam City, October 23d, 1879. 

Dear Brother Joseph: 

I received your kind letter of the 21st inst. this morning, 
with the enclosed ten dollars as a donation to Brigham City 
Association, in .view of our misfortunes. This token (so unex- 
pected) given as manifestation of* your interest and sympathy, 
made me feel as though I wanted to relieve my heart with a 
good, old fashioned cry; however, I retired to my private 
room, where "prayer is wont to be made," and, with your letter 
open in my hand,- 1 poured out from the depths of my soul 
my, feelings of gratitude and thanksgiving to our Father in 
heaven for the faith and encouragement which your expression 
of interest and sympathy had awakened in my- bosom. 

I feel strong within me that your blessing and interest, 
like the "widow's oil," will multiply your "ten dollars" into 
thousands until we are relieved of our embarrassments. 
Respectfully yours, in the Everlasting Covenant, 

Lorenzo Snow. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 319 



CHAPTER XLIII. . 

Stake Conference in BiighamCity. — President B. Young expected. — Prepara- 
tions made. — Flags hoisted. — Conference in Bowery. — Box Elder Stake 
re-organized. — Lorenzo calls the officers of the United Order together. — 
Nominate officers. — All are accepted. — O. G. Snow to preside. — President 
Young's fatlierly counsel and blessing. 

<5\C S has been narrated in preceding pages, President Brigham 

,q-^y Young was in the habit of visiting the various Stakes 

of Zion as frequently as was consistent with other 

duties. On the 18th or 19th of August, 1877, he went to 

Brigham City to attend Stake Conference, which proved to be 

his last earthly visit beyond the limits of Salt Lake City; his 

death occurring on the 29th of the same month. 

. . . s 

As usual, on the event of a visit from President. Young 

and party, preparations, such as were not in order on ordinary 

occasions, preceded his coming — so fully had he won. the 

respect and the affections of his people, the Latter-day Saints, 

that on such occasions no labor and no expense was spared for 

his comfort and to do him honor. 

The President and party came; he was in excellent spirits 
at Brother Snow's table, where he was always entertained on 
his A^isits to Brigham City, he leaned back in his chair, and 
sang in a clear voice, one of his favorite hymns, muck to the 
gratification of all present. 

At that time, Brigham City could boast of no house suffi- 
ciently large to accommodate the immense gathering of the 
people, and the conference was held in a bowery, with a com- 
modious stand, which was neatly and .tastefully fitted up, and 
with special regard to the comfort and convenience of the 
Priesthood, who occupied it. Before the close of conference, 
President Youne; re-organized the Box Elder Stake of Zion. 



320 ^ BIOGRAPHY AND 

Previous to the conference, Lorenzo called together the 
principal officers of the council of the United Order of 
Brighara City, and in connection with them, selected the 
various officers for the re-organization of the Stake, with the 
exception of the presiding hoard; and all met the President's 
approval. After sanctioning those nominations, he asked 
Lorenzo to name the one he wished to fill the position of 
' President of the Stake, as Lorenzo's successor, to which Brother 
Snow replied, that he had no suggestion to make — "we have 
- left that entirely to } T ou." 

After corresponding remarks by brethren present, President 
Young proposed Lorenzo's eldest son, Oliver G., and Lorenzo 
nominated Elijah Box as his first, and Isaac Smith as his 
second, counselor, which was satisfactoiy. In placing Oliver 
before the people, President Young said, "Brother Lorenzo 
Snow has been, for many years, building up and sustaining a 
system to unite the people in their financial affairs, which I 
approve, and in order that he may not be embarrassed, or in 
any way interrupted in that direction, we propose his son 
Oliver to occupy this position — he will take his father's counsel 
and be one with him." 

The conference was in session two days, and after the close 
it was an almost universal remark, that never before had the 
people heard President Young speak as on that occasion — he 
seemed so very kind and fatherly, and particularly was his 
last speech referred to as being impressively soothing; it 
seemed, as was frequently remarked, as a father giving his last 
instructions to his children. How little did the Saints who 
listened to him, as they did, with rapt attention, think he was 
pronouncing his parting words and blessing. 

By a decision of the First Presidency, all of the Twelve 
Apostles who had been thus officiating were released from 
presiding in the Stake organizations. This explains the 
necessity for the re-organization as above described. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 321 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

Oliver G. Snow speaks. — His maiden speech. — Performs a good deed. — 
Called to go to assist the emigration. — Encounter with Indians. — Mission 
to England. — Visits New York. — Arrives in Liverpool. — Goes to Man- 
chester. — An incident relative to the death of Dickens. — Oliver attends a 
sectarian lecture. — Is challenged. — Attempts to respond. — Is repulsed. — 
The priest is disgraced and forsaken. — A visit to Scotland. — Descriptions. 
— Return to England. — Incomprehensible dialect. — Released. — Home 
again. — Ordained member of High Council. — Marries. — Mission to the 
States. — Visits Oberlin. — Ludicrous incident. — Visits his grandmother. — 
Preaches her funeral sermon. — At home appointed President of Box 
Elder Stake. 

WAS born on the twentieth of February, 1849, in Salt 
Lake City. When quite young, my father having been 
called to preside over the then crude settlement known 
as the Old Fort, where now Brigham City is located, after erect- 
ing a commodious dwelling, with a view of increasing a" feeling 
of brotherhood among the Saints, opened his house for public 
entertainments. At the opening one, a dramatic performance, 
I was on the programme for my "maiden speech," composed 
by my father for the occasion, commencing as follows: 

Ladies and gentlemen, one and all, 
I welcome you to my father's hall. { 

For its delivery I was awarded a pocket-knife. Those 
entertainments produced a most desirable effect in promoting 
friendship and affability omong the people. When eight years 
of age (a very cold day), I was baptized in the mill-race by 
Elder Neely, and confirmed by my father. In the following- 
spring I had the pleasure of rendering useful service to a 
'Brother Jones, who lived north of us. At that time the settlers 

23 



322 BIOGRAPHY AND 

were annoyed by a gang of horse thieves, composed of momi: 
taineers; so much so that there was no safety for animals 
when not in use, except under lock and key. One evening, on 
entering one of my father's pastures, I saw two horses tied to a 
bunch of willows, and thinking that one or both belonged to 
the Bishop, I decided to take them to the owner; but the 
Bishop informed me they were not his, and they were secured 
for the night. 

Early next morning, as I was driving cows to pasture, I 
- saw a dark visaged man emerge from a thicket by the road 
side over which I had just passed, and, drawing a revolver 
from its scabbard, he inquired, in a gruff tone, if I knew the 
whereabouts of the two horses he had tied to a tree in the pas- 
ture. I told him the whole affair, as well as an eight-year old 
boy could, 'under the threatening circumstances. Then point- 
ing to the caliber of his six-shooter, he said, "Unless you 
bring those horses back; I will put a bullet, through you of 
that size." I was relieved when the interview closed, and lost 
no time in reaching home, where I learned that the owner of 
the horses had arrived from Salt Lake, where they were stolen 
from him. The officers were notified, the thief secured and 
justice meted to him, and I escaped the bullet. 

In 1864 I had the honor of being ordained a member of 
the Fifty-eighth Quorum of Seventies; and soon after, at the 
re-organization of the militia, was called to act as standard- 
bearer in Colonel Loveland's staff; accompanied my father 
through the southern settlements, on one of President Young's 
tours, as far as Santa Clara. 

In the spring of 1868, 1 was called, with others, to perform 
a journey to the States to bring a company of Saints across the 
plains. On our return we had a fearful encounter with 
Indians, who ran off fifty head of our stock, which, after sev- 
eral hairbreadth escapes, we succeeded in recapturing, and 
arrived home in safety. 

During the autumn of 1868 and the following spring, I 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. - 323 

assisted dn building the great trans-continental railway; and 
during the summer of 1SG9, studied in the University of 
Deseret, under Prof. J. R, Park. 

In May, 1870, at a General Conference of the Church (held 
in May, awaiting President Young's return from St. George), 
by communication from my father, I was notified of my 
appointment as missionary to Europe, to come immediately to 
Salt Lake, to be set apart by the proper authorities for said 
mission. Not having the slightest previous intimation, I was 
taken by surprise, yet most gladly responded to the call; went 
to Salt Lake City, was set apart by my father and others, 
returned to Brigham City to bid adieu to friends and relatives, 
and within five days from the first announcement, I was on 
board the train en route for Great Britain. 

On reaching Ogden I had the pleasure of meeting a 
goodly number of Elders destined to the same point; and in 
each other's society our five days' transit across the continent 
to New York was A r ery pleasant. There we were detained one 
week, waiting for the steamer, which afforded a fine opportu- 
nity for sight-seeing, which was a genuine treat to those born 
and raised in the Great American Desert, beneath the towering 
cliffs, "crowned with eternal snows." Arriving at New York, 
I was not only surprised but almost bewildered by the confus- 
ing jargon of the cab drivers, hooting and wrangling to secure 
passengers for the hotels. Two of them had a serious confab 
about which was entitled to me, when- I took my valise, 
engaged another cab and left th'em to fight it ou,t. 

On the twenty-fifth of May we embarked on the beautiful 
steamer Minnesota, and after an uneventful voyage of eleven 
days, landed in Liverpool, where we were met and cordially 
greeted by President A. Carrington, at Islington, for many 
years the headquarters of the European mission. I soon 
received an appointment as traveling Elder in the Manchester 
Conference, with President David Brinton. Being an entire 
stranger, entirely ignorant of the locations of branches and 



324 BIOGRAPHY AND 

residences of the Saints, as my predecessor was about to make 
a farewell visit through the conference, I accompanied him on 
a general tour. 

About this time the celebrated author, Charles Dickens, 
died, and I recollect a little incident in relation to his death, 
which occurred on the first evening after we started. While 
waiting refreshments in a hotel in Bolton, a gentleman 
stranger of fine presence, whom we afterwards learned was a 
highly educated, prominent journalist, entered the room where 
many people were seated, some in groups and others as wall 
flowers, when the strange man commenced to eulogize Mr. 
Dickens, giving an account of his death, the great loss the 
community would sustain by his demise; and in beautiful lan- 
guage and eloquent dramatic style, portrayed the great worth 
and superior abilities of the deceased, adding that it would 
have been better that a thousand Britons had died, than for 
that noble man to give up his life. Finally, striking his 
broad, intellectual forehead with the palm of his hand, he 
exclaimed as if his whole soul was filled with anguish: "What, 
0, what was God Almighty thinking of when he caused that 
great and noble man to die?" We concluded that, although 
the speaker was considered great among his fellows, he cer- 
tainly must be out of joint where that expression originated. 

During this tour we everywhere met ,warm receptions 
from Saints and strangers. Although the people generally 
seemed very indifferent to the Gospel, while I labored in the 
Manchester Conference, I baptized a number into the Church. 
In Ma}', 1 871, I was appointed to the Presidency of the Leeds 
Conference, in which capacity I labored one year and six 
months with much satisfaction. While there, a seemingly 
trivial circumstance occurred, which resulted in much good. 
One day, in passing "up Manningham Lane, I noticed a large 
placard posted in a conspicuous position in front of a building 
which had occasionally been occupied by the Saints for meet- 
ings, saying that an apostle of the sect known as the apostolic 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 325 

church would deliver a series of lectures in said building, the 
first to be given that evening; the subject, "Behold the Lord 
cometh with ten thousand of His Saints, go ye out to meet 
Him." Curiosity prompted me to go to the lecture. The self- 
styled apostle, on entering the speaker's stand, immediately 
commenced praying very fervently, and in a particularly 
forcible strain, that the Lord would shed His Spirit abroad in 
the room and remove the terrible influence that prevailed in 
consequence of the Mormons having held meetings in that 
house. After this impressive supplication, he arose and stated 
to the congregation that having been informed that a Mormon 
missionary was present, he would like to make a few prefatory 
remarks before taking up the subject of his lecture. He then 
warmed up with a tirade of vituperation and scandalous abuse 
against Joseph Smith, the Prophet, exhausting the vocabulary 
of the English language in epithets, and rehearsing many of 
the time-worn slanderous stories manufactured by his most 
bitter enemies, and long since exploded. Having occupied 
much time which should have been devoted to his lecture, he 
found it necessary to apologize by saying his reason for having 
done so was he understood that a Mormon Elder was present, 
"and," said he, "I challenge him to come forward at the close 
of the lecture, and deny the charges I have made, if he can." 
Consequently, when he closed, and the meeting was about 
to be dismissed, responding to his challenge, I arose to contra- 
dict his absurd charges and calumnies, when he became 
exceedingly angry and vehemently opposed mytspeaking; but 
the audience was determined that I should be heard, several 
exclaiming, "Let the Mormon Elder speak!" It seemed that 
the man must permit me to reply to his accusations or create 
a riot. At this juncture, Mr. Sewell, the owner of the hall, 
arose and said he hoped no disturbance would be made on the 
part of the audience, and although the position assumed by ■ 
the apostle appeared strange, he said, "Still, inasmuch as he 
has rented the hall, he undoubtedly has the right to dictate 



326 BIOGRAPHY AND 

who may speak/' and said further, that he should regret to 
have any trouble arise over the matter. To which I replied 
that no one would regret more than myself that anything of 
that kind should occur; but I supposed the gentleman, in 
good faith, challenged me to refute his statements, if I could, 
concerning Joseph Smith and what he calls Mdrmonism; and 
being prepared to do so, I was simply responding to that 
request when I arose to speak, not supposing for one moment 
that any rule of decorum would be transcended; but inas- 
much as he persisted in maintaining his very singular point 
of refusal, I thought I could afford to content myself with the 
result. At all events, it was manifest that his course did not 
meet the approval of a majority present, the fraud being too 
transparent, and although intended to injure our cause, it cer- 
tainly produced the opposite effect, by arousing a spirit of 
inquiry and investigation with those who otherwise, perhaps, 
would never have given attention to the subject. It also had 
a marked effect in destroying respect for the self-styled apostle. 
I was informed that his audience diminished until he finally 
abandoned his lectures before the expiration of his engage- 
ment. 

In 1872, I visited Scotland, and was truly delighted with 
the points of historical interest I viewed during my brief stay 
in that highly celebrated country. I there had the privilege 
of addressing a congregation assembled in conference of the 
Saints, in a beautiful hall in Glasgow, many of whom were 
strangers. 

I took a trip with Elder George Reynolds (then President 
of the British mission in the absence of President Carrington) 
upon the beautiful Loch Lomond. After riding about ten 
miles, we reached Ballock, a small pier situated on the east 
shore of the lake, where we disembarked, walked about two 
and a half hours and reached the summit of the celebrated 
Ben Lomond, upwards of three thousand feet above the level 
of the' sea, an eminence commanding a most magnificent view 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 327 

of the surrounding country. We also visited Dumbarton 
Castle, where, with other specimens, we were shown the gigan- 
tic sword of William Wallace, which, by testing, we found to 
be of immense weight. 

In Edinburgh we visited the private residence of the 
great Protestant reformer, John Knox, in which was found one 
solitary article, an old arm-chair, said to have belonged to him. 
We also paid a visit to the palace and abbey of Hofyrood, 
which is associated with very many historical incidents, and so 
replete with various relics of antiquity as would require 
volumes to describe. The picture gallery is one hundred and 
fifty feet in length, and its walls are hung with portraits of one 
hundred reported kings of Scotland. Our conductor pointed 
out to us the place in the palace where Lord Darnley vented 
his murderous jealous} 7- on its unfortunate victim, Rizzio. 

We also ascended the hill known as King Arthur's Seat, 
supposed to have derived its name from the fact of the king 
having set it apart as a place of resort. It affords a magnifi- 
cent view of Edinburgh and surroundings; I think the most 
enchanting scenic view I ever beheld. Away to the right, the 
lovely Firth of Forth is seen, and the German Ocean glittering 
in the sunlight, like a field of diamonds, while on the left, rises, 
with majestic grandeur, the great towers and splendid mansions 
of the city of Edinburgh. I made the most of my brief visit 
to the "banks and the braes" of old Scotland; and on the 21st 
of May, returned to my missionary field in England, continu- 
ing my labors until September following — making my stay in 
that land nearly two and a half years, having had 'the honor, 
through the blessing of God, of baptizing about fort} r souls; 
also had the pleasure of attending conferences in Manchester, 
Birmingham, Sheffield, London, Durham and Newcastle. 
When in Birmingham, I visited the celebrated pen manufac- 
tory of Gillott & Sons, and was amused to learn that so simple 
an article passed through twenty-four different processes before 
it became a finished pen. 



328 BIOGRAPHY AND 

At the time of attending the London conference, I had 
been in the missionary field two 3 7 ears, when in company of 
President Carrington, of the European mission, he asked me if 
I was very "anxious to return home, saying, if I was not, he 
would like me to remain until autumn. I replied that I did 
not call myself to the mission, and felt perfectly willing to con- 
form to his wishes; hence the time was extended to the 
following October. 

While traveling in England, I was forcibly struck with 
the contrast in the financial condition of the Saints there and 
those in Utah. I learned that many families lived at least one 
week ahead of their means, the year round : many being under 
the necessity of pawning their Sunday clothes at the broker's 
on Monday morning, for means for their families to subsist on 
during the week, and at the end of the week, take their week's 
wages and redeem said clothing to wear on Sunday; then on 
Monday morning repeat the same, over and over during the 
} T ear. Although thus situated, their kindness and hospitality 
to the missionary Elders was a subject of notoriety. 

"When entering on my labors in Lancashire, I was much 
surprised, and not a little amused, in observing the peculiar 
dialects in vogue, at times finding myself completely non- 
plussed in endeavoring to comprehend the meaning.* For 
instance, meeting a gentleman on the road with which I was 
unacquainted, I enquired the direction to a certain point in 
question, to which he responded, "go top at broo and then spur." 
I afterwards learned that he told me to enquire at the top of 
the hill. 

In October, 1872, I was released to return home, leaving 
Liverpool on the steamer Idaho, and arrived home on the 13th 
of November, after an absence of two and a half years, and 
can truthfully say that in no period of my life have I derived 
more solid, genuine satisfaction than during that period. Soon 
after my return I was ordained a member of the High 
Council of Box Elder Stake. During the following winter 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 329 

was employed in the mercantile department of the Brigham 
City Mercantile and Manufacturing Association. 

On October 13, 1873, I married Mary B. ; daughter of Eli 
Harvey and Susannah Neff Peirce — the former, first Bishop of 
Brigham City, also one of the Pioneers to the valleys of the 
mountains. 

At the October Conference of 1875, I was called on a mis- 
sion to the States, and in connection with m} r missionary 
labors, had the privilege of visiting my relatives, and holding 
many public meetings among them; they according me every 
courtesy. Having a letter of introduction from my father to 
Chauncey Blair, Esq., of Mantua, Portage County, Ohio, I 
visited that gentleman, and expressing a desire to preach to 
the people, he kindly offered to procure the church owned by 
the society of which he was a member;' but subsequently 
informed me that he was unsuccessful, those interested in the 
building having refused on the ground 'that they, expected a 
minister from another locality to preach in their church on the 
same day as I proposed. But on learning from Mr. Blair that 
I could occupy the Town Hall, my appointment was circulated, 
and a splendid assembly convened. I was afterwards informed 
that the minister who essayed to hold forth in the church 
closed his meeting in disgust with only one-half dozen present. 

When in Oberlin, the following ludicrous cfrcumstance 
occurred, which I will relate, although at my own expense. I 
was introduced to one of my father's former college associates, 
by name Mrs. Bacon. Having formed a habit of associating 
an unfamiliar name which 1 wished to remember, with some- 
thing familiar, I very naturally associated the lady's name 
Bacon with hog; thinking that in the event of forgetting 
Bacon, it being so closely connected with hog, I could readily 
recollect it. But after spending a very pleasant- evening in 
her house, on rising to take leave, I said, "I wish you good 
evening, Mrs. Ham." Although I realized my mistake the 
instant it was uttered, I made no apology, thinking "the 



330 BIOGRAPHY AND 

apology might be worse than the offence;" but concluded my 
plan was not so reliable as I had supposed. 

On my wa} r to the States, I went a short distance out of 
my way to visit my aged grandmother on my mother's side, 
by the name of Goddard. She had been a member of the 
Church for many years, and expressed a desire to accompany 
me to Utah on my return home, to which I gladly consented. 
But when in the following season I called on her in fulfilment 
of my promise* I found her very feeble, being over eight}--nine 
.years of age, yet she seemed elated and buo} T ant with the 
anticipation of coming to the home of the Saints, until, by 
persuasion and entreaties of her daughter, with whom she 
resided, in connection with many of their neighbors, she was 
induced to relinquish the fond idea of gathering to Zion, 
which seemed to Have been the motive power of her mortal 
existence; for when she yielded her ambition to brave the 
fatigue of the journey, she apparently let go her hold on life, 
which passed out like the last faint gleam of an exhausted 
lamp, and I saw her eyes calmly close in the sleep of death. 
By request I preached her funeral sermon, and followed her 
remains to their last resting place. 

At the' re-organization of the Box Elder Stake of Zion, by 
President B. Young, I was appointed to preside over said 
Stake. 

In January, 1878, I was elected member of the board of 
directors of the Brigham City M ercantile and Manufacturing 
Association, and have' been re-elected annually, up to the 
present. In August, 1880, was elected representative to the 
twenty-fourth session of the Utah Legislature, and have been 
returned to the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth biennial sessions. 

I had the honor of assisting in the ceremonies of laying 
the corner stones of the Logan Temple, which is now nearing 
its completion. 

Since called to the important position as President of the 
Box Elder Stake of Zion, 1 have assisted in organizing wards, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 331 

relief societies, young men's and young women's mutual 
improvement and children's primary associations; ordaining 
Bishops, setting apart officers in various departments of the 
Priesthood, also officers in relief societies and in the associa- 
tions, all of which I am expected to watch over in the capacity 
of President of .the Stake. 

With all of these weight}' duties and responsibilities rest- 
ing upon me, I am frequently led to exclaim with one of old, 

"Who is sufficient for these things." 

Oliver G. Snow. 



CHAPTER XLV. 

Discourse by Elder Lorenzo Snow, delivered in the Tabernacle, S It Lake 
City, January 14, 1872. — Progression. — The' Fatherhood of God. — The 
perfect man. — The gifts of the Spirit.— His testimony. 

f TAKE pleasure, this afternoon, in making a few remarks 
I to the Latter-day Saints, as well as to any strangers who 
may be present. I never designed to be a preacher; it 
was only a sense of positive duty that induced me to occupy 
the position as a preacher of the Gospel. An understanding, 
given through the revelations of the Lord Jesus Christ, of the 
principles that we, the Latter-day Saints, have espoused, has 
induced me to travel through the world, bearing testimony of 
those things which I do assuredly know pertaining to the Gos- 
pel of life and salvation revealed in this our day. 

The relation that we sustain to the Lord our God, and the 
blessings and privileges to be acquired through the system of 
life which we have received, are worthy of our deepest consid- 
eration; and it is no less necessary that we understand the 
duties, the performance of which is requisite on our part, for 
the attainment of those blessings and privileges, and to keep 



332 BIOGKAPHY AND . 

ourselves in the path on which we may secure the highest 
advantages which the system of religion we have received is, 
in its nature, capable of giving. 

The relationship which we sustain to God our Father, as 
well as to the world at large, if properly understood and appre- 
ciated, is calculated to waken us up to the performance of the 
duties required of us as Latter-day Saints. We ought to 
understand that we have espoused a system of religion that is 
calculated in its nature to increase within us wisdom and 
knowledge — that we have entered upon a path that is pro- 
gressive — that will increase physical, spiritual and intellectual 
advantages and everything pertaining to our own happiness 
and the well-being of the world at large. 

We believe that we are the offspring of our Father in 
heaven, and that we possess in our spiritual organizations the 
same capabilities, powers and faculties that our Father pos- 
sesses, although in an infantile state, requiring to pass 
through a certain course or ordeal by which they will be 
developed and improved, according to the heed we give to the 
principles we have received. We believe that God is no 
respecter of persons, but that He confers blessings upon all 
His children, in proportion to the light they have, or in pro- 
portion as they proceed according to the light and knowledge 
they possess, in. the different circumstances of life that may 
surround them. 

We believe that the spirit which enlightens the human 
family proceeds from the presence of the Almighty; that it 
spreads throughout all space, that it is the light and life of all 
things, and that every honest heart possesses it in proportion 
to his virtue, integrity and his desire to know the truth and do 
good to his fellow men. 

We see the providences of- God in all things; Ave see them 
in raising up different communities and establishments in the 
world, for the general and universal benefit of mankind; we 
see the providences of God in -raising up a Luther, a John 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 333 

Wesley; we see the providences of God in all the Christian 
organizations and communities; we trace the hand of the 
Almighty in framing the constitution of our land, and believe 
that the Lord raised up men purposely for the accomplishment 
of this object — raised them -up and inspired them to frame 
the Constitution of the United States. 

We trace the hand of God, His Spirit, His workings 
upon and among all classes of people, whether Christian or 
heathen; that His providences may be carried out, and that His 
designs, formed before the morning stars sang together, or the 
foundations of the earth were laid, ma}' be fulfilled. He 
slackens not His hand, He does not relinquish His designs nor 
His purposes, but His work is one eternal round. We trace 
the hand of the Almighty, and we see His Spirit moving in all 
communities for their good — restraining and encouraging, 
establishing governments and nations, inspiring men to take a 
course that shall most advance His purposes, until the set 
time shall come when He shall work more fully and effectu- 
ally for the accomplishment of His designs; and when sorrow, 
wickedness,' bitter disappointment, vexation, distress and 
poverty shall cease and be no more known, and the salvation 
and happiness of His children be secured; when the "earth 
shall be rolled back in pristine purity, into its primeval orbit, 
and the inhabitants thereof dwell upon it in perfect peace and 
righteousness: 

[f there is any class of people in the world that has reason 
to be liberal and generous towards their fellow qreatures, it is 
the Latter-day Saints; and that our liberality and generosity 
are not shown more than they are, is in consequence of the 
pressure of circumstances with which we are surrounded, 
restraining us from the exercise thereof; but we expect to be 
hereafter in situations when we will have the privilege and 
opportunity of doing as we desire in this respect. However, 
in regard to this, whether circumstances shall so change or 
not, we know that we are in possession of a system of progres- 



334 BIOGRAPHY AND 

sion. We might speak in reference to the increase of knowl- 
edge to individuals who receive and obey the doctrines we 
teach; but that which is most interesting to us is the progres- 
sion of the Latter-day Saints themselves in the system we have 
received. 

- Our faith, views and the principles we have obeyed, all 
coincide perfectly with those of former-day Saints, which we 
find recorded in the Bible. Were ministers of the present day 
to stand in their pulpits and announce doctrines in reference 
to the progression of Saints, as they were preached in former 
days, the doctrines would be considered at least very startling, 
and a committee of investigation would undoubtedly be 
required at once, by their congregations, to ascertain whether 
or. not they* had seceded from their previously avowed prin- 
ciples. For instance, let a Methodist, Presbyterian or Baptist 
minister arise in his pulpit and suggest to his congregation, as 
Paul did on a certain occasion: " Let this same mind be in you 
which is also in Christ Jesus, who, having the form of God, 
thought it not robbery to be equal with God," it would be a 
startling announcement; so also would the doctrine of John, 
the Revelator, on a certain occasion, when he says: "Xow are 
we the sons of God : it does not appear what we shall be, but 
we know that when He (Christ) shall appear, we shall be like 
Him, for we shall see Him as He is ; and eveiy man that has 
this hope in him purifies himself even as God is"pure." That 
would be a startling announcement of doctrine. Did any one 
present, acquainted with the Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian 
or Episcopalian societies, ever hear suggestions or doctrines 
like these? I never did, and I was well acquainted formerly 
with these societies. " Let this same mind be in you which was 
in Christ Jesus, who, finding Himself in the form of God, 
thought it not robbery to be equal with God;" and, "He that 
has this hope in him purifies himself even as God is pure ;" and 
again, "When He shall appear, we shall be like Him, for we 
shall see Him as He is." 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 335 

We were born in the image of God our Father; He begat 
us like unto Himself. There is the nature of Deity in the 
composition of our spiritual organization. In our spiritual 
birth, our Father transmitted to us the capabilities, powers 
and faculties which He possessed, as much so as the child on 
its mother's bosom possesses, although in an undeveloped state, 
the faculties, powers and susceptibilities of its parent. 

"Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors and Teachers,", we 
are told, were, in former days in the church, "for the perfect- 
ing of the Saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edify- 
ing of the body of Christ, until we all come to the unity of 
the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto the 
perfect man." What is meant by this — "the perfect man?" 
And again, " Unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of 
Christ." A system was known in those days, through which a 
Saint could become perfect in the Lord Jesus — a system by 
which Saints could advance in the knoAvledge of the things of 
God — to an understanding of His purposes, of their own 
natures and characters, of their relationship to the Almighty, 
and of the ordeals necessary for them to pass through, that 
they might be perfected as the Son of God was perfected. 

This system, taught by Christ and His Apostles, was not 
at that time first introduced; it was known ages before — it was 
established before the foundations of the earth were laid. I 
will now quote a passage from the Book of Doctrine and Cov- 
enants, which will be found on page 80, section 4, para- 
graph 6: 1 ■ 

"He that receiveth me (saith the Lord), receiveth my 
Father, and he that receiveth my Father, receiveth my 
Father's kingdom; therefore, all that my Father hath shall be 
given unto him; and this is according to the oath and cove- 
nant which belongeth to the Priesthood. Therefore, all who 
receive the Priesthood, receive this oath and covenant of my 
Father, Avhich He cannot break, neither can it be moved ; but 
whoso breaketh this covenant, after he hath received it, and 



336 BIOGRAPHY AND 

altogether turneth therefrom, shall not have forgiveness of 
. sins in this world nor in the world to come." 

This is a revelation given to the Latter-day Saints, and so 
far as respects its provisions in reference to those who receive 
it, it is precisely in keeping with those passages I have quoted 
from the New Testament. They were the burden of the t 
teachings of the Apostles in former days; but were they pre- 
sented now to the Christian world by their ministers and 
teachers, they would be considered blasphemy. This system 
• was known to Adam after he* was expelled from the Garden of 
Eden; it was well known to Noah, and he preached it to the 
antediluvians one hundred and twenty years; it was also 
known in the days of Moses — he preached it to the Israelites, 
on the banks of the Red Sea. "I would not have you igno- 
rant," says the Apostle, in reference to this point, "how that our 
fathers all passed through the sea — were all under the cloud, 
all ate of the same spiritual meat, all drank the same spiritual 
drink, for they drank of that spiritual rqck which followed 
them, and that rock was Christ." 

It is evident from this that the Gospel of life- was known 
and practiced there; but we are told that in consequence of 
wickedness and unbelief, the Gospel was taken from the people 
in the time of Moses, because it did not profit them, and 
instead thereof a system called the "schoolmaster to bring 
them to Christ" was introduced. On account of their wicked- 
ness and hardness of heart, they refused to avail themselves of 
the privileges within their reach; for when the Lord proposed 
to come down into their midst and talk with them face to face, 
as He did with Moses, they requested Moses to officiate for 
them and speak with the Lord; and being filled with unbelief 
and unwillingness to become acquainted with God, their 
Father, the Gospel and all its privileges were withdrawn. 
Thus Ave see this Gospel has been introduced at various times 
into the world. It was known to the Prophets; they under- 
stood plainly and distinctly that Jesus was the Lamb slain 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 337 

from the foundation of the world, and that in due season He 
would manifest Himself to the children of men — that He 
would die for their sins, and be crucified, in order to' complete 
the plan of salvation. -The Prophets had the Gospel and its 
advantages; and the Holy Spirit, that is ever connected with 
it, was poured out upon them in fulness. 

There was a certain blessing connected with- obedience to the 
Gospel — the gift of the Holy Ghost. When people received the 
ordinances of the Gospel, they were promised that they should 
receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. The Savior, who undoubt- 
edly knew best about the nature and character of this gift, 
said it should lead all who received it into all truth, and show 
them things to come. It should do more than that Spirit 
which proceeds from God, filling the immensity of space and 
enlightening every man that. comes into the world; the Holy 
Ghost should lead into all truth and show them things to 
come. Furthermore, in speaking of its effects, the Apostle 
says : " The Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. To 
one is given faith." Not a common, ordinary faith to which 
some people pretend at the present day; but a faith which 
enables its possessors to be sawn asunder — to be cast into dens 
of lions, fiery furnaces, and to undergo tortures of every' 
description. This was the kind of faith the Holy Ghost con- 
ferred upon those who possessed it, enabling them to stand in 
the midst of every difficulty, defy every opposition, and even 
sacrifice life, if necessary, for the cause they had espoused- 
There was an omnipotent, inspiring power in this faith, given 
by the Almighty through the \lo\y Ghost, which no other 
principle could communicate. 

To one was given faith, to another knowledge; not that 
which is gained by reading books merely, but knowledge 
from the Eternal Father. A self-inspiring principle was con- 
ferred on them, which was tangible, giving them a knowledge 
of the cause they had espoused. They knew by revelation 
from God that the Gospel thev had obeved was true ; it was 

24 



338 x BIOGRAPHY AND 

revealed to them in a manner they could not dispute, and they 
knew for themselves. They were then established upon the 
rock of revelation. - 

There is a great difference between the possession of the 
Holy Ghost, and the mere possession of the Spirit of God.. 
All honest-hearted people, "who are living according to the best 
light they have received, have the Spirit of God. All Chris- 
tian churches have it, i, e., those who seek truth and righteous- 
ness. The Baptists, if they are honest, have it; so have the 
Methodists and Presbyterians; so also have all Christians and 
also heathen nations. . Go to China, and all honest-hearted 
people there have the Spirit of God ; in fact, we are told that 
this is "the light that lighteth every man that cometh into the 
world." But to say that all have the Holy Ghost — the gift 
that was promised to those who .obeyed the Gospel — is incor- 
rect. 

AVe can trace the providences of God in raising up certain 
individuals to establish religious organizations, and we see in 
these the workings of the Spirit of God for the general interest 
of the human family. AVe look upon George Washington, 
the father of our country, as an inspired instrument of the 
Almighty; we can see the all-inspiring Spirit operating upon 
him and his co-workers in resisting oppression, and in estab- 
lishing thirteen colonies as a confederacy; and then again, the 
workings of the same Spirit upon those men who established 
the Constitution of the United States. In a revelation con- 
tained in the J3ook of Doctrine and Covenants, the Lord says: 
"And for this purpose have I established the. constitution of 
this land, by the hands of wise men, whom T raised up unto 
this very purpose." AVe see the hand of the Lord in these 
things. The Christian churches will not acknowledge these 
spiritual operations, which we most firmly believe, in regard 
to the workings of Providence and the operations of the Spirit 
of the Lord upon the hearts of the human family. 

AVe now most conspicuously see the hand of the Almighty 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 339 

in establishing a kingdom spoken of in ages long past by 
Daniel, the Prophet — a kingdom which shall grow and spread 
until it fills the whole earth: when light and intelligence will 
be so generally diffused that it shall no longer be necessary for 
any man to say to his fellows, " Know ye the Lord," but all 
shall know Him, from the least unto the greatest. And when 
the Spirit of the Lord shall be poured out upon all flesh to 
such a degree that the sons and the daughters shall prophesy, 
the old men shall dream dreams, the young men shall see 
visions, and when there shall be nothing to hurt- or destroy in 
all the holy mountain of the Lord. 

We have seen- what has been promised, and what sug- 
gestions made and encouragement given in relation to our 
progression, as contemplated by the Prophets, expressed in 
their writings in the Old and New Testaments. We see what 
God in His revelations direct has said to us; and we might 
bring up passage after passage from the Xew Testament, Book 
of Doctrine and Covenants, and the Book of Mormon, in 
regard to the progression and happiness of His people. But 
there are other considerations connected with this to which I 
will call your attention. The revelations of the Lord given to 
us say that all things shall be given to those who receive the 
Priesthood; but in connection with this promise are certain 
obligations which have to be fulfilled on our part. That same 
God and Father who tells us what great blessings await the 
faithful,, says: "Whoso layeth down his life for my cause and 
for my name's sake shall receive it again, even life eternal; 
therefore, fear not your enemies, for 1, the Lord, have decreed* 
in my heart that I will prove you in all things, whether you 
will abide in my covenant, even unto death, for he that will 
not abide in my covenant is not worthy of me." • 

Here on one hand are promised those extraordinary and 
wonderful blessings; and on the other, if we renounce the 
doctrine we have received, or if we are unwilling to stand up 
to the point, even of death, in fulfilling the will of our Father 



340 BIOGRAPHY AND 

in the accomplishment of His work, we shall be counted 
unworthy of the promised blessings. 

' Now you take a man, no matter from what country, if he 
be a man of integrity, when he receives a knowledge of the 
truth, he will stand to that knowledge; you cannot force it 
from him by imprisonment, or by taking away his property or 
destroying every earthly source of his happiness. Do what 
you will to annoy and oppress him, he will still stand firm in 
his adherence to .the principles he knows are true. 

When the Gospel reached us in the different nations 
whence we came, the Spirit of the Lord gave us convictions of 
.its truth, and in the honesty of our hearts we received it and 
. its blessings, otherwise we would have remained at our several 
homes. AVe were promised by the several Elders who pro- 
claimed the Gospel unto us, that if we would do the will of 
God, if 'we would obey the Gospel, we should receive the gift 
of the Holy Ghost; they said, as Peter said on the da} r of Pen- 
tecost, "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, for the 
remission of } r our sins, and }^ou shall receive the Holy Ghost." 
Then when they spoke of the operations of the Holy Ghost, 
they described them as Jesus, Paul, John and the Saints who 
received it testified in regard to it from the effects it produced 
upon them. Therefore, when the Gospel was received under 
circumstances of this nature, those who were its recipients 
expected superior and extraordinary blessings — blessings they 
could not reach in any other religious society. They were 
promised such blessings as all other religious denominations 
said did not exist and could not be received. They would 
acknowledge that such blessings had formerly been received 
through the Gospel, but could not be imparted now. 

Henee,.if those who obeyed the Gospel, as taught by the 
Elders of this Church, did not receive the blessings promised, 
why do I see them before me here to-day by thousands? Why, 
when traveling through the length and breadth of this coun- 
try, do 1 see people who have gathered, comparatively, from 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 341 

almost every nation under the sun? If they received not the 
fulfilment of what was promised, why are they here in this 
Territory? In these valleys of the mountains? They had 
better stayed at home. It is the most inconsistent thing 
imaginable to suppose that people after being deceived should 
leave their country, homes and friends and cross the wide 
ocean and vast deserts into a land of which the}' knew nothing. 

When Abraham was commanded to leave his home and 
kindred he obeyed the mandate of the Most High', and the 
fact that thousands are now here, settled through this long ' 
strip of country, over hills, valleys and mountains, proves that 
they" have followed the example of the "father of the faithful," 
they have shown b} r their acts that they have received the all 1 
inspiring power of the Holy Ghost which was promised them, 
which revealed to them that the Lord had fulfilled the 
prophecy of His servant Daniel, that without hands He had 
cut a stone from the mountains, and that it had commenced to 
move, and roll, and would continue on its course until it had 
fulfilled the destiny predicted by the* Prophet. 

If the people here have not received the knowledge 
promised in connection with their obedience to the Gospel, 
they are acting most inconsistently; for the} r are perpetuating 
upon their children, their children's children, and upon, future 
generations, a system that is entirely false — binding a yoke of 
tradition upon them, with consequences beyond the power of 
language to describe. And more than this, they are guilty of 
the most gross offence before the Almighty, for they are not 
only injuring themselves, but they are laying a foundation* to 
destroy the happiness of unborn generations. 

But the fact that the work still continues and increases, 
and that the last words of the dying Saints to their children 
and friends are, "I know by the revelations of God that this 
work is true,'" is strong presumptive proof of its absolute truth. 

If you Saints here do not know this work is of God, it is 
your duty to rise up and declare yon have been deceived, 



342 BIOGRAPHY AND 

acknowledge that the Spirit of God has not been given you, 
and that the declaration of the Elder who promised it is 
entirely false; and thus try to correct the error which you 
have been guilty of propagating. At once leave the " Mormon " 
Church, and you would resume a position that would be more 
consistent: then get a testimony from on high that some other 
church possesses the system of salvation — get a testimony that 
the Book of Mormon and Book of Doctrine and Covenants are 
spurious, and just the moment you get that testimony, where 
are you? Where are the words of the Apostle Peter? "Repent 
and be baptized, every one of you, and you' .shall receive the 
Holy Ghost." Where are the words of the Lord Jesus? Tie 
says, "It (the Holy Ghost) shall lead you into all truth, and 
show }'ou things to come." Where are the words of the 
Apostle Paul? "Let this same mind be in you which was in 
Christ Jesus, who, finding himself in the the form of God, 
thought it not robbery to be equal with God." Where are the 
words of John? "We know that we are the sons of God, and it 
does not appear what we shall be, but we know that when He 
(Jesus) shall appear, we shall be like Him, for avc shall see Him 
as He is: and every man that hath this mind in him, purifies 
himself, even as God is pure." Throw these doctrines aside; 
let them pass and go to a Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, 
Quaker oi\ Shaker, then wbere is your Bible, and of what 
account ? 

I testify before this assembly, as I have testified before the 
people throughout the different States of the Union, and 
throughout England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Italy, Switzer- 
land and France, that God Almighty, through my obedience 
to the Gospel of Jesus, has revealed to me, tangibly, that this 
is the work of God — that this is His Gospel, and that this is 
His 'kingdom which Daniel prophesied should be set up in 
the last days. I prophesy that any man who will be humble 
before the Lord — any man who will, with child-like sim- 
plicity, be baptized for the remission of his sins, shall receive 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. - 343 

the Holy Ghost, which shall lead him into all truth, and 
show him things to come: he shall receive a knowledge from 
God that His kingdom has been established in these latter 
days; and that it shall never be thrown down, or be left to 
another people. 

In saying this, I say no more than every man could say, 
and has said, who had a dispensation of the Gospel. I would 
not have traveled over the face of the earth, as I have for the 
last thirty-five years, unless God had revealed this unto me. 
I have already said, nothing but absolute duty ever prompted 
me to travel and preach this Gospel ; but I received a dispensa-' 
tion from the Most High, and I could say, and do say now, as 
the Apostle Paul said: "I received not this Gospel from man, 
but 1 received it by revelation from God." I say that 
any man who will humble himself before God, and be 
immersed in water (after repentance) for the remission of his 
• sins, shall receive, through the laying on of hands, the Holy 

, Ghost. Can I give him this? No. I, as a messenger of the 
Lord, to whom authority has been delegated, administer 

, immersion for the remission of sins — I simply immerse him 
in water, having authority so to do. I simply lay my hands 
upon him for the reception of the Holy Ghost; then God, from 
His holy presence, acknowledges my authority — acknowledges 
that I am His messenger, and confers the Holy Ghost upon 
the individual. This is the Gospel; this is what constitutes a 
man a savior of life unto life, as Jesus told His disciples they 
were. 

Talk about this kingdom being destroyed! Talk about, 
reason upon, lay plans here and there, by the combined wis- 
dom of governments, to destroy the, kingdom of God! Why, 
you might as well try to pluck the stars from the firmament, 
or the mooirand the sun from their, orbits ! It can never be 
accomplished, for it is the work of the great I AM. I advise 
every man who has a disposition to put forth his hand against 
this work to hold on and consider. Take the advice of 



344 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Gamaliel, the lawyer. Said he: "If this is the work of God, 
ye can do nothing against it; if it is not, it will come to 
nought." 

Well, now, they say that the "Mormons" are fanatical. 
If so, it is very good fanaticism. We have philosophy, 
science, truth, the power of God and the testimony of good 
men on our side. I can select twelve men, with whom I have 
been acquainted during the last twenty-five, thirty or thirty- 
five years: I have known them under varied circumstances, 
in which thejr hearts have been proved, their feelings tried, 
and their honesty and integrity tested. Have I confidence in 
these men? I have just as much as I have when I read in 
the New Testament about Twelve Apostles. I know nothing 
about Peter, James, or the other Apostles, but these men 
I know something about — I have seen their honor and 
integrity tried under various circumstances in life. Have 1 
not a right to believe their testimony? Most assuredly I have, 
and I will prophesy of them — No, excuse me, I am not in the 
habit of prophesying: I will say here, that in generations to 
come, the doings of these men will be read — the account of 
their labors in preaching the Gospel to the nations of the 
earth — what they have suffered for the cause of God; the 
imprisonment, contumely, drivings" from .Ohio, Missouri, 
Jackson, and the northern counties of Missouri, and from 
Illinois, and how they have passed through all this and almost 
everything in the shape of suffering that can be imagined; 
and have still adhered to, and borne their testimony to the 
the truth. Their works will be read, and in generations to 
come, people will have just as much confidence in these 
men as Christians (so called) now profess to have in the 
Twelve Apostles whose doings are recorded in the New Testa- 
ment. They are just as good men, we have ever} 7 reason to 
believe. 

As to the truth of what the Apostles, whom we read 
of in the New Testament, said, I know nothing, only what 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 345 

I experience, through having observed the same system 
they preached. They received the blessings pertaining to it, 
so have I received what they promised should be conferred 
upon those who, in their day, received that system. There- 
fore, we who have received a like experience are the only wit- 
nesses to the truth of what those Apostles said; we are the only 
witnesses of the truth in respect to what Jesus said. Jesus said, 
"He that will do the will of my Father, shall know of the 
doctrine." We are witnesses that Jesus told the truth. 

The Apostlessaid -that those who receive the Gospel by 
baptism for the remission of sins, shall receive the Holy Ghost. 
We are witnesses that they told the truth. Can. the Methodist 
or Presbyterian ministers witness to these facts? No: they 
know nothing about them. They received their diplomas and 
endowments at college — they trust in the wisdom of man — to 
the knowledge of science; we trust in the power of the 
Almighty. Perhaps it maybe said to us: "For ye see' your 
calling, brethren; how that not many wise men, after the 
flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called. But 
God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound 
the wi'se; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world 
to confound the things that are mighty; and base things of 
the world, and things that are despised, hath God chosen, yea, 
and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are." 

Well, I do not feel materially concerned about anything 
that regards the advancement and prosperity of the. kingdom 
of God. It is a matter that I have not contrived, nor my 
brethren : it is the Lord's affair. Thus far He has done this 
work. We never eame to these valleys through our own 
designs and«wishes: the Lord our God brought us here, and 
when He wants us to leave, we shall be better prepared to go 
than we were to come. We simply do what our Heavenly 
Father commands. God loves His offspring, the human 
family. His design is not simply to create happiness for the 
few called Latter-day Saints. The aim and scheme He is now 



340 BIOGRAPHY AND 

eanying out is for universal salvation — not only for the salva- 
tion of the Latter-day Saints, but for the salvation of every 
man and woman on: the face of the earth: for those also in 
the spirit world, and for those who may hereafter come upon 
the earth. It is for the salvation of ever}^ son and daughter 
of Adam. * They' are the offspring of the Almight\/; He loves 
them all, and His plans are for the salvation of the whole, 
and He will bring all up into that position in which they will 
be as comfortable and as happy as th'ey are willing to be. 

Our mission is to the world, and not simply to carry the 
Gospel to the people, but to establish plans and lay foundations 
for their temporal salvation. Our object is as much for the 
temporal as for the spiritual salvation of the people. The 
time is approaching when the nations will be broken up, on 
account of their wickedness. The ' Latter-day Saints are not 
going to war against them — they will destroy themselves with 
their immorality and abominations. They will quarrel and 
contend one with another, State with State, and nation with 
nation, until the} T are broken up; and thousands, tens and 
hundreds of thousands, will, undoubtedly, come for protection 
at the hands of the servants Of God, as much so as in the 
days of Joseph in Egypt, when he was called upon to devise a 
plan for the salvation of the house of Israel. 

We have received revelations, and, accordingly, Ave are 
here in these mountain vales, and we arc going to stay. We 
shall cultivate our farms and lay a foundation for a time when 
the nations shall be broken up. Multitudes will then flee to 
these valleys of the mountains for safety, and we shall extend^ 
protection- to them. You may say, "Shall you require them 
to be baptized and become Latter-day Saints?" Xot by any 
means. I often meet gentlemen from different portions of. the 
Union. I never offer them my religious views, unless they 
seek them. I am not anxious to push my religious views upon 
any man. I will do them all the good-I can. If a gentleman 
comes into my neighborhood, a stranger, I will say, will you 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 347 

have something to eat? Is there anything I can do for you? 
I am not anxious to make a "Mormon" of him— not by any 
means; we extend the hand of charity just as far as people are 
willing we should; but when, as I said at the commencement, 
people are crowding upon us — those who are determined to 
destroy us — who have not the principles of humanity in their 
bosoms, we cannot exercise the charity in their behalf that 
we desire. .. 

We expect to do good ; it is our duty as the servants and 
ministers of God upon the earth to do good to His offspring. 
This is our mission, and it is as much our duty to do good to 
those who do not receive the Gospel, as it is to do good to our- 
selves; and God will give us the opportunity, just in accord- 
ance to our desires, despite the efforts of evil-minded men. 
Our duty is to save, not to destroy; and as we improve and 
advance, and develop the attributes of Deity within us, God 
will remove from our path the impediments which obstruct 
our progress, and the bitter branches, as they increase and 
manifest themselves, will, one after another, be removed, until 
the people of God have "all the opportunities they can desire 
to do good to the world. God bless you, my brethren and 
friends. — Journal of Discourses. 



348 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

Lorenzo's birthday. — A surprise. — His escort. — Enthusiastically greeted. — 
Address. — He responds. — Singing "Grandfather's Clock." — A hair picture 
presented. — Recitation by the children. — Autograph album presented. — 
Tables loaded with luxuries. — Dinner.— Singing. — Lorenzo makes a 
speech. — Parting Hymn. — Dismissal. 

HE following is a synopsis of the report of a surprise 
tendered to brother Lorenzo, by the members of his 
* family, on the third of April, 1879, in celebration of the 
sixty-fifth anniversary of his birth. 

The family assembled at. four p. m., at the old homestead, 
when four of Lorenzo's daughters, to wit: Mesdames Roxcy 
Box, Sylvia West, Ida Gibbs, and Clara McAllister, having 
been previously appointed, escorted their father into the 
assembly. Upon entering the hall, he was enthusiastically 
greeted with smiling faces, and many sweet voices joining in 
the song, 

" WE ARE ALL HERE. 

We are all, all here; 

Father, mother, sister, brother, 

All who hold each other dear; 
Each chair is filled, we're all at home, 
To-night let no cold stranger come. 
It is not often thus around 
Our old, familiar hearth we're found; 
Bless then the meeting and the spot — 
For once be every care forgot; 
Let gentle peace assert her power, 
And kind affection rule the hour; 

We're all, all here — we're all, all here. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 349 

• We are not all here! 
Father, mother, sister, brother, 
Some have gone, who were most clear; 

But we now gather 'round this hearth, 

Though some have passed away from earth; 

The voice that once with ours did ring, 

Has gone to dwell whera angels sing; 

0, then, that wisdom may we know, 

That yields a life of peace below; 

And in the life that follows this, 

May each repeat the words of bliss, 

We're all, all here — we're all, all here. 

-J 

We are not all here! 
Father, mother, sister, brother, 
Yet our thoughts will bring them near; 

We pray that our whole earthly band, 

Before God's throne at last may stand 

Unbroken as the links of love, 

In- that bright home in heaven above. 

The severed links, the golden chain, 

Be there united once again; 

With this sweet thought our hearts we'll cheer, 

For then we'll say, we all are here; 

We're all, all here — we're all, all here. 

0. G. Snow, the eldest son, had been commissioned to lead 
• in the programme, and state the object of the meeting; being 
absent, Professor E. A. Box, a son-in-law, gave the following 
address: 

President Lorenzo Snow: 

Respected Husband and Father. — We, your wives, chil- 
dren, grandchildren, sons-in-law, and daughters-in-law, have 
convened on this occasion, in honor of the sixty-fifth anniver- 
sary of your birth, having a sincere desire to manifest our 
respect and gratitude to one whose kindness and wise counsels, 
of which we, as wc.ll as many others, have been the favored 
recipients. 



350 BIOGRAPHY AND 

May the returns of the day be many and happy ones, and 
may your cares and sorrows never be occasioned by members 
of this extensive, and, we trust, truly respected family; and, 
though the words of our Savior, "A man's foes shall be they 
of his own household," may be verily true in many cases, in 
yours may they prove to be strictly inapplicable. 

The poet says: 

If the stock of our bliss is in strangers' hands vested, 
The fund, ill-secured, oft in bankruptcy ends; 

But the heart issues bills that are never protested, 
When drawn on the firm of wife, children and friends. 

The day-spring of youth, still unclouded by sorrow, 

Alone, on itself for enjoyment depends; 
But dreary the twilight of age, when it borrows 

No warmth from the smiles of wife, children and friends. 

And we say: 

May we onward and upward, all cherish and nourish 
The virtues on which this rich blessing depends; 

And may we with love and fond hearts ever cherish 
The tie that now makes us wives, children and friends. 

Wishing you many, very man} 7 happy returns, we remain, 
your loving and obedient Family. 

Brother Lorenzo responded in a fatherly, affectionate 
speech, replete with wise counsels and exhortations — referring 
to the order of the Priesthood, and the blessings, both temporal 
and spiritual, to be secured through obedience to its require- 
ments; and closed by warmly and feelingly expressing -his 
thanks and appreciation of their united expression, and 
blessed his happy audience. 

After which, Mrs. Armeda S. Young and Miss Dora Snow 
sang "Grandfather's Clock," all joining in the chorus. Then a 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 351 

committee of eldest three daughters, Mesdames Abigail S. 
Kosenbaum, Eliza S. Dunford and Rosetta S. Loveland, in a 
neat speech in behalf of the family, presented their father a 
beautiful hair picture, consisting of a spray in the centre, 
composed of his hair and that of his wives, which was 
.encircled with a choice wreath of hair of the children — a slip 
of paper, with the name of each attached to his or her hair, 
and all set in "a rich frame, comprising a record of forty 
members of the family. An autograph album was also pre- 
sented, containing interesting and appropriate sentiments. 

After another song by the company, a recitation by the 
children followed, then all repaired to the dining hall, and sat 
down to tables loaded with luxuries, where floral decorations 
shed a sweet perfume on all around. 

The social table repast over, the remainder of the evening 
was devoted to singing, speeches, readings, recitations, toasts, 
etc., until nine o'clock, when Brother Snow again addressed 
the company. His heart seemed to overflow with joy and affec- 
tion as he spoke of the blessed privilege of renewing our 
relationship hereafter, and of extending it in unlimited 
duration. He again blessed his family, and, after a parting 
hymn was sung, dismissed the assembly — thus closing a 
delightful scene, which will long live in sweet remembrance of 
all present. 



352 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER XLVII. 

George F. Gibbs. — His parents receive the Gospel. — His early youth.— 
Employed in a printing establishment. — How he stood with his asso- 
ciates. — Had to fight liis way to maintain his integrity. — Honored the 
Word of Wisdom. — Drew a prize. — Was highly honored.— Chosen for 
out-door preaching. — Compliments his mother. — Leaves home for 
Liverpool. — Clerk and book-keeper in Liverpool Office. — Emigrates to 
America. — In President B. Young's Office. — Goes to Liverpool Office. — 
Works there three years. — Home again. — Anecdote. — Masters Phon- 
ography. — Has been and now is Church Reporter. 

WAS born in the town of Haverford-West, Pembroke 
County, South Wales, November 23d, 184(3. My parents' 
names are George Duggan and Ellen Phillips Gibbs. 
On my mother's side I am Welsh, and on my father's of 
English descent. My great-grandfather, John Gibbs, with one 
of his brothers, on leaving his home on the Isle of Wight, was 
shipwrecked on the south coast of Pembrokeshire, South 
Wales, where they afterwards married and settled. 

In 1850 Daniel Williams, a "Mormon" missionary Elder, 
came to my native town, became acquainted with ni} T parents, 
and made his home with them before they joined the Church. 
During this time my brother/ Charles Warren, was taken 
dangerously ill. Elder Williams administered to him, and he 
Avas instantly healed. This fact created an interest in the new 
religion, as it was called, and m} T parents were among the first 
to receive it. 

When seven years old, I well remember wishing I was 
eight, that I might be baptized; and on the night I was eight, 
my father baptized me according to the rites of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. At an early age I was 
ordained a Deacon, and assisted the senior Deacon of the 
branch in sweeping, dusting, and carrying water for him to 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 353 

wash the floor of the meeting house. _ While yet young, I was 
ordained Teacher, then Priest and Elder, and officiated as 
clerk and treasurer of the branch, also clerk of the conference. 

I attended a common school until sixteen years old, when 
I left, of my own accord, to accept a situation as junior clerk 
in a printing establishment. After having officiated there 
eleven months, a communication from Presidents Wells and 
Young, of the European mission, informed my father of a 
vacancy in the Liverpool office, tendering me the situation, 
which I gladly accepted. 

During the nine years from my baptism, until I left my 
home for the Liverpool office, I acquired an experience which 
has ever been delightful tp contemplate. I learned early to 
call upon the Lord and to place implicit confidence in Him, 
and have ever since regarded it as one of the dearest privileges 
accorded to a human being. From my earliest recollection, I 
attended meeting, and during these years I never missed one; 
and I cannot remember when I did not know the truth and 
divinity of "Mormonism." It seems to me I have always 
known it. 

The character of the richer portion of the people of my 
native town was strictly aristocratic, to whom the Gospel of 
the meek and lowly Nazarene, as taught by the Latter-day 
Saints, was beneath even a casual notice; and the spirit of the 
poorer class, was, as a general thing, not only opposed, but 
ofttimes led many of them to ill treat those who adhered to 
it. As our little branch never numbered more ^han twenty or 
• thirty at a time, with its members widely scattered, as "Mor- 
mons," it may readily be perceived how we stood in relation to 
the people of the town generally. From my youth I was 
known among my fellows as a "Mormon," and during my 
boyhood had to fight my way in order to maintain my ground 
as a boy among boys. Had I taken to myself the counsel the 
Savior gave to His disciples to govern them in their ministry, 
namely, to "turn the other cheek," mv spirit would have been 

25 



354 BIOGKAPHY AND 

crushed in my youth through imposition and abuse. I learned 
to defend and fight for my religion from the word go, and it 
has always seemed the sweeter to me, perhaps, on that account. 
Having had to cope with opposition to the truth from early 
boyhood, I very naturally imbibed the spirit to stand by my 
friends, the friends brought to me through the everlasting 
Gospel, and this element of brotherhood I now regard as being- 
essential in the character of a true Latter-day Saint. 

For out-of-door games I always had a particular fondness. 
I do not think there lived a boy that loved play better than I ; 
consequently the temptation to play at night as well as in the 
day was strong and great. But a spirit early impressed me 
not to join my playmates after dark. I believed then it was 
the Spirit of the Lord that prompted me, and therefore 1 
resolved in my own mind to govern myself accordingly. I 
have since regarded this step taken in early boyhood as that 
which placed me beyond the temptations that most of my 
fellows became victims to. And it is the fact, in connection 
with my early connection with the Church of God, that my 
boyhood days were days of purity that makes the reminis- 
cences of youth so sweet and delightful to contemplate. 
Although brought up among boys of the world, many of 
whom were under no restraint and, therefore, could indulge 
in unbecoming language and pernicious practices with 
impunity, through having early been taught the Word of 
Wisdom and to regard as most sacred the name of the Lord, 
and having so soon been brought into the harness of the 
Gospel, I was enabled to set an example before my school- 
mates that won me their confidence "and respect. In this 
connection I am reminded of an incident at school which I 
may be excused for mentioning: At one of our annual 
examinations, which were always public, the mayor of the 
town announced during his address that, to the boy who 
should excel in deportment and punctuality the ensuing 
twelve months, he would present the sum of two guineas. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 355 

i 

This was, of- course, hailed with delight by the boys, and met 
with general favor by the parents. The children attending 
the school (numbering from one hundred and fifty to two 
hundred) were the offspring of the Nonconformist element of the 
town — the people who had manfully stood out against the rites 
of the Church of England being foisted upon them. As boys, 
therefore, we represented all the dissenting religious denomina- 
tions, I being, however, the only "Mormon" boy. At the begin- 
ning of the school year a book was provided, afterwards known 
as the Black Book, in which the names of boys were to be recorded 
for misbehavior or bad conduct. The year rolled by and 
examination time came. At the close of the mayor's address 
he reminded the scholars of his last year's promise; and amid 
the utmost stillness he announced the name of George F. 
Gibbs as being the only boy that had not been tardy or 
absent during the year, and the only boy whose name was 
not recorded in the Black Book. By request of the mayor 
I presented myself before him to receive the reward, and was 
the recipient of a high compliment from his lips. In com- 
peting for this reward, besides its monetary, value I had 
another object in view, namely, to show our highly religious 
and high-minded townsfolk, in a small way, to be sure, that 
"Mormonism" produced fruits, and that its fruits, produced by 
boys as well as men, were good. 

At one of the monthy council meetings of the Priesthood 
of the conference,- steps were taken to pair off with a view to 
out-of-door preaching, certain men being allqwed to choose 
each his own companion. To the amusement of the council 
Elder Win. Bowen chose me, a young, inexperienced boy. I 
assisted him in this labor some two years, until I left home 
to go to Liverpool, and was greatly benefited in my associa- 
tions with him, he being a man of great faith and understand- 
ing, and a most agreeable companion. 

Our's was always an open house' to the Elders; it was, as 
many now living know, a free and welcome home to all. It 



356 BIOGRAPHY AND 

was what is called the "Conference house." If my dear mother 
possessed one trait more conspicuous than another, it was that 
which led her, during eighteen years of her lifetime, to receive 
and care for the Elders. When I was big enough it fell to my 
lot to relieve mother of a job which she had been doing for 
years before I commenced, namely, to black the shoes of the 
brethren. This labor became part of my day's doings, lasting 
some six or seven years, and I never thought it irksome. - 

Leaving home to go to Liverpool was, up to that time, the , 
event of my life. I was young and green. I had pictured the 
heads of the European mission and their immediate associates 
to be without fault or human infirmit}- — so natural was it for 
me to respect, think well off and look up to the Elders from 
Zion. 'Four years lacking a few weeks I labored in the Liver- 
pool office, first as junior clerk, then as book-keeper. As a 
member of the Liverpool branch I acted in the office of clerk, 
of Teacher and that of president. As clerk in the office I 
labored under Presidents Wells and Young, Jan., under Presi- 
dent Young, Jun., and under President F. D. Richards. I believe 
I can say truly that while there I merited the good will and 
bdessing of those with whom I was more directly associated, as 
well as that of the many Elders whose acquaintance I made; 
and that I labored faithfully and honestly in the service of 
God and the brethren. 

In the year 1868 I emigrated, after haying been detained, 
until some time after the close of the emigration season, to 
settle up emigration matters and leave in good shape the 
accounts of the office. In New York also I was detained 
two weeks, waiting for that portion of the unfortunate 
Emerald Isle company that had been put under quarantine 
and which had survived the hospital treatment of Manhattan 
Island. By this time they were able to be moved, and I 
traveled with them. F. C. Anderson had charge of the com- 
pany ; I was entrusted with the medicine chest which had been 
specially prepared for the sick. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 357 

After arriving in Salt Lake City I called on President 
Young and was employed by him as a clerk in his office, and 
invited by him to board with part of his family. 

At the expiration of three years I was called to return 
to the Liverpool office. The circumstance was this: On the 
Sunday afternoon previous to leaving, the President called me 
into his private office and said, George, don't you want to go 
back to Liverpool? I answered, No, sir. But, said he, we 
(the quorum of the Twelve then present) have just voted that 
you leave here for Liverpool on Tuesday morning at five 
o'clock. I replied, All right, sir, I'll be ready. The following 
day I received my appointment, and was set apart to this 
mission and ordained to the office of Seventy under the hands 
of Presidents B. Young and George A. Smith. At the time 
stated (in company with Brother George W. Thatcher, who 
had. been called previously) I left, and was gone three years, 
laboring in connection with President A. Carrington and 
President Joseph F. Smith, presidents of the mission. 

I returned in 1874 and worked nine months in the office 
of Z. C. M. I. This position I resigned to accept the clerk- 
ship of the Logan Tithing ' Office. While in Logan, on a 
certain occasion, I accompanied Brothers M. H. Hardy and 
B. Morris Young to Brigham and Bear River cities in the 
interest of mutual improvement societies. At Brigham I 
stayed with Morris at his mother-in-law's, Sister Harriet Snow, 
and spent the evening with part of Brother Snow's family. 
Here I first met my wife. * During my visit (some three days), 
T was reminded of a circumstance that I had entirely for- 
gotten, which proved a source of encouragement to me in 
approaching my wife on the subject of marriage. I had met 
Brother Snow in Liverpool while he was en route to Palestine 
with the George A. party; and on waiting upon him in the 
Great Western Hotel he, in his jocular way, told me that he 
had some unmarried daughters, and invited me to make their 
acquaintance with a view to becoming one of his many sons- 



358 BIOGRAPHY AND 

in-law. I thanked him, not thinking for a moment, however, 
that there would be anything more to it. 

On Sunday, the 21st of May, 1876, with his consent, I 
married his daughter Ida, whose mother is Eleanor Houtz 
Snow. After our marriage we lived about three months in 
Logan, Cache County, where I was employed, when I received 
a communication from President Young inviting me to return 
to Salt Lake City to act as reporter for the Church. In explana- 
tion I should state that during my three years' residence in Salt 
Lake I took up with the study of phonography (a study that I 
had early paid some attention to), practising it nights and 
mornings. .The President, noticing me diligently working late 
and early, inquired one day what I was doing. On my telling 
him he seemed much pleased, and told me to stick to it until I 
mastered it. He afterwards got Brother David W. Evans, the 
Church stenographer, to organize a class, which I joined. At 
first the class numbered forty-three; when T left to go on my 
mission it numbered five, including myself. I have acted ever 
since in the capacity of Church reporter. 

From the foregoing brief sketch it will be seen that from 
my youth it has fallen to my lot to associate more or less 
with the Priesthood of our Church — a privilege I have ever 
highly appreciated. And- the more intimate my relations . 
have been with our leading men, one and one only thought 
has come uppermost to mind, namely, that of heartfelt 
thanks and gratitude to God the Eternal Father for gathering 
me from an obscure corner of the * earth, and delivering me 
from the midst of bigotry and superstitious ignorance of the 
everlasting plan of salvation, and for guiding my footsteps in 
the way of virtue and rectitude, thus fitting me to be His and 
their servant. And I will have realized my most sanguine 
hope if, in the hereafter, I shall be found worthy to continue 
my. relations with them, as their fellow servant, in the great 
work of human redemption and salvation. 

Gkorgh F. Gibbs. ~ 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 359 



CHAPTER XLVIIL 

M. D. Rosenbaum leaves his native country-. — In San Francisco. — Goes to 
Carson. — A voice speaks to him. — Goes to Salt Lake. — At Elder Neibaur's - 
— Baptized. — Called on mission to Germany. — In Berlin. — Attends meet- 
ing. — Is arrested. — Tried and sentenced. — Banished. — Returns home. — 
F. H. Snow appointed to a mission. — Reflections. — Strangers marvel. — 
What an affrighted Catholic said. — The captain of the steamer replies. — 
An incident. — Tired and hungry. — Why he goes to bed suppeiiess. — A 
retort. — What a priest did. — The Channel Islands. — Released and returns 
home. — Expression of gratitude. 

€HE following synopsis is from the pen of Elder Morris 
D. Rosenbaum, son-in-law of my' brother Lorenzo: I 
i left my native country when about nineteen years of 
age, for America — arrived in New York in 1850, traveled 
through the Eastern and Southern States to New Orleans, and 
from there by steamer via Havana and Panama to San 
Francisco. 

In California, hearing of a "Mormon" settlement in 
Carson Valle} r , I was impressed to visit it, and accordingly 
went over the mountains to see and learn of the doctrine of 
that people. I remember, when first coming in sight of the 
settlement, hearing a voice saying, " There is a people which 
you never leave." Arriving in Carson Valley, I stopped with 
Simon Baker — he argued with me about "Mormonism" from 
noon until midnight, seemingly making very little impression 
on my mind. My desire to be with this people increased, and 
as they moved en.masse for Salt Lake Valley, I made up my 
mind to travel with them, remain there during the winter, and 
return to my native country the following spring. 

During the winter of 1856-7, I stopped in Salt' Lake City, 
and attended Brother Isaac Bowman's school in the Seventeen th 



360 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Ward. Visiting Brother Alexander Neibaur (of the same 
nativity as myself), he preached the Gospel to me — I became 
interested in its principles — a peaceful spirit wrought mightily 
in me — commending the ancient Gospel to my conscience. 

I read the Book of Mormon from beginning to end, in 
connection with the Bible, prayerfully, and arose from- its 
perusal with a strong conviction on my mind, this book ivas 
written by inspiration. 

Dreams and visions, in my slumbering hours, began to 
.have great effect on my mind; but when I listened to my 
selfish thoughts, I hated "Mormonism" in my heart, and 
regretted ever hearing it. 

I well remember Brother Neibaur bearing his testimony 
of the truth of the Gospel to me. I said to him, " Mr. Neibaur, 
why cannot I have such a- testimony?" He replied, "Mr. 
Rosenbaum, I promise you in the name of Israel's God, jou 
will, if you obey the principles of the Gospel, and honestly ask 
your heavenly Father for it." • Such a promise I longed for, 
and made up my mind to embrace the truth; was baptized 
on the 27th of March, 1858, by Brother John Tinge} r , of the 
Seventeenth AVard, Salt Lake City; and a short time after, I 
received a testimony which I desire, never to forget. 

Earty in April, 1858, I was called and went to Echo 
Canyon, in company with others, to assist in defending the 
people-^traveled south in time of " the move," and stopped in 
Provo a short'time. 

July 2d, 1858, I was ordained a Seventy, and united with 
the fifth quorum of Seventies; lived in Salt Lake City until 
1861, then, on April 10th, removed to Brigham City, and have 
lived here from that time. 

In the Spring of 1880 I was called and went on a mission 
to Germany — arrived at Berlin July 10th. At a conference 
held there, Elder Budge presiding, I was called and set apart 
to preside over the North German Mission, August 15th, 1880. 
On the 19th, held an evening meeting in Berlin — was arrested 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 361 

there for preaching the Gospel, and put in prison that night — 
had an examination the next day, which lasted from 7 a. m. 
until 4 p. m., when the court decreed my banishment from 
Berlin and the kingdom of Prussia, with orders to leave the 
next day at noon, and never to return, under pain of fine and 
imprisonment. 

August 21st, I left by railroad for the kingdom of Bavaria, 
traveled through there and adjoining kingdoms, as Baden,Wur- 
temburg and Hanover, for about one year, when I was released 
and returned home. 

Morris D. Rosenbaum. 

From the journal of Franklin H. Snow: 

I received a letter from President John- Taylor informing 
me that my name had been presented, and that I had been 
accepted as a missionary to Europe. 

As soon as I read the letter, I thanked the Lord that my 
prayers had been answered, for I had much desired to visit 
my mother's native country, and declare the glad tidings of 
salvation. I knew that the principles which I had been 
taught by my father and mother were principles that would 
benefit all who put them in practice. 

I wrote to President Taylor that I accepted the mission 
and should endeavor to magnify my calling. On the 12th of 
October, 1880, I left my home in company of fifty Elders, 
thirty of whom were missionaries to Europe, the others to dif- 
ferent portions of the United States. 

None but those that have left their comfortable homes 
and large circles of relatives and friends, can imagine my feel- 
ings when the train started out from Ogden City to carry me 
thousands of miles from my home. I was not acquainted 
with any of the Elders on the train when we started, but all 
having been baptized into one spirit, we had associated 
together but a short time before we were all acquainted. 
Strangers on the train, who were not of us, made frequent 



362 ( BIOGRAPHY AND 

remarks and marveled and queried how it was that we put so 
much confidence in each other. 

We arrived safely in New York, and on the 10th left on 
the steamship Wyoming; were thirteen days on the ocean, 
with very rough weather for nine days. There was a Catholic 
on board who was so dreadfulty frightened that he was frantic 
and blamed the d — d "Mormons" for the rough weather. He said 
if he had known that so many "Mormons" were on the 
steamer he would have stayed in, New York. The captain 
told him that if it had not been for the "Mormons," in all 
probability, they might all have been in the bottom of the 
ocean. 

When we arrived in Liverpool, I believe I was as much 
delighted to see land as was , Columbus when he discovered 
America, for. I had been seasick for several days, and even the 
sight of land seemed medicinal. I was appointed to labor in 
the London Conference, under the direction of President Eos- 
kelle} r , in connection with Brother W. W. Willey, and with 
him commenced in my field of labor on the 6th of November, 
and walked about fourteen miles to the first family in our dis- 
trict. 

No one, without similar experience, can imagine how I 
felt when I found myself seated by the side of a fireplace with 
a large number of small children thinly clad. When I sat 
down to supper, I saw there were from eight to ten hungry 
children to be fed from the scanty meal which was scarcely 
enough for five hungry persons. I ate very sparingly, and 
went to bed feeling rather discouraged, and thinking I could 
do no good among such poor people. Young and inex- 
perienced* as I was, I did not realize that God had not chosen 
the rich of this world to be heirs of His kingdom, but that He 
had chosen the poor and the meek of the earth. I traveled 
three weeks feeling that I was doing no good, and that I could 
be more happy at home in the society of my friends, and in 
the enjoyment of the comforts of life. Elder Willey did all 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY.- 363 

he could to encourage and help me out of my dangerous con- 
dition. I did not and could not, at that time, realize what a 
strong hold the adversary had on me to prevent the fulfilment 
of my mission. I was really impressed with the idea that it 
was impossible for me to endure the hardships and privations 
that most missionaries had to put up with; but I wished to 
honor my father and mother,- although without a testimony 
from my heavenly Father, I felt that I could not travel among 
the people. 

AVith these impressions, I wandered into the lone woods 
and offered up a short prayer to God, and, in the sincerity of 
my heart asked Him to give me a contented mind that I 
might fill my mission acceptably before my Father in heaven. 
From that very moment the poAvers of darkness gave way 
and a different influence surrounded me, and I saw clearly 
that I was engaged in a great and glorious work; that the 
Gospel must be preached to all that had ears to hear, the poor 
as well as the rich. From the time I offered up that prayer 
until the close of my mission I always felt well, and never 
wished to return home till I was honorably released. 

I traveled with Elder Willey about three weeks, and then 
traveled alone. I had to walk about one hundred and fifty 
miles to visit ten families of Saints, and they all were so poor 
that they could keep me but one night out of three weeks. I 
walked from ten to twenty-five and thirty miles per day. I 
recollect walking over tAventy miles one day, arriving at a 
Saint's house just at dark, tired and hungry; I had but a 
scanty breakfast in the morning, and no dinner,' for the sen- 
sible reason that I had no money to pay for it. By supper 
time I felt as though I could make a hearty meal on dry crusts. 
The good sister got supper for me, and as I sat down to eat, a 
little girl about ten years of age brought from the cupboard, 
two hard biscuits, and said they had been there a week — that 
they had kept them for Mr. Snow to eat. As hungry as I was, 
that took away my appetite, and I retired to bed supperless. 



364 BIOGRAPHY AND 

\ 

I never shall forget the first time I distributed tracts to 
strangers. I called at a house of a well-to-do' lady, and told 
her I would like to converse with her on the Gospel. She 
seemed very much interested as well as astonished, when I 
spoke of the necessity of Apostles and Prophets, and of signs 
following the believer, whenever the Church of Christ was on 
the earth. I conversed with her nearly or quite one hour, and 
she said that all I had told her was true. I then bore m} T tes- 
timony that the true Church of Christ was on the earth — that 
it was organized by the Prophet Joseph Smith. At that she 
threw the tract I had presented her in my face and shut the 
door, saying, "All you have told me is false if Joe Smith had 
anything to do with it." I then went on my way feeling 
more determined than ever to preach the Gospel. 

The first out-door meeting I held was in a small village 
in Bedfordshire. I called on a family and wished to know if 
they would accept of a tract. I told them who I was, and that 
I had come six thousand miles to tell them that God had 
again spoken from the heavens, and that all mankind were 
commanded to repent and obey the Gospel. The lady of the 
house (if I may call her a lady) said she had heard of "old 
Joe Smith" — that he had dug a book out of a rock, and' she 
did not wish to know any more about him. "Have you?" 
said I; "I have not heard of any such man, and I would 
like to learn from you to what man you refer who dug 
a book out of a rock." She said, "Old Joe Smith." She 
appeared quite angry at me for not knowing what sire meant. 
Then I said, "I presume you mean the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, who had records delivered to him by an angel?" She 
retorted, "There is no such thing as angels in our day, and the 
Bible don't speak of any other book." I then asked her if she 
.would let me see her Bible. She tapped one of her little girls 
on the head and told her to get me a Bible. I then read to 
her the twenty-ninth chapter of Isaiah, By this time there 
were thirty people gathered around, and I availed myself of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. ' 365 

the opportunity to preach to them. After the meeting I deliv- 
ered tracts to nearly every family in the village. After I left, 
I heard that the minister sent women around to gather up the 
tracts I had circulated, and bring them to him, and he called 
a meeting and told a mass of falsehoods about the Saints. I 
comforted myself with "Blessed are ye when men shall revile 
you and speak all manner of evil against you falsely for my 
name's sake." 

For. three months during the very coldest weather I had 
not one cent in my pocket; for what little I had when I arrived 
in England, I spent for food for the destitute Saints, and I can 
testify that during those three months I received greater mani- 
festations of the .power of God than ever before or since. 
During the seven months in which I labored in the district of 
Hertford and Bedfordshire, I traveled on foot two thousand one 
hundred miles. My next field of labor was Kent, the garden 
spot of England. I labored there eleven months with much 
satisfaction. The Saints in Kent were not so scattered, and I 
was enabled to hold meetings more frequently, and the people 
were less opposed to the Gospel than in Bedfordshire. 

President West gave me a mission to the Channel Islands, 
and I remained on the Isle of Jersey about three months. The 
Saints were few, and so very poor they could only give me one 
meal per day, and I managed to make the other two cost me 
but sixpence. When I learned the degraded condition of the 
people on the island, I was not surprised that out of sixty 
thousand so few had embraced the pure Gospel of Jesus. 
Many, very many of the inhabitants reveled in debauchery. 
There was scarcely a street but what was polluted with one or 
more houses of ill-fame; hundreds of young women walked 
the streets from sundown till past midnight. It was there I 
learned to appreciate the noble and sacred virtue of the youth 
of Zion. 

While on the islands, I was released from my mission to 
return home. I went directly to London, where I took train 



366 BIOGRAPHY AND 

i 

for Liverpool, and there, on the 21st of October, 1882, took 
steamer to New York, and arrived at my home on the 10th of 
November. 

During the two years I was abroad, I traveled on foot over 
six thousand miles; by rail, six thousand, and on the water, 
eight thousand. The time spent in preaching the Gospel, with 
all its hardships and privations, was the [happiest of my life. 
I bore my testimony to thousands, and I know that the Lord 
blessed my labors. 

I thank God, my heavenly Father, that 1 was permitted 
to fill my mission, and to return home to meet those who are 
dear to me by the ties of nature. I can still bear a faithful 
testimony that the fulness of the everlasting Gospel of Jesus 
Christ has been restored to earth, with all its powers, gifts and 
ordinances, through the Prophet Joseph Smith. 

Franklin Horton Snow. 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

Discourse by Elder Lorenzo Snow, delivered in a meeting of the St. George 
Stake of Zion, in the Temple, April 5th, 1877; reported by George F. 
Gibbs. — Necessity for effort. — What the Lord said to Oliver Cowdery. — 
Regulation of temporal affairs. — Consecration and stewardship. — Prepa- 
ration for building in Jackson County. — The United Order. — Plural 
marriage. — Responsibility of Presidents. — How confidence is created. — 
The necessity of its cultivation. — Desires for the future. 

N occupying the time this morning, T wish, in the first 
place, to call your attention to the fact that we are Lat- 
ter-day Saints, or at least ought to be; and that as such 
we are dependent upon the Lord for our instruction. This is 
in accordance with our faith — that we have to look to Him for 
assistance under all circumstances, in all places, in all our 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 367 

affairs in life, and in all matters pertaining to our advance- 
ment in the principles of godliness. 

Assembled together as we are this morning, it is very 
necessary that we ask the Lord for His Spirit, the spirit of 
inspiration, to rest upon us as speakers and as hearers, that 
we may be enabled to comprehend what may be spoken, and 
that it may be adapted to our 'individual needs. It is impos- 
sible to progress in the principles of truth — to increase in 
heavenly knowledge, except we exercise our reasoning facul- 
ties and exert ourselves in a proper manner. We have an 
instance recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants of a misun- 
derstanding on the part of Oliver Cowdery, touching this 
principle. The Lord promised him the gift to translate 
ancient records. Like many of us to-day, he had misconcep- 
tions in regard to the exercise of the gift. He thought all 
that was necessary for him to do, inasmuch as this gift had 
been promised him of God, was to. allow his mind to wait in 
idleness without effort, until it should operate spontaneously. 
But when these records were placed before him, no knowledge 
was communicated ; they still continued sealed, as it were, for 
,no power to translate rented upon him. 

Although the gift to translate had been conferred, he 
could not prosecute the work, simply because he failed to 
exert himself before God, with the view of developing the gift 
within him, and he was greatly disappointed ; and the Lord in 
His goodness and mercy informed him of his mistake, using 
the following language : 

"Behold, you have not understood; you have supposed 
that I would give it unto you when you took no thought, save 
it was to ask me; but, behold, I say unto you, that you must 
study it out in your mind; then you must ask me if it be 
right; and if it is right I will cause that your bosom shall 
burn within you," etc. 

So in regard to us respecting the things which Ave are 
undertaking. If we expect to improve and advance in the 



368 BIOGRAPHY AND 

work immediately before us, and finally obtain possession of 
those gifts and glories — coming up to that condition of exalta- 
tion we anticipate, we must take thought and reflect; we must 
exert ourselves, and that too to the utmost of our abilities. 

The text given us by President Young yesterday, and to 
which we, in our prayer this morning, asked God to direct 
our remarks, was the work pertaining to our present wants 
and necessities, in which we are now immediately concerned. 
The question here arises, How shall we regulate affairs so as 
to qualify us to perform the duties and obligations devolving 
upon us to-day, and secure to ourselves the blessings of eternal 
life? On this subject, so far as the Lord will give me His 
Holy Spirit, through the exercise of your faith, I* wish to speak 
this morning. I desire, however, to confine myself more par- 
ticularly to the subject relating to our financial union — unit- 
ing ourselves together as brethren who have entered into the 
everlasting covenant of the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
expecting to dwell together in the presence of God in the 
celestial world. 

We have been told, through the revelations of ' God, to 
which our attention has often been called, that unless we • 
become' one in temporal as well as spiritual things, it were use- 
less to anticipate the fulness of celestial glory or a state of 
oneness in the spiritual things of God. But what course Ave 
are to take in order to arrive at this most desirable condition 
seems to remain a difficult, unsolved problem. Doubtless 
many have asked themselves, What can we do, and how sholl 
we do it? 

Now let our minds revert for a few minutes to the time 
when we received the fulness of the everlasting Gospel, 'in the 
countries where it first reached us. _ As soon as we became 
convinced of the truth, and that the Elders who preached the 
Gospel were the servants of God, we offered ourselves as candi- 
dates for baptism for the remission of sins, receiving the Holy 
Ghost through the laying on of their hands, and then felt 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 369 

determined to do whatever the Lord should require through 
His servants, and • continue to follow their counsel in all 
things, even to the sacrifice or all that we possessed, if neces- 
sary, whether pertaining to the world's wealth, or that which 
we held in higher or dearer esteem. 

We learned an important and significant fact, that we 
were the offspring of God, inheriting, though only in infantile 
form, the same attributes He possessed, and that through pro- 
bationary experience, by passing the ordeals of earth, rejecting 
the evil and accepting the good, these attributes could be 
developed until eventually we might' receive a fulness of the 
Godhead and dwell in the presence of the Father. We 
became acquainted with this fact, and were convinced in our 
hearts that the object that then appeared before us was well 
worthy of all that we could bestow upon it. Hence we 
resolved that we would accomplish the undertaking, though at 
the sacrifice of all we called our own. We well understood 
that in order to attain to that position which would entitle us 
to this exaltation, it would be necessary to submit ourselves 
wholly to the mind and will of God. We felt in our hearts to 
consecrate our wives, our children, our property (if we had 
any), and our time and abilities to the service of God. Had 
the law of consecration been presented at that time, without 
doubt it would have been hailed with joy, as it is in exact 
accordance with the spirit of our covenants. 

According to the order of the celestial world, as revealed 
to the Latter-day Saints, respecting the property we might 
possess, we wore required to consecrate all to the Lord, and 
then to be made stewards, as pointed out by revelation in the 
Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and were .to continue to 
devote that which might be entrusted to us to the service of 
God; and so far as we increased the property of our stoward- 
ship,we were to devote the same to the benefit of the Kingdom 
of God, which would be used for the building of temples, 
emigrating and sustaining the poor, and for carrying on the 

2(5 



370 BIOGRAPHY AND 

great work of redeeming Israel. This feeling which we enter- 
tained at the beginning was to continue to burn in our bosoms, 
and we were to be faithful and honest in our professions. 

I know" that many of us, when we. came to the valleys, 
conformed to this law of consecration, which is now published 
in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants. We deeded our prop- 
erty, and many were willing, perhaps not all, that, if neces- 
sary, every part and portion of it might have been used as the 
servants of God should have directed. This is the kind of 
-feeling that we then entertained, and just so long as we main- 
tained this condition of mind, of willing obedience, it was all 
that was required. But I fear that this feeling which gave us 
so much joy — which tended to increase our faith and confi- 
dence in God and in one another, has not continued to grow 
correspondingly with our general prosperity, experience . and 
knowledge of the Gospel. So far as this is the case, my testi- 
mony to you is that we stand this day not wholly approved of 
•God, although we have the privilege of worshiping in this 
Temple, reared to His holy name. But just so far as this will- 
ingness exists in our hearts to appropriate our means which 
we have accumulated, for the upbuilding of the Kingdom of 
God upon the earth, and that too without grudging, even as 
the former day Saints laid theirs down at' the feet of the 
Apostles, so far are we approved and accepted of God. Who, 
among the Latter-day Saints within the hearing of my voice 
this day, could fail to comprehend this? 

In many of our business relations one with another, there 
does not exist that spirit of union and brotherly interest 
which should be maintained. We need to take a course that 
will enable us to acquire it, and this spirit should prevail 
throughout all our settlements. 

Who cannot perceive the hand of God in bringing us 
from the turmoil and strife of the business world to these 
mountain vales, where we have the opportunity and the privi- 
lege of building up cities and villages upon the principle of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 371 

unity which has been revealed to us, thus affording that 
necessary discipline which we could not have obtained among 
the cities of the Gentiles? This training cannot be acquired 
in one year, nor in five years, but its acquisition is enhanced 
in proportion to our willingness to sacrifice in order to obtain 
it. By and by the Lord will prepare the way for some to 
return to Jackson County, there to build up the metropolis of 
Zion. How* easily this work can be accomplished, after we 
have learned to build up cities and temples here to His divine 
acceptance! , Our present experience is a very needful one; 
without it we should be totally unfitted for the performance of 
such a work. 

We read that the temple which Solomon built was 
erected without the sound of a hammer being heard. There 
had been a previous preparation, and an experience gained in 
some distant locality, and a proper . training. The materials 
were "accurately prepared elsewhere, and when brought together 
were ready for setting, each piece to its proper place. 

As knowledge and efficiency are obtained gradually, we 
may expect- that the experience we are getting now, in learn- 
ing how to build up cities in our present condition — conform- 
ing as near as possible to the holy order of God, is designed to 
prepare us to return to Missouri, from whence we were driven, 
and there build up cities and temples to the name of the 
Most High, upon which His glory will descend. A condition 
of willingness to conform our will to the Divine will is what 
we need. 

It might not be deemed policy to enter into covenants by 
deed, in our propert} r matters, at present, though it may be 
hereafter. So long as the emotions of our souls prompt us to 
exclaim, in the language of Joshua, that " I and my household 
will serve the Lord" — so long as this willingness dwells in our 
hearts, to give ourselves up entirely- to the service of God, we 
are in the proper condition to ask the Father to hasten the day 
when His will shall be done on earth as it is in heaven. And 



372 BIOGRAPHY AND 

further, when the proper time comes to require the use of our 
property in the interests of the great work we are engaged in, 
the bare mention of it will be sufficient. 

But, we ask, should not the Bishop who operates in our 
temporal matters be a very wise and good man? Certainl}- 
he should, and a, man of honor and integrity, full of the Holy 
Ghost, loving his neighbor as himself, and loving the Lord our 
God with all his might, mind and strength. On' this, we are 
told, "hang all the law and the prophets." Blessed is he in 
* whom these two principles are developed, for such an one is 
without condemnation ; he stands the peer of him referred to 
in the Scriptures, by the Savior, as one "without guile." The 
people will soon learn to confide in such a man, as he can 
establish unmistakable proof before God and before his 
brethren that he obeys these commandments in which are 
included all that the Prophets ever lived for. 

We will suppose further, that such an individual as I have 
described, who really had obeyed these commandments, was 
placed to preside over a city of a thousand people, all of whom 
were also living in the advanced condition referred to; he 
must bear in mind his important position, high responsibilities 
and who appointed him to this position — he or they in whom 
God had vested the authority. Why is such a man called to 
act as president over a people? Is it in order to acquire an 
influence and then to use that influence directly for his own 
aggrandizement? No; but, on the contrary, he is called to act 
in such a position on the same principle as the Priesthood Avas 
given to the Son of God, that he should make sacrifice. For 
himself? No; but to become the servant, "not the master, of 
his brethren, and to work for their interest and welfare — not 
to exercise the influence thus obtained to benefit himself, his 
family, relatives and personal friends; but esteeming all as 
his brethren, and as having rights in common with himself, 
and, therefore, seeking to bless and benefit all equally accord- 
ing to the talents and worthiness they may possess, and thus 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 373 

« 

b}* so doing develop in himself that fatherty feeling which 
always exists in the bosom of the Father. 

At the present time it is too often the case that the men 
who are called to act in such positions, instead of thus acting 
according to their holy calling, use their influence, their Priest- 
hood, the sacred powers conferred upon them, for their own 
benefit and that of their children and personal friends. This 
is highly improper; it is wrong and displeasing in the sight of 
God; and of this sin we are called to repent by putting it 
away from us, and beginning to live the lives of Latter-day 
Saints, according the sacred covenants we have entered into. 

When you find a man who takes the same interest in 
those over whom he presides as he does in himself and famil} 7 * 
you will naturally begin to have confidence in that individual. 
But as soon as you find that his feelings by da} r and by night, 
and the course of his conduct is such as tend directly to benefit 
himself and his family, you will say: "What interest has he 
for us? We must look out for ourselves." But where a man 
works for the community, he becomes truly a father to that 
people, working for them with the same feeling, desire and 
interest as he* would for himself. It might be said of him, as 
it should be said of all men, that he loves his brethren, or in 
other words, "his neighbor as himself." Now let the man 
who acts as the presiding Elder of his ward manifest by word 
and action these fatherly feelings towards those he presides 
over, and how soon we would begin to perceive perfect con- 
fidence restored. 

Possibly such a man might not possess financiering abili- 
ties, and possibly the people might not have confidence, in his 
abilities to manage or direct temporal affairs. This is quite 
supposable, for good, sound principled men are not always 
endowed with great financiering capacities. Yet, from the. fact 
of his having established himself in the hearts of the people, 
and being • known by them for his integrity and honesty, and 
a disposition to work for the interests of God and the people, 



374 BIOGRAPHY AND 

willing to make any sacrifice that might be required of him, 
he possesses their confidence, and when once in possession of a 
trust so„sacred, what then might he do in order to satisfy the 
minds of the people, which are, more or less progressive? Let 
him call to his aid those of his brethren who are the most 
capable, letting them share in his responsibilities. Because, 
you will find, as a general thing, that talent is diffused 
through the many, and rarely combined in single individuals; 
and it only needs opportunity in order to be developed. He 
might say to one, " Here, Brother B., you are better adapted 
to fill this or that position than I am;" and to another, "You 
are the man best fitted to this department;" and so on until 
he gets the talents of all brought out, and instead of diminish- 
ing the public confidence in himself such a course would add 
to it. Further, he would be doing for his brethren that which 
the United Order designs to do for all, namely, to afford oppor- 
tunity to develop the gifts with which nature has endowed us. 
Therefore, I say that all these matters can be got along with, 
provided we have the sure and safe foundation, which must be 
based on honesty and integrity to God and the farue interests 
of His kingdom and people. 

With a people of one heart and mind, possessed of the 
same feelings and aspirations as we were when we first 
embraced the Gospel, in connection with our present knowl- 
edge and experience in the practical workings of building up 
the kingdom, how easy it would be to establish our home 
industries or mercantile institutions, and carry them on 
successfully. Every one would be on hand^ like Israel when 
in the desert, and journeying to the land of Canaan, they were 
required to build a movable tabernacle for certain sacred 
purposes, and the people brought their offerings, etc., even 
more- than were sufficient, and Moses had to cry out to the 
people to stop. So it could be with us, as far as willingness oh 
the part of the people was concerned to take an active part in 
any general movement that might be projected. Whatever 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 375 

means or time or property might be devoted by the commu- 
nity for the establishing of any certain enterprise, would be 
done in good faith, for every heart would be inspired with 
confidence, every one considering his interest identified with 
that of the whole. 

But it takes time to get the people into this condition. 
Here, in this southern country, we understand that the people 
have been endeavoring to work together in the United Order, 
meeting with more or less disappointment. Because of reverses 
or failures in our attempts to successfully operate in our 
temporal affairs, we should not allow such disappointment to 
detract from the principle itself, but rather let us attribute our 
misfortunes to human weakness, regarding the principle as 
divine, revealed for our special benefit and blessing, and in 
every instance of apparent failure, let us be resolved to "try 
again." 

The principles of plural marriage were revealed for the 
benefit and exaltation of the children of men ; but how much 
unhappiness has arisen through failure on the part of some 
who have contracted this order of marriage to conform to the 
laws that govern it. But does it arise through any defect in ' 
the order of the marriage system? 0, no; but. from ignorance 
and the folly and wickedness of those individuals who enter 
into it, who abuse rather than righteously obey it. So in 
regard to the principles of the United Order. Its principles 
also are sacred, and I assure you we will never go back to 
Jackson County, Missouri, there to build up the New Jerusalem 
of the latter days, until there is a perfect willingness on our 
part to conform to its rules and principles. Many years have 
transpired since we received the revelation of the United 
Order, and in one sense, that long period' of time bespeaks 
negligence on our part in not more fully obeying it. The very 
principles of that (jrder, in my estimation, were given .for our 
temporal and spiritual salvation. In order to derive the 
benefit that God designed should flow from 'them, they must 



376 BIOGRAPHY AND 

be established and systematized on the principle of righteous- 
ness, each person learning to love his neighbor as himself. For 
us to undertake to deal with them on any other principle, 
would virtually open the wa} T to bitter disappointment. 

Then allow me to repeat : let me find - a community that is 
willing to conform to this, bringing to mind the covenants 
made in the beginning when we received the fulness of the 
Gospel, willing to bring to mind when they dedicated all they 
possessed — their propert} r , their talents, their mental and 
physical powers to the building up of the kingdom of God; 
remembering, the time when Ave did this, the blessings of the 
Most High were upon us, and His Spirit burned within us. 
Then let those who preach in that communit}' of Saints 
realize what the Priesthood was placed upon them for; let them 
know and fully sense why they were appointed to fill such and 
such offices, viz.: that they should act in the spirit of our 
Master, a servant of all — that they learn to consider and 
esteem, imthe same affectionate interest, the welfare of all as 
they do that of themselves, and be in very deed fathers to the 
people. Then will they enter into the spirit of the two great 
commands, upon which, said the Savior, "hang all the law and 
the prophets," namely, loving the Lord with all our might, 
mind and strength, and our neighbor as ourselves. This, in 
my opinion, is the foundation of our* future success, temporally 
and spiritually, in this United Order. Until we come down to 
the bed-rock of honesty and sincerity in this matter, dealing 
with temporal as with spiritual things, Avhole-heartedly, hold- 
ing all and ourselves sacred to the service of God, we may 
expect more or less failure. 

Let me say to the brethren who are, and who contemplate 
connecting themselves actively and entirely with this holy 
order, that the Priesthood was bestoAved upon you, as 
upon the Son of God, for no other purpose than that 
through sacrifice you might be proven, that, peradventure, at 
the last day, you might stand approved before God, and 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 377 

before perfect and holy beings, and that in order to merit this 
divine approval, it may be neccssar}' to forget self and indi- 
vidual aggrandizement and seek the interest of your brethren. 
If you are read}' and willing to do this, and if your every-day 
life and conduct and the spirit within you testify the fact, you 
will establish confidence in the hearts of those who know you, 
and with whom you are more immediately associated in 
temporal matters. 

Confidence is ofttimes referred to by our brethren, espe- 
cially when speaking on the subject of the' United Order. It is 
spoken of and written on by the religious, the political and th«i 
financial world, and the present condition of the whole is such 
as to force itself upon our serious attention. We may confi- 
dently anticipate that, as history shall chronicle the develop- 
ments of this, our progressive world, we shall witness more and 
more the necessit3 r of it. For as palpable, and what ma} T be 
termed legitimate, fraud increases, and the whole world ripens 
in iniquity generall} r , confidence will lessen and become more 
priceless and precious. This is quite obvious to all men in 
whose hearts dwells a spark of that Spirit by which the 
Prophets foretold the destiny of the nations. Confidence can 
be acquired only on the principle of righteousness, whether it 
be applied to the monarch or the peasant, the religionist or the 
non-religionist; merit alone commands it. 

Then let us live the lives of Latter-da} r Saints, that Ave 
may first beget confidence in ourselves, then we shall begin to 
have confidence in each other — in God and His promises. A 
people in this condition of progress would know no failures; 
everything would prosper that they put their hands to; they 
would grow in faith and in good works. 

I tell you in the name of the Lord God, that the time is 
coming when there will be no safety only in the principles of 
union, for therein lies the secret of our temporal and spiritual 
salvation. We have been enabled to establish settlements, 
towns and villages, and we have been abundantlj T blessed with 



378 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the necessaries and conveniences of life, notwithstanding we 
have been slow to hearken to and obey the commands of 
Jehovah. 

I would to God that every* Bishop and presiding officer 
would, this day,. in this holy Temple, .covenant and swear 
before Him, the Lord our God, that they would turn and serve 
Him with' all their might, mind and strength, and work for 
the interest of the people as they would for themselves; for my 
greatest desire is to see Zion established according to the reve- 
lations of God — to see her inhabitants industrious and' self- 
sustaining, filled with wisdom* and the power of God, that 
around us may be built a wall of defence, a protection against 
the mighty powers of Babylon; and while the disobedient of 
our Father's famil} 1 - are contending, and filling up their cup of 
iniquity, even to the brim, and thus preparing themselves for 
the burning, we who . are the acknowledged children of the 
kingdom, being filled with righteousness and knowledge of 
God, may be like the wise virgins, clothed in our wedding 
garments, and properly prepared for the coming of our Lord 
and Savior. — Journal of Discourses. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 379 




CHAPTER L. 

Elijah Box says his parents embraced the Gospel in England. — Came to 
Nauvoo. — Elijah born in a turbulent time. — Moves to St. Louis. — To the 
Bluffs. — To the Valley.— Storm described. — Moves to Brigham City! — 
Struggle for an education. — How it is obtained. — Called on mission. — A 
great contrast in Liverpool. — Visits relatives. — In London meets with the 
Palestine tourists. — How poor Saints manage their Sunday clothing. — 
An incident. — Closes mission. — In charge of a company of Saints, leaves 
England. — Reflections. — Reaches home. — Engaged in teaching. — Presides 
over Improvement Associations. — Counselor to Stake President. 

Y parents embraced the Gospel in England in 1841, 
emigrated in 1842, and arrived in Nauvoo in the 
spring of 1843. My father worked upon the Temple 
almost from first to last, experiencing very hard times in con- 
sequence of the scarcity of the necessaries of life. He was also 
familiar with all those trying scenes that were enacted during 
the years immediately preceding and following the martyrdom 
of the Prophet and Patriarch; and that will live forever in the 
memories of the persecuted Saints. It was during these times 
that T was born, January 4th, 1844. 

When the Church left Nauvooj father moved Kis family to 
St. Louis, and from there to Council Bluffs, hi 1848. The next 
four years were occupied in procuring an outfit for " the valley," 
and in 1852 we emigrated to Salt Lake, where we lived three 
years. While in Salt Lake, I spent the summer months prin- 
cipally in" herding stock upon the mountains. While out upon 
one of those occasions, the sky became suddenly overcast with 
Heavy clouds, and, almost instantly, hail and rain began to 
descend in torrents; several herd-boys were drowned — I very 
narrowly escaped by finding shelter with my sister, living at 
the mouth of Red Butte. 



380 BIOGRAPHY AND 

In 1855 we moved to Brigham City, and my father 
engaged in agriculture. I labored on the farm during the 
summer, and spent the winter months in endeavoring to obtain 
a meagre education, attending day and evening schools as 
opportunities presented, which was not frequent; up to my 
twelfth year I had attended school but part of one term. I 
had a kind mother, however, who saw the great necessity of 
my having an education, and assisted me much during my 
boyhood, for which I have always been thankful. 

At the age of seventeen, I injured myself by lifting heavy 
timbers, from the effect of which I suffered several years, until 
I received my endowments, when I soon recovered my health. 
At nineteen, I was emplo}*ed in the mercantile establishment 
of M. D. Rosenbaum, and afterwards by W. C. Thomas in 
similar business, for whom I worked until the fall of 1865, when 
President Lorenzo Snow, Samuel Smith, Bishop Nichols and 
W. C. Thomas formed a copartnership or co-operation ; I was 
employed by this firm four years. 

On Sunday, the sixth of May, 1866, I married Roxcy A., 
daughter of President Lorenzo Snow, President Snow officiat- 
ing. We were sealed by President Wells the following 
November. (See Family Record.) 

The winter of 1870-1 I spent in school, under Professor 
L. F. Monch, where, I may almost sa} r , I obtained my first 
start in educational matters. By this time I was twent} r: seven 
years old, had a wife and two children to care for, but I saw 
the great lack of education in myself and others in this locality, 
therefore, I determined to exert myself to the utmost, and 
forego many pleasures that might otherwise be enjoyed. I 
studied diligently, was greatly assisted by my wife — had an 
excellent teacher, and made fair progress. 

At the April Conference in 1871 1 was called on a mission 
to England. I made immediate preparations to start, though 
in so doing I had to borrow money to go with. 'I was set 
apart for my mission on the first of May, b}' Apostle Albert 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 381 

Carrington, and on the third of May, in company with Presi- 
dent Carrington and some twelve or fifteen other missionaries, 
left Salt Lake City for England. The trip to New York was 
pleasant, and without incident other than of an ordinary 
character. "We embarked in the steamship Colorado, Guion 
line. "Off the banks" we experienced some very heavy 
weather. On such occasions*, man is led to comprehend his 
own insignificance as compared with other creations of God. 
The monotony of the voyage was often broken by animated 
discussions with non-" Mormon" passengers, upon religious 
topics, plural marriage being the leading one. 

After arriving in Liverpool, I was appointed to labor in 
the Birmingham Conference under the direction of Elder 
Parry, who afterwards died of the small-pox, he being the 
second to succumb to that fatal disease in that conference. 
During my short stay in Liverpool, I learned to appreciate the 
quiet of our mountain home. In all my life I had never 
seen so much drunkenness, quarreling, fighting with both 
male and female, prostitution, and debauchery of every 
description, as I saw there in the short space of twenty-four 
hours. 

On my way from Liverpool to my field of labor, I called 
at Manchester to see my wife's brother, Oliver, who had been 
traveling in that conference the previous twelve months. A 
few days were very agreeably spent with him in visiting 
among the Saints. I then proceeded to Birmingham, where I 
found the Saints generally very poor, very anxious to gather, 
but in most instances unable to do so. It was then I could 
realize the benefits and blessings derived from our system of 
emigration. • 

While in this conference, I had an opportunity to visit 
many relatives and procure genealogies for several generations 
back. In all instances my friends were pleased to see me, and 
received me with kindness, but seemed to care nothing for the 
principles of the Gospel. 



382 BIOGRAPHY AND 

My stay in Birmingham was short. In consequence of 
the illness of Elder Bromley, I was sent " to Bristol to preside 
in his stead. I found the people in this locality in much worse 
circumstances than where I had previously labored. Farm 
hands worked for from six to seven shillings per week ; and 
with this small pittance had to furnish their families with all 
the necessities and comforts of life, if they had them. Often 
I have seen families make a meal of turnip-top greens and dry 
bread. I then learned to appreciate the luxuries of Deseret, 
and the blessings that God bestows upon His people; and if 
Joseph Smith had actually been an impostor, he still deserves 
great credit for inaugurating a system of religion that has 
been the means of bringing so many from a state of wretched- 
ness, and making them comparatively independent. 

The Saints of this conference, though poor, were very 
kind; I made many excellent acquaintances, traveled a great 
deal on foot, and baptized a few; among them was one Joseph 
Smith; he had been convinced for many years, but put oft" 
baptism until he was so worked upon that he could delay no 
longer. 

It was during, my labors here that President George A. 
Smith *and other Palestine tourists landed in England and held 
a conference in London, which I attended, and had truly a 
happy time in meeting the brethren and sisters from home, 
especially Father Snow and Aunt Eliza. We spent a few days 
in visiting the principal places of interest in that noted city — 
the Crystal Palace, the Albert Memorial, etc. 

In June, 1872, I was appointed to the Manchester Confer- 
ence. I found the Saints much as elsewhere, but generally 
better in temporal 'circumstances; still the people, were so edu- 
cated to spend what they earned, that whether they received 
seven, twelve or twenty shillings per week, none could be laid 
away for any future purpose. 

In this conference I rebaptized Brother Moorhouse, who 
had not been an active member in the Church for a number of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 383 

years, but as good a soul as ever lived. He afterward died in 
full fellowship. 

I will here relate an incident which will show the amount 
of interest taken iri " Mormonism" by some. Sunday, Novem- 
ber 10, 1872, I went from Macclesfield to Longton to fill an 
appointment with the Saints of the Burslem branch, which 
was my first visit to that branch. I was met at the station by 
a Brother Tovey, who piloted me to the- meeting house, 
informing me on the way that they had engaged a hall capable 
of seating three hundred persons, had placarded the town, 
advertising E. A. Box, Esq., from America, to deliver two lec- 
tures that day, on the principles of the Gospel. This news 
was somewhat startling; it was the first time I had been adver- 
tised as a lecturer, and then to lecture to three hundred stran- 
gers, this was the capacity of the hall, and not more than a 
dozen Saints in the branch; and Brother Tovey was sanguine 
the hall would be full. I determined to put myself in the 
hands of the Lord, and if He wished that large congregation 
converted, He must do it through me. Meeting was opened 
at 10 a.m., and Brother Piatt, president of the branch, and 1 
occupied the forenoon. Our hearers were seven Saints, three 
strangers and one apostate. In the afternoon 1 occupied most 
of the time; we had present the same number of Saints, with 
three apostates and one stranger. So much for the ample hall 
and liberal advertisement. 

In June, 1873, I was released to return home. I sailed 
from Liverpool in charge of three hundred and fifty Saints, on 
the tenth of July. As land faded from sight, maify thoughts 
passed through my mind. I had been on English soil a little 
more than two years, had formed the acquaintance of hun- 
dreds of Saints, and many strangers of almost all classes, had 
preached and borne testimony before Saints and sinners, had 
met and conversed with those who knew not God, had seen 
many relatives for the first time, had traveled on foot a little 
more than six thousand miles; and the following questions 



384 BIOGRAPHY AND 

arose: Have I done any good? Have any believed my 
report? Have I been the cause of any stumbling in the path 
of life? Shall I ever set foot on those shores again? The 
future only could tell, and that was silent. 

The trip by sea, excepting one stormy day, was very 
agreeable. Apostle Erastus Snow crossed the ocean with us, 
and the time was spent in holding meetings, concerts, etc. 

I reached home on the second of August, after an absence 
of two years and three months; having visited the principal 
cities of England, Scotland and Wales; had enjoyed myself 
exceedingly in my missionary labors, with all the consequent 
hardships and privations ; I could recall but one season of des- 
pondency, and that was on hearing of the death of my mother 
and sickness of my two little children. , Through the blessing 
of God, on my return I found my immediate family all alive • 
and well. 

T soon engaged in school teaching in Ogden City — moved 
my family there and remained one year, then returned to 
Brigham City, where T followed the same profession for several 
consecutive years. 

In the autumn of 1876 I was chosen to preside over the 
the Mutual Improvement Association of Brigham City, and 
afterwards, when the city was divided into four wards, I was 
appointed over the Second Ward, which position I occupy at 
present (1884). 

When Box Elder Stake of Zion was re-organized in 1877 
I was chosen First Counselor to Oliver G. Snow, President of 
the Stake. 

My family now numbers ten. In obedience to the law of 
celestial marriage, I entered into the marriage relation with 
Sarah Hadley, who is now the mother of two children. 

Elijah A. Box. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 385 



CHAPTER LI. 

George Dunford. — When in his., teens wants to earn living. — Decides 
on going to sea. — Leaves home without a shilling. — Applies to the 
Admiral of the British Navy. — Sent to Rio Janeiro. — Officiates " as 
steward for the officers. — The brig Curlew ordered to England. — How he 
saved his means. — Returns home with plenty of money. — Meets 
with an Elder. — Convinced of the truth of the Gospel, and is baptized. — 
Ordained Elder, presides over two branches. — Emigrates to America. — 
Presides over the St. Louis branch. — In mercantile business. — Goes to 
California, St. Louis, and settles in Salt Lake City. — Appointed Bishop 
of Malad Valley, including six settlements. — After nearly three years, is 
released. — Expression of fatherly feeling. 

WAS born at Holbrook House, near Trowbridge, Wilt- 
shire, England. I lived there with my parents, and 
attended school and Sabbath school until the death of 
my mother. I was then in my fifteenth year; and my father 
having a large family to support, I determined to make my 
own living, and decided to try the fortunes of a life at sea. 
For this purpose, without a shilling in my pocket, and only 
one change of underclothing, I left my father's home, went to 
Portsmouth, and at the dock-yard applied to the admiral of 
the British navy, soliciting a position. He sent me on board 
the one-hundred and ten-gun man-of-war, the Queen, and 
from there I was ordered on board the steamship Ardent, and 
sent to Rio Janerio, South America. 

After arriving at Rio Janerio, I was appointed steward for 
the officers on board the ten-gun brig Curlew. I remained on 
the Curlew until she was ordered to England, and there, with 
the balance of the crew, was discharged from the navy in 
February, 1844, and returned to my father's house. 

While in the navy, I was very prudent and saving of my 
earnings — determined to accumulate sufficient means to make 

27 



386 BIOGRAPHY AND 

a respectable start in life after closing my services on the sea. 
To accomplish this end, I availed myself of every laudable 
favorable circumstance; as, for instance, each one of the crew 
was allowed a certain quantity of liquor per day, or the price 
of it in cash. I never drank liquor, and at the time of my 
discharge my liquor rations had amounted to a handsome 
sum, which, added to what I had saved of my labor wages, to 
a poor boy was quite a fortune. Although prudent, I was not 
penurious; I came home well dressed, with my pockets well 
freighted with the "needful," ready to make my mark among 
the respectables. 

In April, 1844, I married Sarah Jones, and considered 
myself settled for life; but in the course of the next year 'I 
happened to meet with Elder John Halliday, of the Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and soon became deepty 
impressed with the. truth of the fulness of the Gospel, as 
revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith. Then, what a 
struggle! Then a warfare between feeling and judgment, flesh 
and spirit, the love of the world and the favor of God, and 1 
must make my choice. 

I had been attending meetings for worship in a beautiful 
little church, the favorite resort of my dear mother in her life 
time, and could I forsake it? "He that loveth father or mother, 
wife or children, more than me, is not worthy of me." "If any 
man will come after me, let him take up his cross daily and 
follow me." These words of Jesus spoke with power to my 
understanding; and although the "Pearl of great price" might 
cost me all I possessed, I determined to make the purchase: 
and early in 184(5 I was baptized and joined the Church under 
the presidency of Elder Halliday, in my native town. 

In those early times I took great interest in Church mat- 
ters, and devoted much of my time in that direction— Avas 
soon ordained to the office of Priest, and soon after, under*the 
hands of President J. Halliday, was ordained an Elder and 
called and set apart to preside over the branch, composed of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 387 

one hundred members, in my native town, Avhich position I 
held for several years, and in course of time was called to pre- 
side over the Stepe-Ashton branch of the Church. 

In 1850, I emigrated with my family to America, via New 
Orleans, and not having means sufficient to accomplish the 
through journey, we stopped in St. Louis. Soon after arrival, 
I obtained a situation as clerk in a mercantile house — was 
appointed to preside over the St. Louis branch of the Church. 
In 1854, I brought a stock of goods to the Valley, and having 
disposed of them in Salt Lake City, I went to California, and 
opened a business in Sacramento. While my wife attended 
the store I was employed on a steamer on the Sacramento 
River, also worked some time in the mines. Fin'ally, I resolved 
to return to St. Louis, and did so by way of Panama and New 
Orleans. 

Again in St. Louis, I embarked in mercantile business — first 
opened one store on Broadway, then a second, and third, and at 
length- an exclusive wholesale house on Main Street; all of 
which I carried on at the same time; and in 186(5 closed up 
all of my business affairs, and- moved with my family to Salt 
Lake City, Avhere I have continued business in the mercantile 
line in different locations in the city, having remained eight 
consecutive years in my present stand. 

George Duxeord. 

At a" conference in Brigham Cit} r about the twentieth of 
August, 1877, Elder Dunford was nominated by President 
Brigham Young, and sustained by unanimous vote of the con- 
gregation, as presiding Bishop of Malad Valley. Lie cheer- 
fully accepted the appointment, although well aware its fulfil- 
ment would subject him to great pecuniary sacrifice, he being 
engaged in mercantile business, the management of which he 
must leave to others. 

Early in September he went to his new field of labor in 
company with my brother Lorenzo, by whom he was set apart 



388 BIOGRAPHY AND 

for the arduous and responsible duties of the position assigned 
him in Malad City, in which place he established his office for 
Church business. 

The ward over which Brother Dunford was called to pre- 
side consisted of Malad City, Cherry Creek settlement, two 
miles distant, St. Johns, two miles in another direction, 
Samaria, eight miles, Rush Valley, twelve, and Oneida, twenty- 
four miles distant; which subjected him to a great amount of 
travel in visiting and counseling with the people. 

Previous to this time, a spirit closely bordering on apos- 
tasy had crept into the hearts of some in Malad City, the 
headquarters of his mission, and two parties with opposite 
aims and feelings being connected in their financial interests, 
added greatly to the labors and difficulties of the newly 
installed Bishop. All of their co-operative organizations 
included individuals of these two unharmonizing classes of 
investors. Bishop Dunford very soon was forced to realize 
that the situation was a grave one, and required more than 
human wisdom, and all the saintly patience, forbearance and 
stability of purpose attainable • through humility, faith and 
prayer. His sympathies were invested in behalf of the God- 
fearing portion of the people, with a determination to do jus- 
tice to all, and he devoted himself to the work unto which he 
was called, at the expense of all personal worldly interest, and 
with little or no consideration of personal comfort. 

While laboring to unite the people, and improve the con- 
dition of things in Malad City, he did not neglect the Saints 
in other portions of the ward, either in their temporal or spir- 
itual interests, and when pointing out local improvements for 
their advantage, it was a noticeable feature in his practice to 
say, "Come, boys," and not "Go, boys," which was proven by 
instances when he set the example which led to material 
improvements, by voluntarily leading out in manual labors. 
To this the writer was an eye-witness, having, during the time 
referred to, visited most of the locations over which he pre- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 389 

sided. In fact, his heart was drawn to them with love and 
affection for the people, and when, in consequence of exposure, 
fatigue and much travel, after nearly three years' service, he 
was seized with an affection of the lungs, with which he was 
so much disabled that it was considered wisdom for him to 
resign, which he did with great reluctance; after receiving 
counsel to that effect. He felt the counsel to be correct; but 
to leave those in whose interest he had so deeply enlisted the 
warm sympathies of his nature, was like a father withdrawing 
from his children. He says: President Snow, in counseling 
with me on the subject, felt that I had honorably accomplished 
my mission in that country ; and in accordance with his sug- 
gestion, with great reluctance, I resigned. I say truly with 
great reluctance, because I had learned to love a great many 
of them, and I gave my heart to the Lord for the well being 
of His people in that country. 



CHAPTER LII. 

From the Deseret News. — A re-union. — A dinner. — Speeches. — Songs. — 
Expressions of love and union. — Judge Burt reads a lengthy presenta- 
tion address. — The editor comments. — The address. — Presents gold watch 
and chain to Lorenzo. — A testimonial of love, respect and confidence. 

'HE following expressions of love and confidence from 
those who had struggled together against the long 
established customs of the age in working up and earry 
ing into effect a system productive of individual and general 
good, are worthy of being engraven in letters of gold. In 
commemoration of the inflexibility of the bond of union in 
which those men were associated, and the esteem in which 
they held their file leader, we copy from the Deseret News, as 
follows : 



390 biography and 

Brigham City, January o, 1881. 
Editor Deserct Xews: 

On the last day of the old year, 1880, the "Council of the 
United Order" of this Stake, about sixty in number, had a 
grand re-union in the Social Hall, where they met and were 
seated around one large table, spread with an abundance of 
earth's productions in good style. 

Having partaken of a first class lunch, the time for 
several hours was spent by the brethren in making brief 
speeches, toasting, singing and relating remarkable incidents. 
A very warm feeling of friendship and brotherhood was mani- 
fest, and will long be remembered. 

' Judge John D. Burt, at the beginning of these exercises, 
read a lengthy address, in behalf of the assembly, to Apostle 
Lorenzo, Snow, setting forth in emphatic language the firm- 
ness, faithfulness, love and indomitable encrg}- of the Apostle 
in his long years of labor in the good cause, at home and 
abroad, his tribulations and victories. 

As a fitting testimonial of the love and esteem in which 

he is held by the brethren, the judge presented him a gold 

watch and chain, which had been purchased at Mr. Asmusscn's 

establishment, in Salt Lake City, for $245 (two hundred and 

forty -five), and was a gift from a number of the brethren; 

after which Brother Snow arose, and, with feelings of emotion, 

thanked his [ brethren for this token of esteem, which' came 

to him by surprise, and said he valued the respect and good 

feelings of the brethren above all earthly considerations. 

The scene was. impressive by reason of the spirit that was 

present. 

A. Chiustexsen. 

The following presentation address, by Judge Burt, will 
show that this interesting community still retained its vitality 
and enthusiasm, also the high regard and appreciative respect 
in which Lorenzo is still held as a "social reformer:"- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 391 

PRESENTATION ADDRESS. 

Beloved President Lorenzo Snoiv: 

We have met here this evening in a social capacity, as 
friends and brethren in the cause of truth, to while away a 
few hours in social communion together, and to congratulate 
each other for the peace surrounding us in our mountain 
home, and for the rich and abundant blessings of a kind, 
indulgent and beneficent Creator, which have so eminently 
crowned our efforts during the past year, and for the favorable 
and glorious prospects foreshadowing us in the future. 

"When we contemplate the scenes of poverty, sorrow, per- 
secution, suffering and death heaped upon the Saints by their 
Christian (?) friends of this generation, and contrast the 
present with the past, our hearts swell with deep emotion, 
thanksgiving and gratitude beyond expression to the Giver of 
all good for the many and peculiar favors so graciously 
bestowed upon us since we have resided in these valleys. 

And while we are ever ready and always willing to 
acknowledge the hand of our God and render unto Him our 
sincere thanks for all the blessings we enjoy, we also recognize 
the fact that a meed of praise and much honor is due to His 
servants, the Apostles, who, through their indomitable energy, 
untiring zeal, and earnest devotion to the cause of truth, have 
been the favored instruments in the hands of God to bring 
about and make possible these happy results. 

Beloved President: As one of these honored ones, you 
have occupied a very prominent position. You have traversed 
sea and land "without purse or scrip" to proclaim |jlad tidings 
to an erring and fallen world, and for nearly half a century 
you have labored incessantly, at home and abroad, in the 
interest and common cause of humanity, and in the prosecu- 
tion of this labor you have been required and have cheerfully 
made many sacrifices for the Gospel's sake. 

You have also been a pioneer, and to-day stand in the 
front rank of co-operative enterprises in this Territory, devoting 



392 BIOGRAPHY AND 

your time, talent and means for the good of the people; thus 
seeking to elevate the poor, and bring about an equality and 
union among the Saints in Zion. Many and arduous have 
been your labors in this direction, and, although the adversary 
has been permitted, from time to time, to make invasions, to 
commit depredations, impose and levy special, grievous and 
unjust and unconstitutional burdens upon you, thus aiming to 
undermine and strike with paralysis and death the noble 
enterprise you have so zealously and industriously erected and 
fostered in the midst .of your brethren here in this city; you 
have never faltered, but with sterling fidelity, unflinching 
purpose and unshaken confidence you have faced the frowning 
billows of adversity, and the howling tempest of anti-Christian 
hate, and, in divine strength and with heroic fortitude, and 
Godlike determination, you have met and withstood the shock, 
weathered and outridden the storm, and in an eminent degree 
have been successful in the achievement of the grand object in 
view — the union and consolidation of the interests, efforts and 
feelings of those whom God has entrusted to your care. 

Now, in consideration of the many and valuable services 
you have rendered this communit} T , and for the frequent acts 
of courtesy and kindness bestowed upon us as individuals, 
permit us, beloved brother, as a humble testimonial of our 
regard, to present you this watch and chain, which we trust 
you will condescend to accept as the grateful and voluntary 
offering of a few of your 'friends, who have clustered around 
you on this occasion, desiring to manifest their approbation, 
and to recognize your past services in their behalf. 

Earnestly hoping that your life may be spared, and that 
you may be permitted to wear this slight token of our esteem 
for many years yet to come, we will still continue to invoke 
the blessings of the Just One to rest upon you and yours for- 
ever and ever. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 393 



CHAPTER LIII. 

Chester Loveland a modern Ajax. — Drives the Sheriff and his posse. — Holds 
a mobocratic jury. — Brings them to terms. — Captain in "Nauvoo 
Legion." — Comes to Utah. — Goes to- Carson. — A. scene of suffering. — 
Commissioned Probate Judge. — Is left to preside. — Mission to the States. — 
John A. McAllister called on mission to Europe. — Interesting time on 
the steamer. — Why the "Mormons" were driven from Nauvoo. — Is sent 
to the Orkney Islands. — Stops at his uncle's in Glasgow. — Missionary 
labors. — In Dundee and Newcastle-on-Tyne. — Visits London. — Returns 
home. — Is elected County Recorder. 

U HESTER LOVELAND, one of Lorenzo's sons-in-law, 
who was baptized in Kirtland, June 27th, 1837, has 
* had several hair-breadth escapes in defense of his 
brethren, in the most turbulent scenes through which the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has struggled. In 
one instance a leaden ball, designed to take his life, in passing 
his head came so close as to graze the side of his face, scorch- 
ing it sufficiently to cause the skin to peel off. 

A stranger to fear, he never shunned positions of danger 
where duty called or danger to his brethren prompted. In his 
physical development evidently formed for a champion — tall, 
robust, he might well pass for a modern Ajax in strength and 
agility. 

The apostates, aided by our most bitter Gentile enemies 
abroad, established a press in Nauvoo, and commenced the 
issue of a periodical entitled The Expositor, in which appeared 
the most flagrant, scurrilous, libelous articles against the lead- 
ing authorities of the Church. The mayor, in connection 
with the city council, declared it a nuisance, and by their 
order it was demolished ; after this, the deputy sheriff called 
on our hero to assist in arresting the mayor, Joseph Smith, 
and the city council, and he positively refused. "The next day 



394 BIOGRAPHY AND 

the sheriff came with a posse and demanded his assistance, 
saying he had orders from the governor of the State. Mr. 
Loveland understood the trick; he knew there was no possible 
means by which orders from the governor could have been 
obtained, as he was far distant, and at that time communica- 
tion b}' telegraph was out of the question. The sheriff 
insisted, and the more he did so the more Mr. Lovcland's 
anger was aroused, till, grasping his arms, he rushed single 
handed towards the mounted posse, when with the fear of 
treacherous cowardice, riders and horses decamped with hur- 
ried pace. 

He entered into plural marriage in January 21, 184G, hav- 
ing a second wife sealed to him at that time in the Nauvoo 
Temple. 

A serious, and, at the same time, rather ludicrous inci- 
dent, in which Brother Loveland was connected, which 
transpired in Nauvoo, is worthy of record as a specimen 
of mobocratic times with the Latter-day Saints, as related by 
himself. 

He says: I was on the jury when some of our brethren 
who had been falsely accused were brought to trial before 
eleven mobocratic jurors, and I held that jury thirty-six hours, 
until they were nearly starved. Two bills were before us — 
one "guilty," the other "not guilty." The eleven signed the 
"guilty" verdict, and insisted that I should follow suit. I 
said: "No, gentlemen, before I will sign that paper, I will die 
here on this floor, and the red ants may pack me out through 
that keyhole." The result was, every man signed the verdict 
of "not guilty," and the innocent went free. He was appointed 
captain of the "Nauvoo Legion" in its first organization in 
Nauvoo. 

He arrived in Salt Lake > City in September, 1850. In 
1853-4, was appointed lieutenant-colonel by President B. 
Young, then governor of Utah Territory, with instructions to 
organize a regiment-in the northern part of the Territory, and 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 395 

was subsequently commissioned colonel by one of the Gentile 
governors of Utah. 

At the spring conference in 1855, Colonel Loveland was 
called to go to Carson Valley (which at that time was a portion 
of Utah) and assist Apostle Orson Hyde in settling a colony. 
After their arrival in Carson, he, with six other brethren, went 
to Walker's River in search of a good location, and when there 
another point, thirty miles distant, was highly recommended 
as being exceedingly favorable for a large settlement. Prompt 
to the suggestion,, they went, but, to their great disappoint- 
ment, found they had been imposed upon, and instead of 
anything favorable, only a salt marsh, without a drop of fresh 
water, surrounded them. 

They had traveled thirty miles without water for either 
man or beast, and now to take their back track and return to 
the river was their only 'alternative. They started, but were 
overcome with thirst long before they reached their destina- 
tion. So intense were their sufferings that every man's tongue 
was swollen out of his mouth, and some of their tongues 
blistered. Their horses, through extreme exhaustion, refused 
to carry them; whenever mounted they would lie down, and 
the men in their suffering condition must cither walk or die 
by the way. 

Providentially, some Indians, well acquainted with the 
country, who saw'then} going from the fresh water, and sus- 
pecting the result, met them about five miles out, with about 
six gallons of water for their relief. Never was a humane act 
better timed, nor more gratefully appreciated. The six gallons 
were distributed among the famished men, barely sufficing till 
they reached camp, but enabling them to do so. As a 
grateful expression to those poor red men of the forest for the 
relief extended, the brethren clothed them in new suits from 
head to foot. 

When Elder Hyde returned to Salt Lake, he left Colonel 
Loveland in charge of the mission, and while there he received 



396 BIOGRAPHY AND 

from Brigham Young, then governor of Utah, a commission 
as probate judge. After his return from Carson, when that 
settlement was discontinued, he performed a mission to the 
Eastern States. 



John A. McAllister, son-in-law of Brother Lorenzo, was 
born in England, and when quite young came to America with 
his parents, who left their native country for the Gospel's sake. 
His father being by trade a saddle and harness maker, John 
learned and followed the same occupation — married Clarissa 
Snow, a lovely girl, and settled in Logan, Cache County. 

In May, 1880, he was called, and early in June started on 
a mission to Europe, after having been blessed and set apart 
by Apostle Lorenzo Snow. 

Having come to Utah when very young, everything in 
the world abroad was new to him, and when he arrived in 
Chicago sight-seeing was to him intensely interesting; after 
spending a few days in gratifying his curiosity, he proceeded 
to New York, viewed some of the sights, and on the 22d inst. 
took steamer and started for Liverpool in gay spirits, filled 
with enthusiasm and admiration of the grandeur of the 
mighty ocean as it spread out before and around him, uncon- 
scious of what was awaiting him. 

With a sound appetite he partook of a hearty supper; 
went to bed, but when he awoke, none but those who have 
experienced seasickness need attempt to describe the change. 
To repeat his own words : "I felt as the Irishman said, that 
I was mot myself at all.' I had lost my appetite, the spirit of 
excitement was gone, and I felt queer." In all probability he 
felt much as Captain Morgan told me when I was crossing the 
ocean on the Minnesota, that seasick passengers, for a day or 
two, felt afraid they would die, then, after that, they felt afraid 
they would not die. 

After our missionary recovered from seasickness, as per 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 397 

i 

journal, he says: About this time it began to be noised around 
that there were "Mormons" on board. - I was engaged in play- 
ing checkers with an old gentleman from Yorkshire, England, 
one of the radicals on the subject of " Mormonism," and he so 
expressed himself as we were playing for the amusement of 
scores of bystanders who were watching our movements. I 
made no reply to his rabid expressions, but paid strict atten- 
tion to our game, in which I beat him several times in succes- 
sion, which rather chagrined him, and I concluded to quit. 1 
then arose and gently patting him on the shoulder, said, "My 
friend, when you get home to England, you may tell your 
people that you were badly beaten at checkers by a young 
'Mormon,' " which created surprise, especially on the part of 
my checker-playing friend, who exclaimed, "What, sir! are 
you one of those 'Mormons?' " Then the gathered crowd 
began to ask questions, some in the spirit of ridicule, others 
for information. 

Among the rest was a little old man, who began to boast 
that when a young man he was one of those who fired the first 
guns that drove the " Mormons" from Nauvoo. I cannot des- 
cribe my feelings at this juncture. He said the "Mormons" 
fought bravely with their old wooden cannon, etc. I then 
asked why he and others committed such crimes — murdering 
men, women and children in cold blood. He replied, "Well, 
the people said that the 'Mormons' stole their cattle and 
horses." I asked him if he ever knew of any of those crimes 
having been proven against them. He said, " No, can't say 
that ever I did; but the real fact of the matter was, those 
'Mormons' all voted the Democratic ticket, and if we had let 
them alone they would have carried the State." Our contro- 
versy lasted about an hour, when the bell rang for lunch. 

The journal continues: After landing in Liverpool, I 
went directly to the Milllennial Star office, where I was kindly 
received by President Budge, who appointed me to the Orkney 
Islands, Scotland, with permission to spend a few weeks in 



398 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Glasgow, where I arrived on the sixth of July; went to the 
residence of my uncle, which gave him and his family a sur- 
prise, as they had no intimation of my coming. While I 
remained here in company with the president, Brother D. C. 
Dunbar, I visited most of the Saints in the Glasgow Con- 
ference, and obtained many items of interest pertaining to 
missionary labors, which proved very beneficial to me. 

On the twenty-seventh of August, on my way to the 
islands, when I arrived at Perth, all was bustle and excite- 
ment; Her Majesty Queen Victoria and suite having arrived, 
cu route to Balmoral Castle, a large crowd was awaiting 
anxiously to see them, and prompted by the same feeling, T 
located myself in a convenient place, where I remained about 
a half hour, although encumbered with a large valise in each 
hand, an overcoat and umbrella under my arms, when I had 
the gratification of beholding a live queen, a prince and prin- 
cess, which of course was something to a young American. 

After stopping over night at Inverness, I proceeded by 
train to Thurso, situated on the shore of the North Sea, three 
hundred and sixty miles from 'Glasgow; here I met Brother J. 
Finlayson, with whom I was to travel — found but one family 
of Saints, who, although poor, were very kind. We sailed 
from Scranton among the islands until we reached the Island 
of Pomona, and landed at the town of Kirkwell. Here we 
found the people superstitious and priest-ridden. So far as we 
ceuld learn, our Elders had visited there but once, and that 
long ago, and then without success. 

We engaged a room in a boarding-house, commenced dis- 
tributing tracts, and all the stale stories about " Mormonism" 
were soon going the rounds; but we disabused the minds of 
the people of the malicious tales wherever we could gain 
access. After much solicitation and paying ten shillings, we 
succeeded in engaging a hall, and had an attendance of about 
two hundred and •fifty persons, probably some of them 
prompted by curiosity, but we attributed our success in, gain- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 399 

ing an audience to our earnest prayers to our heavenly Father, 
so anxious were we to bear our testimonies of the Gospel, and 
I can truly say that never, either before or since, have I felt 
so great outpouring of the Holy Spirit as on this occasion, but 
this proved to be our only chance; so great was the opposition 
that a place for meeting could not be obtained for love or 
money. So much for the journal. 

The most that could be accomplished in the way of mis- 
sionary labors was in distributing tracts; for this pur- 
pose Elder McAllister managed to get a quantity published, 
and as he went from place to place, from island to island, 
where he could do no more in consequence of prejudice and 
bigotry, he scattered those printed testimonials. By permis- 
sion he spent Christmas and New Year in Glasgow, attending 
conference, visiting the Saints, and assisting in baptisms and con- 
firmations of new members. Labored in Dundee, and on the 
1st of March received appointment to Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Here he labored with much satisfaction, baptized several, and 
in visiting the scenes of boyhood in this his native place, he 
says: After the novelty had passed, although my father was in 
prosperous circumstances when he left for America and a 
home with the Saints of God, if ever I felt thankful to my 
heavenly Father for our deliverance from* Babylon, I was ten 
times more so then, as I saw the wickedness, corruption and 
the temptations to which I should have been exposed by 
remaining in that country. 

During his absence he visited London, whert. he spent 
several days pleasantly and profitably, and was released to 
return home with the company of Saints which embarked' for 
New York on the 17th of 'May, 1882, and on his arrival home 
rejoiced to find his family in life and health; and yet he pro- 
nounces his mission abroad the most important period of his life. 
. On his return he resumed his former quiet occupation, 
and at the last general August election received the appoint- 
ment of county recorder, and is now officiating in that capacity. 



400 BIOGRAPHY AND 



CHAPTER LIV. 

Discourse by Apostle Lorenzo Snow at the General Conference, Salt Lake 
City, April 7, 1882, Reported by George F. Gibbs. — Reference to Moses 
and ancient Israel. — Distrusting results the effect of ignorance. — Latter- 
day Saints have more faith. — No such thing as standing still. — Move on, 
trusting in God, the watchword. — Persecutions of the Latter-day Saints. — 
Move on and work on. — If we do our part, God will do His. — How the 
Lord overruled in our coming to the mountains. — Plural marriage. — 
Good resulting from the Edmunds bill. — The great worth of the Gospel.— 
Move on, move on. 

1 HE speaker read from the ninth to the fifteenth verses, 
inclusive, of the fourteenth chapter of Exodus, and 
then said: A very important lesson is contained in 
those verses, applicable not only to this community as a whole, 
but to every individual. At the time referred to, the children 
of Israel were but little acquainted with the Lord — His ability 
to carry out His purposes — not having had the opportunity for 
spiritual enlightenment as the Latter-day Saints. They had 
witnessed some miracles wrought in their partial deliverance, 
but their hearts were not affected, nor their understandings 
enlightened by the intelligence of the Holy Spirit as has been 
the case with the Latter-day Saints; therefore, when they 
approached the Red Sea, which to every •human appearance 
was impassable, and saw the armies of the Egyptians pressing 
closely upon their rear, their hearts failed them. 

The Latter-day Saints have been placed in circumstances 
very similar, where it was necessary to rely on their knowledge 
of God and their faith in His promises. It is not strange that 
the Israelites on that occasion, considering the little knowledge 
they possessed, should have been alarmed and manifested such 
folly and ignorance as they did in expressing to Moses their 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 401 

doubts of the propriety of persisting in his efforts to deliver 
them from Egyptian tyranny, notwithstanding they had been 
treated with such great rigor and barbarity. They had so 
little faith in the word of the Lord, through Moses, they were 
willing to return and remain slaves rather than continue under 
the direction of the Almighty. They "wished to know if there 
were not sufficient graves in Egypt that it became necessary to 
be destroyed in the wilderness by the army of Pharaoh, and 
chided Moses for the course he had pursued. I scarcely imagine 
the Latter-day Saints, in any period of their history, have dis- 
played such lack of faith and cowardice; however trying their 
circumstances may have been, they have never been guilty of 
such weakness and foolish conduct. When the mob arose 
against us in Missouri, we were but few, and our circumstances 
so forbidding, it was impossible to expect deliverance except 
through the intervention of the God of Israel.' It is true 
there may have been some Saints at that time who faltered 
under the peculiarly trying situation, but they were few. 

The Latter-day Saints had received the Gospel, accom- 
panied by the Holy Spirit; therefore they had confidence, and 
could exercise the gift of faith and entertain pleasing hopes 
in the confident expectation of their ultimate deliverance. 
They did not exhibit that weakness and folly which were 
manifested by the children of Israel on the occasion to which 
I referred. There were a few, however, who wished to escape 
the ordeal and return to Babylon. 

In reading ecclesiastical history, we discover that Prophets 
exhibited more or less weakness and want of faith in times of 
peril ; and I have thought Moses, perhaps, manifested a little 
on this occasion. He beheld the difficulties, and, although he 
had more faith and knowledge than the people whom he was 
leading, yet there seemed to be a fault in the course he 
advised on this particular occasion. With the Red Sea in 
front, and the hosts of Pharaoh threatening in the' rear, the 
state of affairs certainlv wore a fearful aspect; and while the 

' '28 



402 . BIOGRAPHY AND 

people were bewailing their condition, Moses gave instructions, 
saying, "Fear ye not" — that so far was good, and should apply 
to the Latter-day Saints, and indeed always will be applicable 
in whatever position we may be placed ; but the remainder of 
the counsel I would think hardly consistent, and certainly 
would not be applicable to us in any situation or under any 
circumstances, namely, "Stand still and see the salvation of the 
Lord." It appears that Moses began to cry unto the Lord for 
deliverance, and the Lord answered him, saying, "Wherefore 
- cryest thou unto me?" Speak unto the children of Israel that 
they go forward." It was not proper to stand still. AVe are 
required always to move on — never stand still: while there 
remains one step forward that can be taken, that step should be 
taken. 

In this example before us, it was not good for Israel to 
stand still waiting for the Lord; they had not exhausted their 
own abilities; there was still room to move on in the direction 
God, through Moses, had appointed, and neither were they, nor 
are we, justified in ceasing to press onward in the path of our 
duty while we possess the ability. Never stand still, never 
suspend our efforts, however insurmountable may seem the 
obstacle ahead, however fierce and threatening the enemy. 

AVhen driven from Jackson County, from Kirtland, from 
Missouri and Illinois, by mob violence, the Kingdom was still 
moving on — the purposes of God being accomplished, and the 
work of the Lord undergoing changes necessary to its growth 
and progress, and "the trials and afflictions incident thereto 
were required for proving the Saints and advancing them in 
the knowledge of God. I would say, let this motto be that of 
eveiy Elder in Israel, and of every person worthy to be called 
Saint, Fear not — never stand still — move on. Let the farmer go 
forward making improvements — plow, sow and reap; let those 
engaged in proper and useful enterprises continue their opera- 
tions, and every man be faithful and very diligent in observ- 
ing his covenants and keeping the commandments of God, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 403 

and in cultivating a desire to do all the good possible; and if, 
in reflecting on the past, we discover we Jhave not acted strictly 
in accordance with the dictates of our consciences, let us make 
ourselves right before God and man that we may be fully pre- 
pared fpr every emergency. 

Let the building of Temples and houses of worship and 
education go on; let the Saints continue to school their 
children, bringing them up in the fear of the Lord ; and let 
the Gospel still be carried to the nations afar, Israel be gathered, 
and the people be found always moving on as the purposes of 
God continue to roll forth. 

Do not stand still looking for the salvation of God, but 
move ahead while there remains a step to be made in the 
direction which He has commanded; then shall we see the 
salvation of the Almighty. This is truly the work of God; 
He is directing its course and progress, and to promote its 
interests should ever be uppermost in our minds, that we may 
exhibit to the world our faith and confidence, and our devotion 
to the divine principles we have embraced. And because of 
this exhibition of our faith, confidence and integrity during 
our past trials and afflictions, God helped us in a marvelous 
manner to go through the fiery ordeals which indeed appeared 
to'the world unbearable, though to us were not so grevious; 
the Spirit of God was with us, even the Holy Ghost, the 
Comforter. Our experience at those times was like that of the 
three Hebrew children when cast into the fiery furnace, the 
angel of God appeared and walked with them, side by side, to 
and fro, in the midst of fiery flames; and when Daniel was 
cast into the den of lions, God sent him a comforter in the 
person of an holy angel. Those men, instead of faltering in 
the path of duty, and waiting for the Lord to deliver them, 
moved on, and were irrepressible in their course. They possessed 
the knowledge of God through the Holy Ghost, which also 
imparted unto them a divine confidence and faith, enabling 
them to persevere. They knew that in Him, whom they were 



404 BIOGRAPHY AND 

worshiping and obeying, were the issues of life and death ; that 
to die in Him, is to live — live eternally — go on, though it lead 
through martyrdom to the realms of glory and immortality. 
This principle of faith and fidelity was exhibited by the 
Latter-day Saints when forced, at the point of the bayonet, to 
sign over their property to 'the mob in Missouri, and tidvised 
to disperse, scatter, and not venture to gather together, but live 
as other people; 

We ignored that counsel, fled to Illinois, built the city of 
- Nauvoo, and secured a charter from the legislature, embracing 
more favorable provisions than those of any other city in the 
State. We did not stand still, but with divine faith and hope, 
kept pressing forward, the Lord doing as He promised, namely, 
softening the hearts of rulers and impressing them to favor 
.Zion. 

I am not of the mind of some, that good cannot come out 
' (Nazareth) Washington. We occasionally speak rather harshly 
•of some politicians of our country, and, no doubt, deservedly ; 
notwithstanding their illiberal and unjust measures, I believe 
they can do us good, especially if the Lord operates upon their 
minds as He has in the past and will do in the future, in 
granting us favors that many little imagine. 

The circumstances which led us to these mountain vales 
are well known, and need not be related. After having sub- 
mitted to the necessary chastisement, through failing to give 
heed to the counsels of the Priesthood, the Lord moved upon our 
nationargovcrnnient to accord us favors and privileges. They 
granted what is called the "Organic Act," a bill of rights as good, 
perhaps, as could have been expected. Furthermore, what 
was rather surprising, they appointed our Prophet, Brigham 
Young, Governor of our new Territory. Who would have 
thought it? Had any man dared to predict such an extraor- 
dinary change of tactics at the time we were driven by a 
merciless mob, legalized by the executive of Missouri, he would 
have been pronounced, to say the least, an enthusiast. And 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 405 

• 

besides, they selected one of our Elders, and made him United 
States Judge, and another prominent Elder, Secretary of the 
Territory. Now, who did this? Our dear "Uncle Sam." 

Well, now, I do not propose to speak much against "Our 
Uncle," for as we sec, occasionally, he has taken a notion to act 
the part of a pretty fair uncle. We perceive, in all this, the 
hand of God working out these changes; and for one, I am 
willing to admit that good can be brought out of (Nazareth) 
Washington. We certainly can afford to suffer a little when we 
discern, now and then, some kindness and humanity exercised 
in our behalf by the authorities of the nation. 

In former generations, the Lord sometimes inspired 
heathen kings to favor His people, and He is the same God 
now as then, and He will do in the future as in the past, 
inspire our rulers to favor Zion, notwithstanding the means 
now employed to deprive us of our political and religious 
rights. 

We talk about the Edmunds bill; what that law will 
accomplish, I do not pretend to say, neither do I imagine that 
its frainers and abettors know exactly how far it will affect 
the Latter-day Saints. One thing, however, I have noticed, 
that congressmen differ widely in their ideas with regard to 
certain of its provisions, and that being the case, perhaps it 
would be policy to wait and watch. But there is one singular 
feature in it relating to plural marriage. In regard to that 
doctrine, allow me first to say I have a knowledge of it as a 
principle, revealed from God, belonging to the religion wc have 
espoused. I was personally acquainted with Joseph Smith, the 
Prophet, during twelve or fourteen years, by whom I was 'first 
taught this doctrine, and knew him to be a man of truth and 
honor. But then, I am not dependent on his word for my 
knowledge of plural marriage; the Lord gave me a divine 
testimony confirming His teachings, which no man can give 
nor take away. 

And now, as there is more or less good to be found every- 



406 BIOGRAPHY AND 

where, the Edmunds law, also, is not without its advantages ; 
therefore, let us accept the good and be grateful. There is a 
provision in that extraordinary statute which legalizes the 
issue of our plural marriages up to the first day of January, 
1883. Now, who- could have expected so much good to come 
out of Nazareth? "Uncle Sam," after all, is occasionally a 
pretty fair uncle. [Laughter.] And, mark you, the framers of 
that law have been so considerate and generous as to provide, 
distinctly, tha^ the children thus legalized, must be the offspring 
•of marriages performed exactly according to the rites and cere- 
monies of the sect known as the Latter-day Saints. In the 
language of the little boy, I say "good enough." [Laughter.] 
Now, if any of our Gentile friends, in the past, have been 
indiscreet or should hereafter take mistresses (their usual 
custom), their offspring, of course, are not so favored. 
[Laughter.] We ought to be thankful for this kind legislation, 
and, no doubt, we are. 

Really, I never anticipated the law makers of our nation 
would legalize our plural marriages performed in the last thirty 
years or more. If the Lord is able to work in this manner 
through men who framed that odd and singular statute, our 
open and avowed enemies, what may He not do in our favor if 
we continue faithful in keeping our covenants. The Lord, very 
possibly, will permit a heavy pressure to bear upon us, such as 
will require great sacrifice at the hands of this people. The 
question should be, Will we be prepared? This is the work of 
• the Almighty, and the blessings we look for, which have been 
promised, will be given after we have passed through the 
^ordeal and proved ourselves. I have no special word for the 
Saints that there is, or is not, approaching them a fiery ordeal 
which they must endure; the question with me is, Am I pre- 
pared to receive and put to proper use every blessing and 
ability the Lord bestows, and thus be ready to make such 
sacrifice as He may require? I will close my remarks by 
exhorting one and all — move on, move on, and never stand still. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 407 



CHAPTER LV. 

Eli H. Peirce.— Called on a mission. — Thoughtless of religion. — Taken by 
surprise. — Throws aside pipe and novel. — What his associates said. — 
What Moses Thatcher did. — Eli starts forthwith.— In New York.— To the 
coal regions, Pennsylvania. — Great success. — A testimonial. — Baptizes 
and administers to sick. — The power of God attends. — Organizes 
branches. — Heavenly messenger appears. — Release. — A second mission. 
— On the frontier. — Baptized a Sioux. — From Deseret News. — A third 
mission. — With B. Morris Young. — Meets with success. — Opposition. — 
Close of mission. — Happy expression. 
+ 

#N the fifth day of October, 1875, at the Semi-annual 
Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints, I was called to perform a mission to the 
United States. 

Just why my name was suggested as a candidate for this 
mission, and presented at conference for approval or rejection 
by the people, I cannot say. My mind prior to that time 
had been entirely given up to temporalities. I had never 
read to exceed a dozen chapters of the Bible in my life, and 
little more than that from either the Book of Mormon or 
Doctrine and Covenants, and concerning Church history was 
entirely ignorant. Had never made but one attempt to 
address a public audience, large or small; and that effort was 
no credit to me. Had been engaged in the railroad business 
for a number of years, and this occupation would have 
deprived me of meetings and religious services even had my 
inclinations led in that direction, which I frankly confess they 
did not. I had become almost an inveterate smoker, and 
bought cigars by the -wholesale, a thousand at a time. Was 
addicted to the use of language which, if not profane, was at 
least vulgar and reprehensible. Frequently visited saloons, 



408 • BIOGRAPHY AND 

but was not an habitual drinker. Was not proficient at 
billiards, but squandered considerable money in acquiring 
what little knowledge I possessed of the game; and pool fre- 
quently cost me more for drinks than my board bill came to. 
Though these indiscretions were common and frequent, 
thanks to a mother's sagacious training, they never led to 
grosser or more alluring ones. 

Nature never endowed me with a superabundance of 
religious sentiment or veneration; my region of spirituality 
. is not high, but below the average. A phrenologist once said 
to me: "You are too level-headed to ever make a sanctimo- 
nious church member." With this list of disqualifications, 
which serious reflection helped to magnify, is it surprising 
that I marveled and wondered if the Church were not run- 
ning short of missionary material? 

One of my fellow employees was at the conference; I was 
not, because I did not care to be. He heard my name called, 
abruptly left the meeting and ran over ,to the telegraph office 
to call and tell me the startling news. This was the first 
intimation I had received that such a thing was contem- 
plated. At the very moment this intelligence was being 
flashed over the wires, I was sitting lazily thrown back in an 
. office rocking chair, my feet on the desk, reading a novel and 
simultaneously sucking an old Dutch pipe, of massive pro- 
portions, just to vary the monotony of cigar smoking. 

As soon as I had been informed of what had taken place, 
I threw the novel in the waste basket, the pipe in a corner 
and started up town to buy a catechism. Have never read a 
novel nor smoked a pipe from that hour. Sent in my resig- 
nation the same day, to take effect at once, in order that I 
might have time for study and preparation. 

Remarkable as it may seem, and t has since appeared to 
me, a thought of disregarding the call, dr of refusing to com- 
ply with the requirement, never once entered my mind. The 
question I asked myself a thousand times, and which seemed 



AUTOBIOGKAPHY. 409 

so all-important, was: "How - ' can I accomplish this mission? 
How can I, who am so shamefully ignorant and untaught in 
doctrine, do honor to God and justice to the souls of men, 
and merit the trust reposed in me by the Priesthood?" 

Some of my companions ridiculed me for entertaining 
sentimental thoughts; some mocked and derided, whilst 
others predicted that I would tire of working for glory before 
I had been out. six months, and seek my level by uniting 
with some comedy troupe or minstrel show; but no word of 
encouragement from any of my associates. 

The first man to congratulate me and offer words of com- 
fort and cheer, was President Moses Thatcher; he not only 
strengthened me with kind words and fatherly advice, but 
handed me a fifty-dollar note with his blessing, wished me 
every success, and expressed a fervent desire for my welfare. 

I was rebaptized, confirmed, set apart, ordained a Sev- 
enty and started on my mission, all within a month from the 
time I was called. Went direct to New York City, where I 
remained several days visiting places of interest. Saw the 
great tragedian, Edwin Booth, in his favorite character of 
Hamlet. Met with the Saints at Williamsburg, New York, 
but contrived to get but of preaching. My traveling com- 
panion arrived and we went up to the coal regions of Penn- 
sylvania. At a meeting of the Bellevue branch, I made my 
•maiden effort as a preacher of the Gospel. I stammeringly 
told the Saints that I had never received a testimony that 
would justify me in declaring to them a knowledge of the 
work of the latter days. 

Elder McKean was unexpectedly called into New Jersey, 
and I was left alone. In December was joined by Elder David 
Evans, Jr., of Lehi, Utah, who became my missionary com- 
panion. Our labors were confined exclusively to the State of 
Pennsylvania, mostly in the counties of Luzerne, Tioga and 
Bradford, and our circuit extended over two hundred miles. 

Through prayerfulness, humility and a persevering faith 



410 BIOGRAPHY AND 

we soon obtained the coveted testimony; .were greatly blessed 
of the Lord in freedom of speech and delivery, and we 
became known in that locality as "the boy evangelists." 

The following from the pen of a well-to-do farmer, resid- 
ing near Towanda, will convey a fair impression and serve to 
illustrate the liberality of feeling with which we were gener- 
ally received: 

Towanda, Pa., Sept. 12, 1876. 
Friend Eli: 

I feel that your presence in our midst has been a God- 
given thing, an oasis in the desert of our lives, and while I 
sincerely regret your departure from among us, I know there 
are broader fields for your missionary labor. I believe you to 
be a true messenger of God, endowed with power which, 
when fully developed, will seldom have been equalled in the 
pulpit. 

Hoping that you may live long to reap a reward, 

I am, your friend, 

G. D. Mace. 

Aunt Sally Mace was a venerable name, widely known 
and universally esteemed and respected. She had heard that 
we were in the neighborhood, and sent her son, the writer of 
the above, several miles, on a cold December night, to attend 
our meeting and bring the boy preachers home with him. We 
found Aunt Sally very low and suffering greatly from nervous 
prostration; said she could not live another night and endure 
the excruciating pains that had racked her body the past few 
days. "We told her of the restoration of the primitive Gospel, 
with all attending gifts, blessings, etc. She believed our tes- 
timony and requested us to administer to her before retiring. 
We complied with her wishes, the Lord heard our prayers, 
and she was greatly and lastingly blessed. This called forth 
the following from her daughter, Mrs. S. J. Cole, an influen- 
tial lady of the city of Towanda: 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 411 

TO ELDER E. H. PEIRCE. 

Dear Elder, your mission of love is fulfilled, 
The Gospel of truth as of old we've received, 

Supported by God's holy word. 
You show to us miracles now in our day, 
And that the believers have only to pray — 

The prayers of the righteous are heard. 

We thank thee, dear friend, for thy labor of love; 
A savior of life to our mother you've proved, 

Through gifts God our Father has given. 
May the Lord whom you serve keep you ever from sin; 
May I, through His mercy, be, too, gathered in, 

And meet you, a brother, in heaven. / 

Throughout our entire mission we were greatly blessed, 
comforted and strengthened by "signs following." Anoint- 
ings and healings were of frequent occurrence, many of which 
appeared miraculous even unto ourselves. Evil spirits were 
likewise submissive to the will of the Priesthood, when 
rebuked in the name of Jesus. In one locality these mani- 
festations were so common that the faith of the people 
amounted almost to a superstition. 

The departure of the old year chronicled our first bap- 
tism — that of three persons at Kingston, on December 31st, 
1875, and the centennial year- was ushered in with bright 
prospects soon to be realized. 

At Plains, on January 1st, we baptized eight souls; fivo 
on the fifteenth, and on the sixteenth organized a branch, 
baptized and confirmed three additional members into the 
branch the §ame date. This baptism took place at night, and 
I think the coldest I ever experienced; we chose a secluded 
spot, under the trestle work of a railroad bridge, in a tribu- 
tary of the Susquehanna. The stream was frozen over, and 
we were obliged to take an axe and chop the ice before we 
could get to the water. While we were baptizing, a party of 



412 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Irishmen passed over the bridge, and, seeing us in the water, 
one of them called out, "Is it in sehwimmin ye are? Be 
gorry, it's purty cold onneway." There being no reply, they 
passed on. We learned next day that this same party 
belonged to that secret organization known as the Molly 
Maguires, the terror of the coal fields, and were then on their 
way home from an Irish wake they had been attending. 
They subsequently boasted of what they would have done had 
they suspected our motive or mission. 

Baptized one at Providence, three at Plymouth, five at 
Miners, and, April 6th, organized another branch. This is 
the anniversary of our birth as a Church and the -ushering in 
of the dispensation of the fulness of times. 

Up to this date we had blessed six children and held 
meetings regularly in Luzerne and Bradford counties, with 
but little molestation. Two schoolhouses had been closed 
against us, but in both instances friends threw open private 
houses, so that those who came to hear were not disappointed. 
A few times our services were interrupted by the unruly 
element, but they never succeeded in breaking up a meeting. 
Some mischievous boys attended one of our gatherings, 
bringing their pockets full of peas, which they continued to 
flip at us until the supply was .exhausted, making targets of 
our noses. Some of them were pretty good marksmen, and> 
as a consequence^ we tired of the sport long before they did, 
but took it all in good part throughout. We never had a 
more attentive audience than assembled at the same place the 
following night. 

In April we started north for Tioga county, preaching by 
the way. Visited Nauvoo, a small town founded by a few 
old-time Saints, and named after the beautiful city on the 
banks of the Mississippi. Baptized one and blessed three at 
Covington. 

Returned to Bradford county, baptized six at Monroeton, 
six at Greenwood, three at Creighton and one at Franklin; 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 413 

blessed five children and organized the Bradford branch. 
Some of those baptized were confirmed at the meeting, and 
strangers present were moved to tears by testimonies of the 
newly initiated, so full were they of earnestness and the 
power of God. 

I returned to Luzerne county; Elder Evans remained in 
Bradford. Baptized three at Plymouth, three at Kingston 
and two a£ Plains. Was called in to administei to the 
youngest child of one of the branch presidents. The mother, 
an apostate, seriously objected to anything of the kind in 
her presence, and she refused to leave the bedside of the 
dying child. Not wishing to intrude, we retired to an upper 
room to pray, and she, designing our motives, sent her little 
girl" to spy upon us. In a secluded chamber we knelt down 
and prayed earnestly and fervently, until we felt that the 
child would live and knew that our prayers had been heard 
and answered. Turning round, we saw the little girl standing 
in the half open door gazing intently into the room, but not 
heeding our movements. She stood as if entranced for some 
seconds, her eyes fixed immovably upon a certain spot, and 
did not stir until her father spoke. She then said, "Papa, 
.who was that other man in there?" He answered, "Brother 
Peirce." She said, "No, I mean that other man." He replied, 
"There was no other, darling, except Brother Peirce and 
myself; we were praying for baby." She shook her head, and, 
with perfect composure, said, "Oh, yes, there was; I saw him 
standing between you and Mr. Peirce, and he was all dressed 
in ivhite." This was repeated to the mother, who tried every 
means in her power to persuade the child that it was a mere ' 
delusion, but all to no purpose. Entreaties, bribes, threats 
and expostulations were alike unavailing. She knew what 
she had seen and nothing could shake that conviction. 

The baby was speedily restored to perfect health. Made 
it a point to meet a second time with the Saints at Bellevue 
and let them know that "hope was at length, merged into 



414 BIOGRAPHY AND 

sweet fruition." The long sought testimony had been 
received and repeatedly confirmed. 

Baptized three at Plains in September, and on the 
twenty-seventh of this month I received an honorable release 
from my mission for a birthday present. Did not come 
directly home, as I perhaps should. Went down to Philadel- 
phia to do the centennial, where I remained two weeks. 
Stopped at Chicago and other places, loitering on the way, and 
the consequence was, when I reached Council Bluffs, Iowa, I 
met a re-appointment to labor, in connection with Elder 
James A. Little, until other Elders were sent down in the 
Spring. 

This was a disappointment felt keenly at first, but a feel- 
ing of perfect contentment soon followed, and it was not long 
before I was forced to acknowledge the advantages it pos- 
sessed over my former mission. In Pennsylvania I had used 
little else than the New Testament Scriptures, but here on 
the frontier, amongst apostates and in the very hotbed of 
Josephism, it became an absolute necessity for me to study up 
our Church history, modern revelation and points in doc- 
trine. 

Rode thirty-six miles one day, on horseback, to purchase 
several numbers of the Millennial Star and the Times and 
Seasons. We held public discussions with two of the 
Josephite apostles, so-called. . 

Baptized fifteen at Council Bluffs, three at Boomer and 
two in Lewis township; blessed six children and organized a 
flourishing branch at the Bluffs. These baptisms had all to 
be performed under an old mill, the streams on the outside 
being solidly frozen over. 

One of our Pottawottamie converts was a Sioux Indian 
woman, the first, I think, of that warlike tribe that had ever 
received the Gospel. Never felt the power of the adversary 
so strongly as at this baptism. A horse we had borrowed, 
perfectly kind and gentle on ordinary occasions, broke from 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 415 

secure fastenings and ran away three times before we suc- 
ceeded in getting her into the water. She Was well acquainted 
with Sitting Bull and other noted war chiefs of the Sioux 
nation; had a moderate education, self acquired, and was 
deeply interested in the Book of Mormon. Made her a pres- 
ent of mine, and she returned to her people, rejoicing in the 
truth and impatient to tell them something of their fore- 
fathers from the record which she bore. 

In April, baptized several, blessed one, and received my 
second release., This time I did not stand upon the "order of 
going," but went at once. 

The following extract is from the Deseret Evening News of 
April 21 : 

"Returned Missionary. — This afternoon we were 
pleased to meet with Elder Eli H. Peirce, of Brigham City 
who returned on the seventh instant, from a mission to the 
Eastern States. He left Utah November 1st, 1875, and pro- 
ceeded to Pennsylvania, where he labored for about ten 
months, in conjunction with Elder David Evans, Jr., and 
where these two Elders baptized fifty-six persons, about twelve 
of whom had been previously connected with the Church, 
and organized three branches. Being released, Elder Peirce 
proceeded toward home in September, 1876, and had arrived 
at Council Bluffs, when he received another appointment to 
labor in conjunction with Elder James A. Little, in Iowa, 
where he remained until he came home. In the last named 
field, the labors of Elders Little and Peirce resulted in 
twenty-seven persons being baptized, and they organized one 
branch. 

"Elder Peirce states that in his labors the word was con- 
firmed by 'signs following/ the power of God being mani- 
fested in causing the blind to see, the deaf to hear, the lame 
to walk and evil spirits to be cast out. The gifts were also, in 
some instances, bestowed upon persons previous to baptism, 
and even upon one who has not yet been baptized. 



416 BIOGRAPHY AND 

"In the labors of Elder Peirce, twenty-four children were 
blessed, and he attended over one hundred and seventy-five 
meetings, at all of which he preached. He enjoyed himself 
greatly in his labors, and returns in good health. He is 
thankful for the experience he has thus obtained in his 
youth, and he now knows for himself that there is power and 
efficacy in the Gospel." 

Three days after reaching home, I was called upon a 
second mission, or more properly, a third; it came about in 
^his way: At the regular April Conference, held at St. George, 
cousin B. Morris Young had been called on a mission to Great 
Britain. _ President B. Young, hearing of my return and the 
success which had attended us, changed his son's mission to 
the United States and appointed me to accompany him. 

Morris was not prepared to start at once, so I resumed 
my labors on the railroad, but was not so wild and volatile as 
before. 

In August, 1877, we bid a tearful adieu to kindred and 
friends at home, and once more went forth to declare the 
words of life everlasting unto the inhabitants of our own 
land. 

Remained two weeks at Council Bluffs, Iowa, and vicinity, 
and baptized two. We next went to Ashland, thence to Platte 
Bottom, Nebraska, where we held protracted meetings, bap- 
tized six, organized a branch and blessed four children. The 
first man baptized into this branch had never heard the 
sound of the Gospel until an inscrutable Providence directed 
our footsteps thither. He is now counselor to the Bishop of 
the Preston Ward, Cache Valley Stake of Zion. 

No sooner had we commenced to baptize than priestcraft 
and the powers of darkness began to join forces against us. 
Three ministers, all of different persuasions, and two apos- 
tates, were imported to oppose us; all at variance to religious 
tenets, but united in their efforts to crush out and obliterate 
an unpopular faith. They advertised us thoroughly. The 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 417 

people turned out in such force to hear us and refute their 
arguments, that on two different occasions the floor sank 
beneath us; fortunately, however, we were near the ground 
and no one was hurt. 

Failing to accomplish their purpose by fair means, they 
next resorted to foul. An appointment was out for October 
17; upon going to the schoolhouse we found the following 
anonymous communication lying on the preacher's stand: 

"Gentlemen: You are requested not to preach any more 
in this neighborhood; the people are opposed to it: By leav- 
ing immediately you will save trouble, as we may resort to 
means we do not wish to. We are strong and you are weak, 
so govern yourselves accordingly. 

(Signed) District No. 4." 

We treated this with the silent contempt it deserved, pro- 
ceeded with our meetings as though nothing unusual had 
taken place, and gave out another' appointment. That night 
the author of the foregoing, who was a local preacher of the 
Christian or Campbellite faith, with some of his truly good 
and pious followers, tore the windows all out of the building 
and destroyed them. The day school had to be discontinued 
indefinitely in consequence. We returned to Council Bluffs 
and baptized one. 

President Brigham Young died while we were in Iowa, 
and we suffered much persecution because of bitter feelings 
engendered through the publication of scurrilous articles in 
the local papers. 

One evening, after prayers, Brother Mahood said to us: 
"How is it you have not prayed for President Young the last 
two days; I never knew you to fail before." This incident 
was brought vividly to our minds the following morning, 
when the melancholy tidings came that our beloved President 
had passed away. 

29 



418 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Four Elders arrived from the October Conference, and 
we prepared to go East. Stopped at Nauvoo and preached 
there; put up at the Mansion House and slept in the same 
room the Prophet Joseph once occupied. We interviewed 
Mrs. Emma Smith Bideman and sought to draw her out. 
She was not at all communicative, but enough was elicited to 
know that she felt keenly the one false and fatal step of her 
life — that of leaving the Church and uniting herself, heart 
and hand, with an infidel, after having raised a famity to one 
of the greatest and noblest of the creations of God. 

Visited the site of the Temple. Like the Temple at Jeru- 
salem, "not one stone is left upon another." We found them in 
store and dwelling foundations, and on street crossings; in 
walking up the principal sidewalk, we trod upon what were 
once corner stones in the Temple of God. Preached some 
through Iowa and Illinois. 

Went to Carthage and through the jail wherein the mar- 
tyrs died for the testimony of Jesus, and where President 
John Taylor so nearly lost his life. The property is now 
owned by Mr. Browning, a relative of the Brownings of 
Ogden, Utah. The building is used as a dwelling; what was 
then the prison room is now the parlor. A fine Brussels car- 
pet covers the indelible stain upon the floor made by the 
life's blood of the Patriarch. 

In the corner where once stood the humble cot, now 
stands a handsome piece of furniture, and the window, 
through which the Prophet sprang to his death, is heavily 
hung with rich lace curtains. The well has been filled up 
and the curbing removed. 

Morris went direct to Philadelphia, I to Washington, 
where I remained two days the guest of Hon. George Q. Can- 
non. Visited the White House and was introduced to Presi- 
dent Hayes. Was shown through the Capitol, the treasury 
building and other places of national note, and was admitted 
to a seat on the floor of the congressional chamber, all 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 419> 

through the courtesy of President Cannon, Delegate to Con- 
gress. 

Went to Philadelphia, where we remained a month doing: 
much fireside preaching, but no chance for public demon- 
stration in the "city of brotherly love." However, we antici- 
pate a harvest from the seed thus humbly sown. 

Early in January we took up our line of march for 
Luzerne county. Re-organized the Plains branch, thence te 
Bradford county, where we held circuit meetings regularly 
alternate nights. We had great joy in visiting the sick and 
comforting the afflicted; the Lord heard our prayers and 
healed many. 

On March 22d we were called in to the bedside of a 
dying friend, and requested to pray for her; not for her recov- 
ery, that she had no desire for, but that her sufferings might 
be alleviated, her pains removed and she be permitted to die 
in peace. In the midst of this petition, while all were kneel- 
ing at the deathbed, we were led to pray that the daughter,, 
who was present, might be inspired to go forth and perform 
the labor necessary for her own and her mother's salvation- 
Agreeable to the mother's expressed desire and our humble 
prayer, Mrs. W. passed tranquilly away the same night; a few 
moments before dissolution she audibly spoke our names. 

The funeral services were conducted by Minister B.,. 
Methodist; his sermonizing amounted to simply this — that 
as the deceased had died outside the pale of any church,, 
notably his own, she could never be redeemed from her fallen 
condition; she would be banished from the society and denied 
the affiliation of her Christian friends for ever and ever,, 
worlds without end. Amen. This was a little unexpected to> 
the mourners, and they refused to be consoled and comforted. 
The daughter came to us and asked for an interpretation of 
our strange prayer. After it had been explained, she 
requested that we call another meeting and preach upon the 
subject, announcing it as another funeral sermon. We did so r 



420 BIOGRAPHY AND 

dwelling upon repentance after death, the Savior's mission to 
the spirits in prison, and baptism for the dead, showing how 
broad and expansive is the Gospel of Christ when contrasted 
with the narrow and contracted theories of man-made 
religion. The house was full, and a spirit of sympathy pre- 
vailed. The daughter believed, was baptized, and is to-day in 
the faith. 

Baptized four in the Susquehanna River at Wysaukiug. 
Went to Philadelphia, Morris expecting a release. Baptized 
. four Philadelphians, but had to cross the Delaware River to 
the New Jersey shore and wait for the tide to come in. 
Received a letter releasing Morris, but instructing me to 
remain in the feld until relieved by other Elders from home. 

June 19th, attended the centennial celebration at Valley 
Forge, the decisive battle ground of the Revolution. Saw 
Washington's headquarters, his breastworks and entrench- 
ments still remaining and can be traced for miles. 

Tried to hire the little churchy in which the Prophet 
Joseph used to preach, in Philadelphia, but was unsuccessful; 
the deacon declared it should never again be so polluted and 
defiled. Baptized two, one a relative; blessed two and started 
north. Baptized six and blessed -two in Bradford county. 

At my valedictory I was annoyed several times by a man 
who sat near the stand, but did not heed his interruptions. 
Finally he stood upon his feet and said he wanted it dis- 
tinctly understood by all that he was a Bible believer, and 
knew more about the Scriptures in a minute than this young 
preacher did in a month. He said I had mentioned some- 
thing about a devil; he defied me, or any living man, to 
point out one solitary instance wherein the Bible taught a 
personal devil. 

I replied that Jesus chose twelve Apostles, "and one of 
them was a devil;" if he could convince other Bible believers 
in the congregation that Judas was not a person, I would 
admit that he knew a little something about the Bible. He . 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 421 

abruptly took his seat, and from that time was an attentive 
listener. 

Received my release in July, and in August was suc- 
ceeded by Elders Siddoway and VanTassel. Stopped at the 
Bluffs long enough to baptize one, bless one, and solemnize 
one marriage; reached home in September. 

Though my missions cost me more than a thousand dol- 
lars, besides more than double that in wages had I remained 
at home, I have never, for one moment, regretted the sacri- 
fice; the experience gained more than compensated for time, 
labor and means; while the knowledge acquired, of the things 
of God and the testimony of Jesus, I hold as invaluable- 
And now, after years have passed, I repeat, in words of sober- 
ness, and in all sincerity, that the happiest period of my life, 
as well as the most profitable, was spent in the Master's ser- 
vice. 

Recapitulation: Baptisms, 108; ordinations, 11; children 
blessed, 37; branches organized, 5; branches re-organized, 
1; marriages, 1; meetings held, 249; miles traveled, 9870; 
total cost, $1320. Eli H. Peirce. 



422 BIOGRAPHY AND 




CHAPTER LVI. 

Alphonso Snow.— Letter from President Taylor.— Called on mission.— In 
Tennessee. — Strange dialect. — Travels and preaches. — Organizes a Brar.oh. 
— Opposition. — Ordered to leave. — A dastardly letter. — Opposition pro- 
motes good. — Professors of religion the persecutors. — What a Deacon 
said. — Presides over a. Conference.— In Georgia. — Alphonso released. — 
Visits relatives. 

N the 23d of February, A. D. 1881, I was somewhat 
surprised to receive a letter from President John Tay- 
lor, requesting me to take a mission to the Southern 
'States. Surprised I certainly was, for my mind up to this 
time had not been turned to religious matters, and my maxim 
was, "I sought no change." But from the moment I received 
the appointment I was determined to fulfil my mission to the 
best of my ability. 

I was, at that time, engaged in teaching school, and after 
a, few weeks of preparation, I bade adieu to my kindred and 
friends, and soon found myself among strangers and those 
*'who know not God." Thrown thus entirely upon my own 
resources, I now commenced to search the Scriptures, and the 
germ of the Gospel, hitherto undeveloped, sprang apparently 
into life. 

My field of labor was in the States of Tennessee and 
Kentucky, principally in the former. I found the country 
people far behind my expectation, both intellectually and 
financially. However, I entered actively into the work, and 
soon found much to interest me in my labors and in the 
ipeople themselves. Their peculiar phraseology was often 
truly amusing; such expressions as "tote," "reckon," "we 
*uns," "you 'uns," etc., were household words. I remember 
shortly after my arrival at my destination, while stopping 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 423 

with one of the "good families," the lady of the house sent 

her son-in-law, Dr. , to call me to dinner, when he 

accosted me thus: "Elder Snow, I have been requested to 
carry you to dinner" — carry being a common term for fetch. 
I at first thought he was jesting, but glancing up and seeing 
an earnest expression on his face, I replied: "Do you think 
you'can do it?" It was now his turn to be surprised, to have 
an utter stranger, when politely asked to dinner, reply, "Do 
you think you can do it?" 

During the summer of 1881, Elder B. H. Roberts, my 
traveling companion, and myself held as many as 'six and 
seven meetings a week, often walking from twenty to thirty 
miles each day in the hot, broiling sun, to fill our appoint- 
ments. At first we met with little success, but later in the 
summer those who believed offered themselves for baptism, 
and we organized a branch of the Church, consisting of forty- 
four members. Up to this time, in the fall of 188*1, we had 
received but little persecution, but when we commenced 
making converts the people became enraged, and many 
threats were breathed against us.. Notices were posted up 
on trees and schoolhouses requesting us to leave the county 
forthwith. About this time, while left alone with the Saints, 
upon going to the post office for my mail, I received the fol- 
lowing note: 

Shooters' Hamlet, September 14, 1881. 
Most Infamous Scoundrel: t 

You are warned to leave this county in one week; if you 
remain it will be at the peril of your life. We have measured 
the ground ; go, or we will hang you like dogs. 

Indignant Citizens. 

No attention was paid to this threat, and the only effect 
it had was to increase the supply of Mr. H.'s buckshot. The 
author of this letter was the son of a Presbyterian minister, a 



424 BIOGRAPHY AND 

portion of whose flock had been added to the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

I had often read of the persecutions and v death of our 
Savior, which was brought about and accomplished by 
religious sects, those who professed to follow strictly the rites 
and ceremonies of Moses and the Prophets; this was often a 
mystery and a source of astonishment to me; nor coujd I 
understand, until my brief experience among the modern 
Pharisees, how those who professed to be so good and holy 
could perpetrate such horrid deeds. A deacon in one of the 
popular sects of the day, while visiting our host, who, by the 
way, was not connected with any religious society, the subject 
of "Mormonism" being broached, said: "Mr. H., if I could 
raise a mob to-day I would drive those Mormon Elders from 
the county or hang them to a tree." "You would," replied 
Mr. H., "well, I'm not a religious man, as you are; in fact I'm 
what you good people please to term a wicked man, but I 
would not commit such a bloody deed as you propose doing; 
and, further, I expect those Elders to my house to-night, and 
if you insult them, say nothing of hanging, I'll shoot you 
deader than h — 1 !" The deacon left prior to our arrival. 

Upon many other occasions when meeting and school- 
houses were closed against us, when we were . threatened 
to be attacked by night, and pistols were handed us for 
our protection, never upon one occasion, when we took 
time to investigate, did we fail to trace the cause of these 
persecutions to a religious source. The persecution of the 
Elders in the Southern States is commonly of a more 
sanguine nature than in most other parts of the world. 
And though this is so, on the other hand our friends usually 
are as determined to protect us. Here the the Southerner 
sallies out against the "Mormon" Elder with hickory 
withes, knives and pistols. In the Northern States, for 
example, it is of a milder nature, as being rotten-egged, 
tarred and feathered, etc. Here, also, our host usually says, 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 425 

"If. they injure you it will be over my dead body," while 
elsewhere the Elders' friends are often half-hearted; though 
even here there are exceptions to the rule, for I myself have 
had firearms handed me for my protection, while the family 
retired to a back room. 

In October of 1881, I was called upon to assist President 
John Morgan in the correspondence of the mission. The 
headquarters were then at Nashville, Tennessee, and much of 
my time subsequently was spent in that city, especially during 
the absence of President Morgan, when I was expected to 
look after the general affairs of the mission. 

In the spring of 1882, I was appointed to preside over 
the East Tennessee Conference. During the summer I 
traveled into middle Tennessee, in Hickman county, and 
spent a pleasant month with " Uncle" Robin Church, who 
embraced the truth many years ago, and upon one occasion 
went hunting with David Patten -when he was preaching 
through the south. 

In the fall of the same year I was called upon to accom- 
pany a party of Saints to Colorado. Accordingly, about the 
middle of November, I left with over one hundred emigrants, 
and after a tedious journey of five days, we reached Manassa, 
Colorado, where the Saints were settling, and were met at the 
depot by the people, who received us with the hospitality 
proverbial of the southern people. Though the valley, the 
San Luis, had been but newly settled, still much headway 
had been made, and the people were enjoying themselves both 
temporally and spiritually. 

I spent the remainder of the winter in Chattanooga and 
the northern part of the State of Georgia, looking after the 
general affairs of the mission, during Elder John Morgan's 
absence to Salt Lake. 

In the spring of 1833, I was honorably released from my 
mission to return home at my earliest convenience. I took a 
trip up through the Carolinas to Philadelphia, visited Inde- 



426 BIOGRAPHY AND 

pendence Hall, etc., and then up to New York. In the latter 
city I met a number of our Utah people, among others, Bishop 
John Sharp, John W. Young, and Elder James Hart. I 
accompanied the latter to Williamsburg, and addressed the 
Saints there on Sunday afternoon. From New York I took 
train for Auburn, Ohio, to visit my relatives. I found many of 
my father's cousins in good circumstances, financially, but not 
desiring, as a rule, to investigate the truths of the Gospel, 
though I was treated with marked respect and attention. 
After spending about three weeks with my father's relatives 
in Ohio and in the city of Chicago, I left for my " mountain 
home," not perhaps with such haste as Irving describes 
Ichabod Crane — that a game of marbles might be played on 
his coat tail, but it seemed the cars moved westward slowly 
indeed. I reached Salt Lake in time to attend April Confer- 
ence, having been absent^ on my mission just two years to a 
day. A. H. Snow. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 427 



CHAPTER LVII. 

Introductory. — Letter from Lorenzo's son-in-law on the Sandwich Islands. — 
The weather.— Cane crop. — Five hundred and forty-nine baptisms. — 
King David Kalakauna is coming to visit the Saints. — Great preparations 
for his reception. — Houses decorated. — Inscriptions. — Breakfast is wait- 
ing. — The steamer comes. — The King is escorted between two files of 
men, women and children. — Cheers.— Introductions.— Breakfast, then to 
the meeting house. — Reception. — Singing choirs. — Dedication prayer by 
President Partridge. — The King speaks approvingly of the Saints. — 
Meeting adjourned. — A "big feast" prepared by the natives.— What 
composed of. — How the King was seated. — How he ate. — How they all, 
numbering one thousand, ate. — The King escorted to the steamer. — A 
national custom. — Splendid conference. — Number of the Saints. 

S an incidental jotting of the present, and as a family 
historic item in connection with the preceding reports 
of missionary labors, we here introduce a letter which 
my brother has received from a son-in-law, now on his second 
mission to the Sandwich Islands. When sent on his first 
mission to the isles, he was quite young, and went as a lone 
boy; now he has his famil} r , consisting of a wife (my brother's 
daughter), and two children with him. He was called at the 
last April Conference, and started soon after its close. This is 
Morris Young's third mission abroad. 

Laie Plantation, Oahu, Honolulu, 

Hawaiian Islands, October 11th, 1883. 

President Lorenzo Snow, Brigham City, Utah : 

My Dear Father. — I take pleasure in writing you, and 
hope this letter will find you all well, as it leaves us. 
With occasional pleasant showers, the weather here is delight- 



428 BIOGRAPHY AND' 

fill. I presume you at home arc all preparing for a cold 
winter. 

Our cane crop is growing finely, a portion of which will 
probably be ready to take off in December, when we expect to 
commence grinding. 

• For several weeks past I have worked very hard, finishing 
up the painting of our new meeting house, attending many 
meetings in the afternoons and evenings. 

Last week the brethren were very busy, rebaptizing 
and confirming the people, numbering in all, including new 
members, five hundred and forty-nine. We took turns in 
baptizing. I baptized seventy-two — fourteen of this number 
were new baptisms. I baptized one woman whese weight is 
two hundred and sixty, and several who weigh over two 
hundred. 

Saturday, October G. — Hundreds of people were out early 
in the morning. Prior to this, we had received the announce- 
ment that the king, David Kalakauna, would honor us with 
his presence, and now the word is that the steamer on which 
he sails will land here at Laie at six a. m. 

Every possible preparation had previously been made for 
the reception of His Majesty, and the plantation is now dotted 
all over with people. The women are dressed in all colors — 
some in silks and satins, some in native manufactured material, 
and all in their very best. 

I have been assisting in making and decorating a crown, 
to be placed over an archway, through which the king will 
pass. In the archway is written in large letters, "E ola morn 
ha Moi" — in English, "Forever live the King." This motto is 
on the Makia side of the arch, and on the Mauka side is 
written "Hxti liooulu Lahue" which means "To increase the 
nation." The arch is beautifully decorated with ferns and 
flags. The large gate near the sea is also nicely decorated 
with ferns, leaves and shrubs. 

The " Mission House" is fancifullv ornamented with ferns 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 429 

and flowers — the posts, railings and ceiling of the porch are 
all draped with braided ferns, bountifully interspersed with 
flowers, which gives it a very beautiful appearance. 

We have a fine liberty pole in the center of the grounds, 
on which the Hawaiian flag is floating. The new meeting 
house is truly grand; it is set off with three chandeliers, a 
large clock on the center of the gallery at the east end, and on 
the west, over the stand, hangs my father's likeness, elegantly 
draped. On the right-hand wall is written, in large letters, in 
the native language, "He that endureth to the end shall live;" 
and on the left, " He will remember the isles of the sea." The 
stand, the gallery, and the aisles in the body of the building, 
are spread with neat Chinese mats. 

After this cursory glance at the meeting house, we will 
return to the Mission" House, where we find « breakfast all in 
readiness, waiting the arrival' of the king. Nine o'clock a. m., 
the steamer is in sight, about twenty-five miles out — eleven 
a. m., steamer arrives at Laie, anchors in the harbor some forty 
rods from land, and at twenty minutes past eleven, the king 
landed in a row-boat, and was carried from the water's edge/ 
three or four rods, to his horse. His Majesty's party consists 
of three ladies and one gentleman. Whether these all belong 
to the royal family I do not know. The party have several 
servants in attendance. An escort of about fifty horsemen are 
at the shore to meet the king. 

The following committees are at their posts, viz: Com- 
mittee on reception at the beach, Elders Reed, Meldrum, 
Brim, Marchant, Kinimakalahua and Kaleohano; captain of 
the horsemen, Samuel Woolley ; committee on reception at the 
Mission House, President Partridge, Young, Fox, Hansen, 
Farrell and Partridge, Jr.; committee on programme, H. A. 
Woolley, Gardner and Pack. 

The people are now in line on either side of the road for 
a long distance. Sunday schools, relief societies, young men's 
and young ladies' mutual improvement associations, Elders, 



430 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Priests, Teachers, Deacons, and the Saints generally, all out in 
honor of the occasion. 

About twenty-five minutes past eleven a. m., the king 
mounted his horse, and was escorted to the Mission House 
amid a volley of cheers, "Hip, hip, hurrah! hip, hip, hurrah!" 
from the delighted multitude. Elder H. A. Woolley received 
His Majesty at the archway, where the king and party dis- 
mounted, and were conducted into the house, where they had 
introduced to them President Partridge, Mrs. Partridge, Mrs. 
Young, and many Of the brethren. President Partridge 
welcomed the king to the location, etc., who seemed very 
pleased with the reception given him. 

The party partook of the breakfast in waiting. During 
this time the people gathered to the new meeting house, which 
was densely crowded; although it accommodates about five 
hundred, half of the assemblage was outside the building. 
Breakfast over, the king and party, President Partridge and 
wife, and B. M. Young and wife started for the meeting house. 
On entering, the congregation arose, and three choirs sang a 
national air of the Hawaiian Islands, entitled, "The crowned 
King." One of the choirs came from Honolulu City, one from 
the town of Kahana, and the other belongs to Laie. His 
Majesty was invited to the stand — his party occupied a position 
near the stand, with Sisters Partridge and Young. After 
singing, the king took his seat, and the congregation followed 
suit. 

Meeting was called to order by President Partridge. 
Singing by the Laie choir. Prayer by Elder Gardner. Sing- 
ing by the Kahana choir. After which, President Partridge 
made a few remarks, also read a report of donations for the 
new meeting house, and of cost of the building, to wit: 
§7,947.58. Next in order was singing by the Honolulu choir, 
then the dedication prayer was offered by President Partridge, 
when the Laie choir sang a hymn composed for the occasion ; 
after which, the king was invited to speak to the people. His 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 43l 

remarks were very good — he exhorted the people to continue 
their good works, and to carry out the teachings they receive 
from the Elders in our Church. Said we were the only denom- 
ination in his kingdom that kept the laws of the land, etc. 
Singing by the Honolulu choir. A few remarks were made by 
Mr. Cummings, one of the party. [ think he is owner of the 
steamer. After singing by "the Kahana choir, President 
Partridge stated that arrangements had been made for a big 
feast, prepared by the natives for the king and party, the Utah 
Elders and wives, and for the whole people on the island, 
which would be partaken of at the old meeting house, where a 
long bowery was erected for the accommodation of all the 
people. Singing. Conference was adjourned until to-morrow 
morning (the 7th) at ten o'clock. 

Now to the "big feast" — the old meeting house is not 
taken by surprise, but is trimmed and tastefully fitted for the 
doubly interesting occasion. On each side of the house table- 
cloths are spread on the floor, with plenty of ferns scattered 
around for the people to sit on; and on the tablecloths are 
spread poi in callow baskets, beef, pork, chicken, watermelons 
and bananas, on plates, but no plates, no knives and forks, and no 
spoons to eat with. AVe all ate as the Hawaiians do, with our 
fingers. 

At the head of the tablecloths, the king had a bedspread 
and pillow to lounge on ; his party was seated next him, on 
each side, then the brethren and sisters from Utah, then the 
natives. His Majesty and all ate poi and meat with their 
fingers. The "king was very sociable and agreeable, much 
more so than when he was here before. 

The finger process of eating was so entirely new to Meda, 
I thought she might feel a strong repugnance, but she said she 
"rather enjoyed it." There were at least one thousand who 
partook of the feast, but not all at the same time. 

The king and party returned to the steamer at twenty 
minutes to four p.m. The people escorted him to the beach, 



432 BIOGRAPHY AND 

and, in accordance with Hawaiian custom, he received presents 
from the natives, such as poi, pigs, chickens and bananas. 
The sea was very rough when the steamer came in and when 
it went out, in consequence of the heavy breakers, which are 
sometimes very dangerous at this harbor. The day was 
pleasant although windy. 

Conference adjourned on the Sth. We held seven meet- 
ings — two evening meetings; the- house is brilliant when it is 
lit up. 

Over one thousand people were present; they came from 
all the Hawaiian Islands. We had a splendid conference. 
There are three thousand six hundred eighty-nine Saints, 
children and all. Two hundred and eighty-six have received 
the Gospel since last April. 

Armeda joins me in love to you and the family. Please 
remember us to all inquiring friends. 

I remain your obedient son, 

B. Morris Young. 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

Expression of appreciation creditable. — Lorenzo speaks of his wives. — Their 
nobility. — How he made choice of them. — His earthly prospects. — How 
they accepted the position. — The Editor explains. — They*prove superior 
to circumstances of trial and hardships. — Are comfortably situated. — 
Step forth as mothers in Israel. — Their positions.-^Questions to the 
defamers of Latter-day Saint women. — Lorenzo's independence of char- 
acter. — Where credit is due. — Wife-missions. — Success attributed to 
God. — Testimonials of love and re»pect. 

HE following expression of appreciation, which I am 
most happy to find recorded in my brother's journal, 
does no more credit to the recipients of the enconiums, 
than to the heart that prompted, and the head that indited 



AUTOBIOGKAPHY. 433 

them. The acknowledgment of true merit is a virtue as 
well as a duty. 

In the journal, Lorenzo, speaking of his wives, says: After 
years of companionship, I can truly say I have been perfectly 
satisfied, and have never, for one moment, felt that I had the 
least reason or occasion for regret. In making choice of 
wives — in . view of continuing the relationship, not. only 
through time, but through endless eternity, realizing my own 
lack of wisdom and incompetency of judging in this impor- 
tant matter, it has been my invariable practice to seek in 
humble, earnest prayer, the mind and will of God; and I* 
acknowledge His guiding wisdom in this respect, and realize it 
impossible for me to feel sufficiently thankful for the good, 
"noble-minded women He has given me, which applies to each 
without one exception. 

Previous to marriage, I explained my position as a public 
servant, a minute man — one to whom was committed a dispen- 
sation of the Gospel of the Son of God; and gave them' to 
understand definitely that so far as this world's goods were 
concerned, my prospects were not very nattering, and to their 
praise be it written, their minds were elevated, and the desires 
•of their hearts lifted far above the gross yearnings of frail 
humanity after perishable objects, and they have proven 
themselves superior to the hardships, privations, poverty, and 
even perils which the Saints, in the earlier periods of the 
history of the Church, experienced. 

Possessing, as they did, that rare gift — the gift of sound 
common sense, my wives all acted in concert, mutually assist- 
ing each other; and with all the inconveniences, hard work, 
and privations, to which, while raising our children, they 
have experienced through my frequent, and, at times, long 
absence, like the brave Altnomock, they " scorned to complain," 
and never have they, at any time, sought to detain me, or 
prevent my fulfilment of public duties; but on the other 

hand, have been and are co-laborers with me! in the great 
so 



-J • 



434 BIOGRAPHY AND 

work of the last days. This testimony of my true and faithful 
wives I would fain have " engraven with an iron pen, in the 
rock forever," as I bear record in this my journal. 

When, by the cruel hand of persecution, the wives of my 
brother and the Saints generally were homeless and destitute 
of all conveniences, and most of the comforts of domestic life, 
at times living in tents and wagons, in storm and sunshine — 
at others, in temporary houses or huts, my brother, feeling 
the weight of responsibility as husband and father, with 
all the warm sympathies of his nature aroused, had to 
suppress and struggle against his feelings in view of the cir- 
cumstances. 

It was at such times that the nobility of soul, of heart 
and mind, of his wives shone out, approaching almost to 
sublimity. In the most gloomy times, when all was toil and 
privation, their cheerfulness and courage, in which they arose 
superior to trials, were like sunbeams shining though dark, 
threatening clouds, and really seemed to warm the cold hand 
of poverty which, apparently, was extended in every direc- 
tion toward the Latter-day Saints. 

Through the blessings and overruling hand of God, the 
Saints have had a season of comparative peace and temporal 
prosperity, and the circumstances of my brother's wives have 
greatly changed, exhibiting a striking contrast to those in 
bygone days. Through Lorenzo's exertions, industry and 
economy, God has wonderfully prospered and bestowed upon 
him means, insomuch that his wives have within their reach 
not only the necessaries but conveniences and comforts of 
life. Instead of tents and wagons, they now live in good, well 
furnished houses, with plenty of food and clothing, and where- 
with to entertain their friends, and instead of the hurrying, 
bustling scenes of other days, congenial quietude. 

And now, instead of merely fulfilling their very impor- 
tant duties as wives and mothers of children, they step forth 
into the broad arena of public life and officiate in the wider 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 435 

sphere, and with increasing responsibilities, as mothers in 
Israel; thus, in connection with the faithful discharge of home 
duties, they are actively engaged in various organizations as 
presidents, counselors, secretaries, teachers, etc.; and some of 
them have the pleasing satisfaction, even now, of seeing their 
daughters following, in this direction, in their footsteps, occu- 
pying important positions. Mary Adaline, the eldest of my 
brother's wives, during -the trying scenes through which we 
have passed, lias been as a mother to all his family. Naturally 
of a cheerful disposition, all within her sphere were recipients 
of her motherly, comforting and encouraging influence. Now 
age is tracing its lines on her still cheerful face. 

Harriet Amelia, after having been for some length of 
time president of a ward relief society, has been for several 
years past, and is at present, a very efficient president of the 
relief society of Box Elder Stake of Zion, also president of the 
general monthly meetings of the four branch (ward) societies 
of Brigham City. 

• Sarah Ann has, for two successive years, performed the 
duties of teacher in the relief society. 

Eleanor has been, and now is, acting as teacher in the 
relief society in the Second Ward of Brigham City. 

Mary Elizabeth is president of the relief society in the 
Second Ward, Brigham City, also Stake secretary. 

Phebe Amelia, for several years Stake secretary for the 
relief society, in which she was efficient, has now turned her 
attention to promoting the interests of the primary association. 

Minnie, for some time president in branch (ward) capa- 
city, now presides over the young ladies' mutual improvement 
associations of Box Elder Stake of Zion ; she also officiates as 
organist for the tabernacle choir. 

Are these women "down -trodden?" Are they ignorant? 
Are they enslaved? Do the foregoing expressions of their 
husband indicate that he estimates them below his own status, 
as slaves to do his bidding, or as dupes to gratify his passions? 



436 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Let the defamers of Latter-day Saint women hide their 
faces in shame and confusion. Well ma} 7 ignorance blush and 
persecution cower beneath the cloak of apostate Christianity; 
and well might the corrupt, foul-heorted and foul-mouthed 
calumniator of "Mormon" women retire to the depth of a lone 
solitude, and there bewail the day of his birth, else, forever hold 
his peace. 

The staunch feeling of independence, a peculiar trait 
exhibited in my brother's character in earl} 7 youth, has marked 
his career through all the vicissitudes of his active and event- 
ful life. Although it greatly augmented the trial of his nature 
in going forth to preach without purse or scrip, particularly 
the purse, it has fortified and many times enabled him to rise 
superior to circumstances. 

During forty-eight years he has been engaged in the work 
of the ministry, either at home or abroad. He has crossed the 
ocean eight times, and traveled over one hundred and fifty 
thousand miles, and withal raised and supported a large 
family — many of his children having become fathers and 
mothers of families. However, much credit is due his wives — 
a compliment which he fully endorses. In fact, it is a con- 
ceded point that when the husband and father is abroad and 
performing missionary labors, the wife or wives and mothers, 
with all the family cares and responsibilities devolving upon 
them, have quite as much of a mission at home. Notwith- 
standing my brother's frequent sudden -calls abroad, and - at 
times under pecuniary embarrassments, his wives have never 
solicited nor received assistance from any source, nor have 
they ever accumulated debts for their husband to cancel on his 
return. 

In going to. his fields of labor, he has invariably borne 
his own expenses, even when on some occasions obliged to 
borrow money at a heavy and exorbitant percentage. When 
on his English and Italian missions, the Saints in Europe con- 
tributed liberally in furnishing means which he expended in 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 437 

the translation and publication of the Book of Mormon and 
other works; also in introducing the Gospel into different 
countries, but no gratuity from the Church. 

In meeting the heavy expenses of the Sandwich Islands 
and Palestine missions, his good friends in Brigham City gen- 
erously contributed. 

A few years since, at a conference in Salt Lake City, in 
view of the constant spiritual labors of the Twelve Apostles, 
the Saints voted them a certain specified amount, to be drawn 
from the tithing funds. With the foregoing exceptions and 
small gifts occasionally slipped into his hand as testimonials 
of friendship, my brother and his family have managed to 
take care of themselves; but to accomplish this and gratify 
their commendable independent ambition, has required very 
careful management, and, at times, rigid frugality and strict 
economy, contenting themselves for years with the common 
necessaries and dispensing with many of the ordinary conve- 
niences of life. 

I have been prompted to bear this testimony as a rebut to 
the frequent untruthful charges of our opponents that the 
"Mormon" Elders and their families are supported by tithing 
of the Saints. 

That my brother and his family have been thus success- 
ful, he acknowledges the overruling hand of God; and in 
recounting His constant aid and the wonderful manifestations 
of His special favors and kindness, his heart swells with grati- 
tude beyond the power of language to express. 

"Honor to whom honor is due." Some two years after 
my brother's return from the Italian mission, as a grateful 
expression of their love and their appreciation of his efforts, 
devotion and faithfulness in opening up the Gospel to them, 
and in establishing the Church of God in that far distant 
nation, the Saints in Switzerland forwarded to him, as an 
affectionate memorial, a magnificent gold chronometer. 

The rich and beautiful gift was received with correspond- 



438 BIOGKAPHY AND 

ing feelings of love and sincere, heartfelt gratitude, and 
Lorenzo, for a season, took pride and pleasure in -wearing it, 
•out of respect to those who so generously presented it; and 
afterwards, feeling that President Brigham Young, more than 
any other man living, was worthy of the costly tribute, pre- 
sented it to him, and he manifested his appreciation by having 
the presentation with the donor's name inscribed in full on the 
interior, and I think he carried it till the close of his life. 

^ Some years after the above presentation, my brother 
being in Salt Lake City on a visit, President Young sent a 
note, requesting him to call at the office of the latter; he did 
so, and was invited b} T the President to accompany him to his 
carriage house, which was occupied by a number of carriages. 
By this time my brother was in quite a quandary, silently 
wondering "what was up," when, to his great surprise and 
astonishment, President Young, pointing to a very substantial 
and beautiful one, said, "Brother Lorenzo, that carriage is for 
'you; I shall send it on your return to Brigham City." The 
carriage was nearly new — had been purchased at the manu- 
factory at a cost of five hundred dollars. Feeling almost 
bewildered with surprise, Lorenzo protested against its accept- 
ance, but on his arrival in Brigham City, he received a mes- 
sage that the carriage had been shipped on the Utah Central 
railroad. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 439 




CHAPTER LIX. 

Start for Fort Hall Agency. — Meeting in Portage. — In Malad. — Reach the 
Reservation. — Meet Indians. — Pitched tent. — With two Bishops Lorenzo 
visits the agent. — Describes Mr. Cook. — Lorenzo asks the privilege of 
preaching to the Indians. — Prevarication. — An incident. — A discussion. — 
Mr. Cook says nothing so much needed as a farmer. — Brother Snow pro- 
poses to furnish one. — Mr. Cook will not accept. — Grows uneasy and 
will not have preaching. — A grave responsibility. — Mr. Cook shoulders 
it. — The school teacher enters and ''brothers" Mr. Cook. — The brethren 
start for camp. — Meet Indians. — Visit, school. — Little Chief, wife and 
daughter. 

;E now transcribe from Lorenzo's journal, as follows: I 
started for the Fort Hall reservation, June 15th, 

f 1S83 ? accompanied by Bishop I. E. D. Zimdel, his 
brother, Elder Abraham Zundel, Bishop Hoskiris, and Elders 
May and Jones, traveling with one carriage and one baggage 
wagon. Two intelligent Lamanite Elders joined us at our 
Indian colony. 

"We held meeting at West Portage, and three very inter- 
esting meetings on Sunday, at Malad City, Idaho. On reach- 
ing the reservation, we traveled but a short distance before 
we enjoyed opportunities for renewing acquaintances with our 
dusk}- brethren and sisters — all manifesting the highest pleas- 
ure at this, though unexpected visit. Several who had not 
been baptized expressed a willingness whenever an opportu- 
nity presented. 

We told them we were now going to visit Mr. Cook, the 
agent, requesting the privilege of holding meetings on the 
reservation, to preach, also baptize those wishing to embrace 
the opportunity. 

We pitched our tent and camped on the banks of the 



440 BIOGRAPHY AND 

« 

Portneuf, seven miles from the agency. The next morning, in 
company with Bishops Hoskins and Zundel, I proceeded to 
the agency, where we found Mr. Cook in his office. After 
•introducing ourselves, we entered into conversation, which 
continued nearly three hours. 

Mr. Cook is about sixty years of age, affable, intelligent 
and prepossessing' in appearance. A variety of questions were 
asked and answered in reference to the management and pros- 
perity of our Indian colony, after which the conversation 
turned upon general topics, carried on in a pleasant, sociable 
spirit. He professed acquaintance with the president and pro- 
fessors of Oberlin College, with whom I had formed acquaint- 
ance while there — had traveled and done business in the 
vicinity of my birthplace in Ohio — was born and brought up 
within thirty miles of where Joseph Smith discovered the 
plates from which he translated the Book of Mormon. Mr. 
Cook said he was acquainted with the early history of the 
"Mormons," and had attended some of their meetings. 

Having established friendly relations, I ventured to 
approach the subject, which, to us, was the all-absorbing pro- 
position, viz.: Will you allow us to preach on the reservation? 
I remarked that I supposed the Indians possessed very crude 
notions of revealed religion, having little opportunity of 
improving themselves in this direction; though I think, said 
I, you had a minister living at the agency not long since, but 
none at present. Mr. Cook replied, "A Methodist minister 
came since I took charge of the agency — remained three or 
four days, and having observed our surroundings and the 
primitive state of affairs, left in disgust, not wishing to forego 
the pleasures of cultivated regions and civilized society for the 
gloomy outlook which here forced itself upon his tender and 
delicate nerves. But," continued Mr. Cook, "government has 
now changed its policy and placed the reservation in the 
keeping of political men, instead of professors of religion, as 
formerly." I replied that I had been pleased in hearing of 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 441 

this change of policy, being confident it would result in 
greater good to the Indians occupying the reservations; and 
that no partiality would now be allowed to one religious 
denomination at the expense of another, and all would enjoy 
equal privileges in their endeavors to reform and civilize these 
unfortunate people. 

Mr. Cook immediately changed the drift of conversation 
by remarking that the farming interests on the reservation 
were in a deplorable condition — the wagons, harnesses, plows, 
harrows, reapers, mowers, etc., were not properly cared for, 
there being no suitable person to oversee or instruct the 
Indians in these matters, especially how to fafm properly, as 
the government was too stingy and niggardly to appropriate 
means for employing a farmer; in fact, he continued, there is 
nothing which would conduce so much to the interest of the 
Indians of this agency as a good, intelligent and experienced 
farmer. 

I then said to Mr. Cook, "We will furnish you just such a 
man as you have described — one of large experience, and who 
will feel an interest in this calling, who will follow your coun- 
sel and observe your rules, subject to immediate dismissal 
upon neglecting to carry out your instructions. Of course, 
Mr. Cook, I suppose the man will be what is called a 'Mor- 
mon,' but from your remarks, I understand you are a politi- 
cian and not biased by sectarian influences Or religious 
bigotry, therefore, his being a 'Mormon' will be no detriment." 
He hesitated a moment, then replied, he believed there might 
be such an opening, and that he would lay the subject before 
the Indian Department, to which I replied, "Mr. Cook, there 
is no necessity for delay in applying to the department; this 
man shall be furnished without expense to you or the Indian 
Department." At this he appeared to be much confused, and 
said, "Mr. Snow, the man certainly cannot afford to employ 
his time for nothing." Said I, "Mr. Cook, there are thousands 
of our people who have labored years for those less deserving 



442 BIOGRAPHY AND 

such sacrifices than these poor, simple sons of the forest, with- 
out emolument, except the consciousness of doing their duty, 
and such a man will be furnished, as I before stated, and 
without expense." This closed that branch of the conversa- 
tion. 

His looks of uneasiness plainly indicated the idea was not 
relished. I then concluded to bring him directly to the point, 
and said, "Mr. Cook, Mr. Zundel is here to talk with the 
Indians, desirous first to obtain your consent." He was puz- 
zled for an answer; finally said, "Mr. Snow, I do not know 
how I can allow you to preach on this reservation without 
exposing myself to censure and jeopardizing my position." 
"Are } t ou forbidden," I asked, "to allow ministers of the Gos- 
pel to preach to these Indians?" "0, no," said he, "our school 
teacher, who is a Presbyterian, preaches occasionally." "Yes," 
said I, "ministers of every denomination are allowed this 
libert} 7 on all the reservations." "That, I suppose is true," 
said Mr. Cook, "but your people are made an exception — the 
government is jealous and suspicious that the influence which 
you might gain over the Indians would be employed against 
the interest of the nation, on some future occasion; and fur- 
thermore, 3 r ou teach plural marriage, which the government 
now is exerting itself to suppress among the Indians." 

I then said, "Mr. Cook, when we use such influence against 
the government, we will then talk about it; as yet it never 
has been done, and there are no grounds for such suspicion. 
And as to teaching plural marriage to the Indians, it never 
has been done, and we do not now propose to begin; there is 
no occasion even should we wish, as they already practice it 
from the influence of long established customs before the 
white man was known upon this western continent." 

Mr. Cook then drew a paper from his secretaiy, contain- 
ing instructions, in which he was required to assess a fine of 
twenty dollars and twenty days' work against ever}' Indian on 
the reservation guilty of second marriage, and upon a repeti- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 443 

tion of the offense, a deprivation of their portion of meat, 
flour, sugar, tea, coffee and clothing — in fact of every gift and 
advantage which they received from government. He said he 
employed Indians as policemen, but suffered no polygamist to 
occupy that or any other official position — that he had just 
discharged a polygamist from officiating as policeman, and, 
"in fact," said he, "I furnish no employment for that class of 
Indians." 

I said, "Forbidding the preaching of the Gospel to people 
living in a land over which float the 'stars and stripes' of our 
boasted republic, looks to me to be a grave responsibility. Will 
you allow us to see those instructions in which our people are 
denied this privilege?" He said it would require some time to 
find the paper, as it was mixed with many others in his secre- 
tary, but was reading it not long since — that those instructions 
were given to Mr. Danielson, former agent, against some grave 
accusations against the "Mormons," for having influenced the 
Indians to leave the reservation; and complaints of this seri- 
ous nature have been entered against you since I came: one 
in the case of an Indian boy, another (mentioning the name) 
was influenced to leave this reservation, I have been 
informed." 

Bishop Zundcl explained that the Indian boy referred to 
had come to his colony voluntarily, saying there was no school 
at Fort Hall agency, and begged admission to his school, but 
stopped only three or four weeks. Concerning the other case 
the Indian was a transient, roaming here and there, as fancy 
led. Respecting the charges made by Mr. Danielson, they 
were unfounded, as he had proven to his entire satisfaction by 
visiting the colony and finding none of his Indians; and he 
left a written statement to that effect, which he, Bishop Zun- 
del, now had in his possession. 

I then said to Mr. Cook, "Will you oblige us by looking 
over that paper again, for I am satisfied those instructions 
relate only to those groundless charges of inducing the Indians 



444 BIOGRAPHY AND 

to leave the reservation; and as to any fear of our influencing 
them to abandon their reservation, we have no place for them, 
nor can we imagine where they could live any length of time 
away frorii the agency." 

"Well, Mr. Snow," said he, "I will write to Washington 
for more explicit instructions, and inform you of the result; 
but, in the meantime I cannot feel authorized to permit you 
to preach ; I was told to be careful regarding this Mormon 
question relative to the Indians, etc.-, etc." 

At this point Mr. Bristol, the schoolmaster, alias Presby- 
terian minister, entered the office. After introductions, he 
turned to our political (?) friend, saluting him, "Brother Cook," 
which brother ing being constantly repeated, surprised us and 
exceedingly annoyed Mr. Cook, who, as he asserted, owed his 
position solely to his political status. This circumstance anni- 
hilated all hopes of obtaining favor from that quarter. 

I spent a few moments in pleasant conversation with Mr. 
Bristol — -asked him permission for myself and party to visit 
his school the next day, which was cheerfully granted. We 
then repaired to our carriage and proceeded to camp. 

We had gone but a short distance when we were met by 
a large party of Indians, mounted upon fine horses; they were 
chiefs and head men, and very happy to meet us, and their 
hearts warmed in clasping our hands in theirs. They turned 
and accompanied us to our camp, where we enjo} r ed an inter- 
esting conversation. They were exceedingly incensed at Mr. 
Cook's refusal to allow us to preach, insisting persistently that 
we should return and talk the matter over in their presence. 
We pacified them as best we could, saying, Mr. Cook promised 
to write to Washington, asking the authorities to grant us the 
privilege; when he received a favorable answer, we hoped to 
have an opportunity of returning — of stopping and preaching. 
They stayed until dark and some remained until the next da} r , 
when they were joined by many others, some of whom were 
also chiefs and head men. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. * 445 

According to appointment, we visited the Indian school, 
composed of four girls and six boys (a sufficient number to 
cheat Uncle Sam out of a fat salary), who were put through 
their exercises with considerable credit. Their copybooks 
were neat, and their acquirements in arithmetic exhibited 
mental culture. 

While encamped at the Portneuf, Little Chief, with his 
wife and daughter, visited us. He stated that while at the 
agency the day before, with many other Indians, for the pur- 
pose of drawing their rations, Gibson Jack, alias Weiragan, one 
of their principal chiefs, asked Mr. Cook, that inasmuch as he 
had refused to allow us to baptize their men and women, would 
he permit us to baptize their children? He answered, No, 
they must have nothing to do with the Mormons; if they did, 
their fate should be as ours: when we were sent to 'prison, they 
should be sent to prison; ivJien we were killed, they would he hilled; 
if they wished to he safe, they must neither follow or listen to us for 
a moment: 

Little Chief said it made the Indians feel bad when Mr. 
Cook threatened them in that way and talked of shedding 
blood. 



446 . BIOGRAPHY AND 




CHAPTER LX. 

In Bannock Valley. — Happy meeting with Indians. — What Lorenzo said to 
them. — Lamanite Elders speak. — All shake hands. — Lorenzo describes 
the Agency. — What the Secretary of the Interior says. — A comparison 
between the two colonies. — The one at Washakie. — How located. — Sunday 
School. — Meeting exercises. — How Lamanitesare taught. — How presided 
over. — Their Co-operative Store and Sheep Herd. — White families. — A 
re-action. — An Adage. — The United States Supreme Court decides. — Tele- 
grams to Hon. L. Snow. 

AVING remained in this locality as long as we thought 
proper, we moved in a westerly direction some eight 
miles and pitched our tent in the valley of the Ban- 
nock, still on the reservation, three or four miles from the 
western boundary and sixteen from the " Neely Settlement," 
situated about four miles below the American Falls. About 
one hundred and fifty Indians are settled in this valley, many 
of whom have been baptized. They cultivate aloout one hun- 
dred acres of land. They greeted us with warm hand-shaking, 
while their dusky faces were beaming with joy. One Indian 
came to our tent saying he was very sick, and requested us to 
administer to him by laying on of hands, which we did. 

The reservation is now, evidently, under Presbyterian 
rule, and whatever we do our motives will be misrepresented 
and every possible effort will be made to destroy our influence 
and root out from the heart of the Indian every good seed 
sown. 

As we were about to leave the reservation, we thought 
it due the Indians that we explain our reasons for depart- 
ing so soon and without holding meetings. Accordingly 
we informed them if they would come together at our camp 
the next day, Sunday, we would give them an explanation. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 447 

Prompt to the word, Sunday morning, about ten o'clock, they 
were gathering together, some coming in wagons, on horses, 
and some on foot; the young men and women gaily dressed — 
ornamented with beads, ribbons, feathers, etc., etc., some carry- 
ing parasols shielding their brown faces from the scorching 
sun, all in their best and most attractive attire, and neat in 
appearance. We improvised a booth of green boughs, while 
our Isamanite friends were engaged in arranging the bowery 
just in front, by means of wagons, poles and green bushes. 
Thus prepared and ready to commence meeting, our hearts 
overflowed with gratitude to our heavenly Father for the 
opportunity, as we gazed on this peculiar scene — an assembly 
of the children of Lehi, anxiously awaiting our message, and 
we felt the Spirit resting upon us as we bowed before the Lord 
in earnest and solemn prayer. 

I then arose and told them Bishop Zundel would explain 
the position each of us occupied in the Chuuch; then I would 
tell them our object in making this visit. Brother Zundel hav- 
ing thus explained, I informed them that we had come to visit 
them, that we felt a lively interest in their welfare and happi- 
ness, and would like to have visited them sooner but circum- 
stances prevented. We applied to Mr. Cook for the privilege 
of holding meetings and preaching, but have been reftfsed. 
He promised to write to Washington to inquire if the authorities 
there would give us the privilege. We were greatly surprised 
and disappointed in Mr. Cook in forbidding us to talk and 
preach to our Lamanite friends and brethren, but es he had 
seen proper to do so we should respect his orders, go home and 
wait till we hear from the head men at Washington. ■ 

I said I hoped they would not be angry with Mr. Cook 
for his refusal, but endeavor t'o respect him in his position, and 
if they would do right, be patient and prayerful, the Lord 
would overrule all these matters for their good and best 
interest; that we had not seen them for a long time, and were 
now pleased to renew our acquaintance and find that the good 



448 BIOGRAPHY AND 

Spirit they received after baptism was still warming their 
hearts, and we did not intend so long time would pass until 
we again should visit them ; that we desired them to be good 
and kind to one another, not to swear or gamble, nor commit 
whoredoms. I exhorted the husbands to treat their wives 
kindly, to be industrious, learn to cultivate the ground, raise 
their grain and vegetables, and as much as possible make their 
own living, etc.; that if they would remember and do -these 
things, love one another, be humble and attend faithfully to 
their prayers, keep the 'good Spirit in their hearts, the Lord 
would deliver them from poverty and bondage. And many 
other words of exhortation and consolation were spoken as I 
felt led by the Spirit. 

Our two Lamanite Elders then addressed the meeting 
with inspired words of comfort and good counsel. During the 
entire services there was profound silence and the most marked 
attention, not a w.hisper and scarcely a move. 

Having closed the meeting with prayer, I informed our 
friends we would like to shake hands with all of them, for 
which purpose we placed ourselves in line and received them 
one by one, till each had given us a warm, friendly grasp 
of the hand, women and children following in the rear, all 
eagtr, and performing the parting salutation with spirit and 
animation, imparting life to the ceremony. 

The Fort Hall reservation is situated in Snake River val- 
ley, Oneida County, Idaho, and contains, it is said, 1,233,329 
(one million two hundred and thirty-three thousand three 
hundred and twenty-nine) acres, with thousands of acres of as 
good farming lands as can be found in the west. 

And with all this, everything about the agency wears a 
gloomy and forbidding aspect; very little land is cultivated, 
and that little very poorly and sluggishly. No marks of 
industry or enterprise are anywhere visible. There is no one 
to lead out and set the example, and there are no inducements 
offered those poor Indians to stimulate to industry, and appar- 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 449 

ently no effort to improve their morals, cultivate their intel- 
lects or correct their stupid and false notions of Christianity. 

On specified days in the week the} r gather to the agency, 
where Mr. Cook's servant doles out to each his small pittance 
of meat and flour furnished by the government. So long as 
they draw this meagre supply, sufficient to keep them alive in 
a half starved state, with no stimulating influence to industry, 
they will not rise above their present condition. 

Their buildings are mostly low huts, huddled together 
without regard to taste, order or convenience. Mr. Cook 
informed us the population of the reservation, including all 
ages, was but 1,500 (one thousand five hundred), and con- 
stantly decreasing. 

From the report of the Secretary of the Interior, we 
gather the following: "In February, 1880, a school was opened, 
which has been continued up to date [which we visited, con- 
sisting of four girls and six boys], save the usual vacations." 
The report also says: "Notwithstanding the fact that this 
school is costing the government some $1,700 (one thousand 
seven hundred) per annum for teacher and employees, in 
addition to food and clothing for the pupils, the fact still 
remains that not one Indian on the reservation can read a 
word. Of revealed religion their ideas are about as crude as 
they are of letters, save what the} r have learned of their 
brother polygamists, the Mormons, who have quite a following 
among them." So much from my brother's journal. 

We now wish to show, by comparison, the wide contrast 
between the condition and prospects of a colony of Indians 
cared for and supported at great expense by the United States 
government, and our little colony, numbering two hundred 
and fifty men, women and children, located in AVashakie, Box 
Elder County, Utah Territory. 

These Indians receive no appropriations from govern- 
ment. The colony is located on lands purchased of the 
Brigham City Mercantile & Manufacturing Association, and 

81 



450 BIOGRAPHY AND 

is conducted on the same principles, so far as practicable in its 
present growth. 

About four months since, in company with Brother 
Lorenzo and his son Alphonso, the writer visited the Washakie 
colony, arriving on Saturday evening, forty miles from 
Brigham City. Next day attended Sunday School, where 
white and red scholars intermixed, and was exceedingly grati- 
fied with the exercises, the order and interest strikingly mani- 
fest and the progress of the classes. 

We also attended meeting in the afternoon and were not 
a little surprised to mark the effect on savage customs, savage 
looks and manners, produced by a constant exercise of kind- 
ness, patience, good instruction and good examples, prompted 
by the love and spirit of the Gospel. The meeting was 
opened by the choir, all Lamanites, and the prayer offered by 
a Lamanite brother. My brother addressed the congregation, 
and the rapt attention of the red brothers and sisters during 
the services indicated the importance they attach to devotional 
exercises. 

The colony have built a good frame house, 24x40 feet, 
with vestry added. It is well seated, and fitted for school as 
well as religious purposes, and they own a good library. 

These Indians are very industrious, are taught all kinds of 
business — farming, fencing, brick making, house painting, and 
in fact all of the ordinary branches of home industry. 

The day school is taught by Elder J. J. Chandler, who is 
also superintendent of the Sunday School, an experienced and 
successful teacher. His day school has numbered as high as 
fifty-five, with an average attendance of forty-seven. The 
Indian scholars are only taught the primary branches. Their 
great progress in penmanship is complimentary of well 
developed organs of imitation. 

These Indians are presided over by Bishop I. E. D. Zun- 
del, with his counselors, Abraham Hunsaker and Moroni 
Ward. 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 45 1 

This season they have raised about six thousand bushels 
of wheat, besides a large amount of hay. They have a co-op- 
erative store of from $1,500 to $2,000 capital stock, and a 
sheep herd of one thousand five hundred head. 

All white men laboring in the colony have their families 
with them, thus placing in the midst of the red people telling 
examples of cultivated and refined domestic life, which is pro- 
ducing happy results. 

A RE- ACTION. 

"Better late than never," is a true adage when applied to 
the triumph of right over wrong, of justice over injustice, as 
in the case of the late decision of the United States Supreme 
Court against the unjust, illegal and oppressive act of O. J. 
Hollister in levying an assessment on the scrip of Zion's 
Co-operative Mercantile and Brigham City Mercantile & Manu- 
facturing Institutions. 

The circumstances attending the assessing of the Brigham 
City Co-operative scrip have been briefly narrated in a former 
chapter. 

The following telegrams need no comment, they speak for 
themselves : 

Salt Lake City, March 17, 1884. 
Hon. Lorenzo Snow, Brigham City: 

Dear Brother. — A telegram just received from Hon. J. T. 
Caine, Washington, D. C, tells us that to : day the Supreme 
Court of the United States decided the scrip tax case in our 
favor. This virtually decides the Brigham City case in your 
favor. Please accept my congratulations, and believe me, 

Truly yours, 
(Signed) Thomas G. Webber, 

Secretary and Treasurer Z. C. M. I. 

Ogden City, March 18, 1884. 
To Hon. Lorenzo Snow, Brigham City: 

A telegram from Hon. F. D. Richards, from Salt Lake 



452 BIOGRAPHY AND ", 

City, last night, informs me that the United States Supreme 
Court affirmed the judgment in favor of Z. C. M. I. against 0. 
J. Hollister, yesterday, so your judgment against Hollister